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  1. 1. Using Charts and Graphs in the Classroom Visual Effects and Data Interpretation
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Charts, graphs, and tables provide a great deal of visual appeal. They allow users to quickly spot trends, examine pronounced data, and see an actual picture. This power and appeal makes a “picture worth a thousand words.” </li></ul><ul><li>In educational settings, charts, graphs, and tables can be used to represent data, illustrate important patterns or relationships, and observe changes as data is altered. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Important Questions <ul><li>How can charts and graphs help students communicate more effectively? </li></ul><ul><li>What tools are available to help students create charts and graphs? </li></ul><ul><li>What manipulations are necessary to a chart or graph, so that it will print accurately in a desktop publishing document? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Charts and Graphs <ul><li>Provide a visual representation of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Effectively clarify information. </li></ul><ul><li>Represent many different types of data. </li></ul>Reasons to create charts and graphs:
  5. 5. Charts and Graphs <ul><li>Make important trends easily recognizable. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow users to perceive information quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>Aid data interpretation. </li></ul>Reasons to create charts and graphs:
  6. 6. Charts and Graphs <ul><li>Reasons to create charts and graphs: </li></ul><ul><li>Charts and graphs can be incorporated into any medium. </li></ul><ul><li>Reports </li></ul><ul><li>Web Pages </li></ul><ul><li>Posters </li></ul><ul><li>Word Processing Document </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop Publishing Document </li></ul>
  7. 7. Charts and Graphs <ul><li>Pie </li></ul><ul><li>Stacked Bar </li></ul><ul><li>Area </li></ul><ul><li>Bar </li></ul><ul><li>Scatter </li></ul><ul><li>Line </li></ul>
  8. 8. Products for Creating Charts and Graphs <ul><li>Lotus 1-2-3 </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Works </li></ul><ul><li>ClarisWorks </li></ul><ul><li>QuattroPro </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Excel </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard Graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Graph Power </li></ul>
  9. 9. Charting Considerations <ul><li>Type of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the data. </li></ul><ul><li>Nature of the data or relationship being presented. </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy and applicability of the chart. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Charting Considerations <ul><li>To illustrate data, use a line or bar chart. </li></ul><ul><li>To depict percentages, use a pie chart. </li></ul><ul><li>Use templates or wizards available when possible. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Charting Terminology <ul><li>Horizontal Axis = X Axis </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical Axis = Y Axis </li></ul><ul><li>3D Data = Z Axis </li></ul><ul><li>Gridlines </li></ul><ul><li>Plotting </li></ul><ul><li>Contiguous versus non-contiguous data </li></ul>
  12. 12. Classroom Applications of Charts or Graphs <ul><li>Predict outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate trends. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast data. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>Collection data. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain outcomes visually. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Charts and Graphs <ul><li>Other Classroom Applications: </li></ul><ul><li>Students can create bar charts illustrating frequency. </li></ul><ul><li>Students can graph linear equations, alter variables, and observe changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Students can link spreadsheet data, to predict and observe how changes in spreadsheet affect the chart. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Modifying Charts <ul><li>Resizing the actual chart. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the legend. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing chart titles and subtitles. </li></ul><ul><li>Modifying the appearance of the chart </li></ul><ul><li>Changing the color of plotted areas. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Modifying Charts <ul><li>Many integrated packages automatically update your charts each time your data changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Many packages also automatically update the scales used for plotting data as the actual worksheet changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Many packages also alter range references as data moves. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Modifying Charts <ul><li>Formatting a selected axis allows users to change the units, numbers displayed, or the labels. </li></ul><ul><li>Often, packages have options that also allow users to change the orientation of the chart. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Using a Chart in another Program <ul><li>Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) Technology makes it possible to integrate charts with other applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to place a chart into a document: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copy and paste. (Modify a copy of the original.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking the chart. (Modify the original.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importing and exporting the chart. (Copy the original and place it in the selected document.) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Resizing Charts <ul><li>When resizing a chart window, only change the white space where the chart resides. </li></ul><ul><li>All elements within the chart can be resized. </li></ul><ul><li>Select the chart and use the border handles for resizing. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Integrating <ul><li>“Integrating technology into any curriculum is ideal when it can be meaningfully applied to help students improve their performance, discover new ways of using the power of a technology tool, and embrace new content. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology’s integration is limited by available resources, creativity, and time to plan, implement, and revise ideas. All of these factors are surmountable with a little ingenuity, patience, hard work, and desire.” -Ennis-Cole </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>The use of integrated application software can help students: </li></ul><ul><li>Solve complex problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Discover relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate and organize data. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze information. </li></ul><ul><li>Predict outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Present professional looking output. </li></ul>Integrating
  21. 21. <ul><li>Record and categorize data. </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate results. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Create original products. </li></ul>Integrating The use of integrated application software can help students:
  22. 22. <ul><li>Activity level </li></ul><ul><li>Grade level </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose or goal </li></ul><ul><li>Description or summary </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation beforehand </li></ul>Integrating Bitter and Pierson (2002) suggest the following for learning activities that integrate technology:
  23. 23. <ul><li>Procedure (step-by-step) </li></ul><ul><li>Tools/Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment (student) </li></ul><ul><li>Comments (notes) </li></ul>Integrating Bitter and Pierson (2002) suggest the following for learning activities that integrate technology:
  24. 24. References <ul><ul><li>Bitter, G., & Pierson, M. (2002). Using Technology in the Classroom , 5th ed., Allyn & Bacon: Boston. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morrison, G.R., & Lowther, D.L. (2002). Integrating Computer Technology into the Classroom , 2nd ed., Merrill Prentice Hall: New Jersey. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Summary <ul><li>Charts are a good way to visually represent data. Once created, charts can be merged with other technology products to convey an idea, demonstrate content knowledge, and communicate findings. </li></ul>Remember, “a picture is worth a thousand words…”