Le tecnologie elettroniche ed informatiche a servizio della gestione energetica

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Enrico Sangiorgi, DEI – UNIBO

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  • Combine the pictures of WP4; shift left picture to the right; connect the grid to the home; where do the arrows of the load control go? Remove load control and link communication to (Home) controller/manager)
  • Anche per quanto riguarda I diodi, stanno emergendo quelli in SIC
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  • Le tecnologie elettroniche ed informatiche a servizio della gestione energetica

    1. 1. Le tecnologie Elettroniche e Informatiche al servizio della gestione energetica Enrico Sangiorgi  “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione”  Workshop Logo  azienda/università
    2. 2. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione”  OUTLINE • Smart grid and renewable energy sources integration • Smart buildings • Power conversion • Photovoltaic systems and overview of solar cell technology
    3. 3. Smart Grid Scenario Integration of renewable energy Energy efficient transmission EV charging and energy storage Smart metering Energy efficient consumption Energy efficient consumption
    4. 4. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione”  Energy to Smart Grid
    5. 5. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione”  Outline • Smart grid and renewable energy sources integration • Smart building • Power conversion • Photovoltaic systems and overview of solar cell technology
    6. 6. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione”  Smart Building • Distributed energy consumption profiler at building level with  integration of heterogeneous protocols • Interactions with the central data processing unit in order to  elaborate energy consumption profiles at building level building level network floor/apartment network (e.g. Zigbee, Bluetooth, etc.) Connection to building level network (e.g. Wi-fi, PLC, etc.)
    7. 7. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione” Smart Metering and Local Collection • Miniaturized sensor system are used for monitoring local power consumption • Local collection (e.g. apartment level) of power/energy consumption data through a low-power IEEE802.15.4 wireless network (e.g. Zigbee/Bluetooth/etc. nodes). • Bridge to an external higher level network connection (e.g. Wi-Fi, or PowerLine Communication) for transferring data at building level. floor/apartment network (e.g. Zigbee, Bluetooth, etc.) Connection to building level network (e.g. Wi-fi, PLC, etc.)
    8. 8. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione” Building Level Network • A building level network collects data from all local networks through the bridge nodes • Possible architectures for the building network based on: – Internet – Power Line Communication • All collected data transferred to a server database. Profiles and consumption data can be extracted. building level network
    9. 9. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione” Outline • Smart grid and renewable energy sources integration • Smart building • Power conversion • Photovoltaic systems and overview of solar cell technology
    10. 10. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione” Power Converters • Si-based power transistors (i.e. IGBT, power MOSFET, Thyristor) are implemented in converters for optimal power transfer to the grid • SiC FET or GaN HEMT allows to increase BV with respect to Si devices because of the higher bandgap. Alternatively, for a given BV, a lower RDSON can be achieved. ST AN3152 Application note BV=600-650V M. Trey et al., IEDM 2012
    11. 11. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione” Reliability of Power MOSFETs An experimental setup has been implemented at University of Bologna (Cesena Campus) in order to investigate the defectiveness of Power MOSFETs provided by ST Microelectronics 10 -1 10 0 10 15 10 16 10 17 TrapDensity(cm -3 eV -1 ) Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 |VGS - VT | (V) Defects in the gate oxide are evaluated by means of noise measurements. Such a quantity is useful to understand the reliability of MOS structure.Drain Contact Gate Contact Source Contact
    12. 12. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione” Outline • Smart grid and renewable energy sources integration • Smart building • Power conversion • Photovoltaic systems and overview of solar cell technology
    13. 13. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione” Photovoltaic system
    14. 14. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione”
    15. 15. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione” Silicon Solar Cells: technology options overview Interdigitated back contact (IBC) S.Inoueetal.,23rdEUPVSEC(2008)J.Zhaoetal.,SolMAT,65,2001. Passivated Emitter with Rear Locally diffused (PERL) Metal Wrap Through (MWT) Heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) Single junction silicon solar cells: theoretical max efficiency 33 % η=20 % η=23 % η=23 %η=25 % Imec,BE
    16. 16. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione” Multijunction Solar Cells http://www.laserfocusworld.com • Multi-junction solar cells or tandem cells are solar cells containing several p-n junctions. • Each junction is tuned to a different wavelength of light. • Efficiency above 40 %
    17. 17. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione” Thin Film Solar Cells http://www.sneresearch.com • Cell thickness 0.5 – 5 μm • Low cost • Efficiency < 10 % (commercial device) • Flexible substrates • Photovoltaic integrated into the building
    18. 18. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione” Thin Film Solar Cells: photon management Nanoparticle-enhanced amorphous-silicon solar cell W.-ShingKohandY.Akimov,SPIE2010 http://scitechdaily.com Erik C. Garnett et al., Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. 2011. 41:11.1–11.27 Photonic Crystals Nanowire-based solar cells
    19. 19. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione” Research goals at device/module level • Lowering cost-per-watt of solar cell/modules – Investigation of new materials, architectural options, frabrication processes – Optimization of cell design – New light trapping strategies – Optimization of contacting schemes • Investigation of device reliability and variability • Modeling of solar cells/modules – Feedback to industry and photovoltaic community to address new technologies and fabrication options
    20. 20. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione” Simulation of PV solar cell • Modeling by numerical simulation at device level Optimization of light absorptance in vertical nanowires Optimization of the geometry of a PERL solar cell
    21. 21. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione” Simulation at Cell/Module level • Cell/Module level simulation can be used to investigate: – the impact of non-uniformity on the conversion efficiency (e.g. partial shadowing, local shunting) – System reliability (e.g. study of temperature increase in the solar cell) 0.515 V 0.550 V 0.530 V 15.6 cm Potential distribution along solar cell Local temperature transient in silicon solar cells (a comparison between experimental data and simulations)
    22. 22. “Ridurre i costi energetici in azienda: dagli scenari ai meccanismi di incentivazione” 22 Facilities at Cesena Campus • Solar Simulator Abet Sun 2000 (Class A Spectral Match) • Test station for contacting 156mm x 156mm solar cells, with temperature control. • 4 SMU Keithley (2600 series) for IV measurement of solar cells (up to 12A) • Semi-automatic probe station 200mm (Cascade) with thermal chuck (from -55°C to 200°C) for wafer measurements • 4 SMU for static characterization • Agilent 81110A Pulse Generator • Agilent E4980A LCR meter (2MHz)

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