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Novakian mapping for argument work

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Workshop
[Delivered at joint 8th International Conference on ESP in Asia and 3rd International Symposium on Innovative Teaching and Research in ESP, UEC, Tokyo. August 21, 2016]
In presentations, particularly during conference presentation Q&A, sci-tech EAP learners often prove unable to distil the underlying intentions of their research design or to identify the argument(s) surrounding their claim and the generalizability of their results.
These EAP learners usually have little training in rhetorical orchestration, especially since their research papers are built on the IMRAD structure, a rather poor metaphor for argument. As a result, these learners find spontaneous oral explanation and argument summarization difficult.
This workshop introduces the operation of a structured, low-text approach which has produced consistent, rapid development of the foundation target skills (argument analysis, argument construction) in classroom application (masters and PhD level). The key tool in this approach is the cross-platform freeware CmapTools, now widely adopted in science education. CmapTools automatically generates Novakian maps (maps in which each link is articulated by a relation phrase). Learners find these maps easy to evaluate in terms of correctness of relations and shockingly accessible in terms of structure of information.
This workshop begins with an overview of current styles of concept visualization (and their attendant syntax and information structures) so as to give participants a broad practical overview of mapping practice today. Participants will then be introduced to the use of CmapTools, and will take part in guided model task performance.
The workshop activities will be low-tech (post-its and marker pens) to maximize accessibility.
However, participants who would like to 'lean in' on this skill set are encouraged to download Cmap Tools to their laptops (Mac, Win or Linux) or iPads, familiarize themselves with the basic functions of the software (takes about 15 minutes), and show up equipped for bigger-curve learning.

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Novakian mapping for argument work

  1. 1. Lawrie Hunter National Graduate Research Institute for Policy Studies http://lawriehunter.com lawriehunter@gmail.com Novakian mapping for argument work
  2. 2. No need to take notes (:^0) All materials can be downloaded from Hunter’s slideshare http://slideshare.net/rolenzo/
  3. 3. Novakian mapping for argument identification and construction in EAP   In presentations, particularly during conference presentation Q&A, sci-tech EAP learners often prove unable to distil the underlying intentions of their research design or to identify the argument(s) surrounding their claim and the generalizability of their results. These EAP learners usually have little training in rhetorical orchestration, especially since their research papers are built on the IMRAD structure, a rather poor metaphor for argument. As a result, these learners find spontaneous oral explanation and argument summarization difficult. This workshop introduces the operation of a structured, low-text approach which has produced consistent, rapid development of the foundation target skills (argument analysis, argument construction) in classroom application (masters and PhD level). The key tool in this approach is the cross-platform freeware CmapTools, now widely adopted in science education. CmapTools automatically generates Novakian maps (maps in which each link is articulated by a relation phrase). Learners find these maps easy to evaluate in terms of correctness of relations and shockingly accessible in terms of structure of information. This workshop begins with an overview of current styles of concept visualization (and their attendant syntax and information structures) so as to give participants a broad practical overview of mapping practice today. Participants will then be introduced to the use of CmapTools, and will take part in guided model task performance. The workshop activities will be low-tech (post-its and marker pens) to maximize accessibility. However, participants who would like to 'lean in' on this skill set are encouraged to download Cmap Tools to their laptops (Mac, Win or Linux) or iPads, familiarize themselves with the basic functions of the software (takes about 15 minutes), and show up equipped for bigger-curve learning. Participants who arrive after the workshop has begun may be assigned 'observer' roles. Note: 'participant' is the fun, i.e. the learning, experience.
  4. 4. Part 1: current styles of concept visualization -and their attendant syntax and information structures) Part 2: introduction to the use of Cmap tools -what to map, task design, learner constraint Part 3: guided model task performance -you: the explorer (student) -Hunter: the guide Part 4: guidelines for your own exploration -download this resource-packed powerpoint
  5. 5. http://lesswrong.com/lw/hsd/start_under_the_streetlight_then_push_into_the/
  6. 6. By late antique copyist - late antique manuscript, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=15074137 Scriptio continua
  7. 7. SCRIPTIOCONTINUAISASTYLEOFWRITINGWITHOU TWORDDIVIDERSTHATISWITHOUTSPACESOROTH ERMARKSBETWEENWORDSORSENTENCES.INTHE WESTTHEOLDESTGREEKANDLATININSCRIPTIONS USEWORDDIVIDERSBUTTHESEARERAREINTHELA TERPERIODSWHENSCRIPTIOCONTINUABECOMES THENORMINCLASSICALGREEKANDLATECLASSICA LLATIN.BYAROUND1000ADALPHABETICALTEXTSIN EUROPEAREWRITTENWITHSPACESBETWEENWOR DS.SCRIPTIOCONTINUAISSTILLINUSEINTHAIOTHE RSOUTHEASTASIANABUGIDASANDINLANGUAGES THATUSECHINESECHARACTERSCHINESEANDJAP ANESETHOUGHWITHSENTENCEBREAKS.MODERN VERNACULARCHINESEDIFFERSFROMANCIENTSC RIPTIOCONTINUAINTHATITDOESATLEASTUSEPUN CTUATIONALTHOUGHTHISWASBORROWEDFROMT HEWESTONLYABOUTACENTURYAGO.BEFORETHIS THEONLYFORMSOFPUNCTUATIONFOUNDINCHINE SEWRITINGSWEREPUNCTUATIONSTODENOTEQU OTESPROPERNOUNSANDEMPHASIS.BEFORETHEA DVENTOFTHECODEXLATINANDGREEKSCRIPTWAS WRITTENONSCROLLS.READINGCONTINUOUSSCRI PTONASCROLLWASMOREAKINTOREADINGAMUSIC ALSCORETHANREADINGTEXT.THEREADERWOULD TYPICALLYALREADYHAVEMEMORIZEDTHETEXTTH ROUGHANINSTRUCTORHADMEMORIZEDWHERETH EBREAKSWEREANDTHEREADERALMOSTALWAYSR EADALOUDUSUALLYTOANAUDIENCEINAKINDOFRE ADINGPERFORMANCEUSINGTHETEXTASACUESHE ET.ORGANIZINGTHETEXTTOMAKEITMORERAPIDL YINGESTEDTHROUGHPUNCTUATIONASNOTNEED EDANDEVENTUALLYTHECURRENTSYSTEMOFRAPI DSILENTREADINGFORINFORMATIONREPLACEDTH EOLDERSLOWERPERFORMANCEDECLAIMEDALOU DFORDRAMATICEFFECT. Scriptio continua is a style of writing without word dividers, that is, without spaces or other marks between words or sentences. In the West, the oldest Greek and Latin inscriptions use word dividers, but these are rare in the later periods when scriptio continua becomes the norm (in Classical Greek and late Classical Latin). By around 1000 AD, alphabetical texts in Europe are written with spaces between words. Scriptio continua is still in use in Thai, other Southeast Asian abugidas, and in languages that use Chinese characters (Chinese and Japanese) though with sentence breaks. Modern vernacular Chinese differs from ancient scriptio continua in that it does at least use punctuation, although this was borrowed from the West only about a century ago. Before this, the only forms of punctuation found in Chinese writings were punctuations to denote quotes, proper nouns, and emphasis. Before the advent of the codex (book), Latin and Greek script was written on scrolls. Reading continuous script on a scroll was more akin to reading a musical score than reading text. The reader would typically already have memorized the text through an instructor, had memorized where the breaks were, and the reader almost always read aloud, usually to an audience in a kind of reading performance, using the text as a cue sheet. Organizing the text to make it more rapidly ingested (through punctuation) was not needed and eventually the current system of rapid silent reading for information replaced the older slower performance declaimed aloud for dramatic effect. c. 1000 AD
  8. 8. mage from http://www.pcworld.com/article/2033766/twitter-bots-fake-retweets-rake-in-big-bucks.html
  9. 9. mage from http://www.pcworld.com/article/2033766/twitter-bots-fake-retweets-rake-in-big-bucks.html
  10. 10. For mapping approaches to summarizing and argument, graphics software and mapping software in general are preferable to pencil and paper because of ease of revision and restructuring. Among those software, Cmap Tools freeware has the further distinct advantage that it forces the user to specify the relations between links and thus reveals rhetorical structure or orchestration (or their absence) that is not visually apparent in text. What structure can you see?
  11. 11. Can you see where this is going? Novakian... http://notthenearside.tumblr.com/
  12. 12. Language is a disguise for information
  13. 13. language information <important
  14. 14. our thoughts concept maps<clear
  15. 15. William Thurston “People have very powerful facilities for taking in information visually or kinesthetically, and thinking with their spatial sense. On the other hand, they do not have a very good built-in facility for …
  16. 16. our ability to express ourselves visually <strong William Thurston our ability to take in visual information
  17. 17. Part 1: current styles of concept visualization -and their attendant syntax and information structures) Part 2: introduction to the use of Cmap tools -what to map, task design, learner constraint Part 3: guided model task performance -you: the explorer (student) -Hunter: the guide Part 4: guidelines for your own exploration -download this resource-packed powerpoint
  18. 18. made with CmapTools Functions of ‘maps’
  19. 19. Uses of mapping in EFL 1. Summarizing content of a text 2. Analysing content of a text 3. Brainstorming in pre-writing 4. Structural planning of a writing task 5. Low-text display of knowledge 6. “Visual cloze” 7. Analyzing argument 8. Constructing argument
  20. 20. Current styles of mapping in EFL Grammar maps (sentence diagrams) Association maps (mind maps) Syntactic maps Information structure maps Concept maps Argument maps Rhetorical structure maps
  21. 21. 1. Association maps 2. Directed link maps 3. Textured-link maps 4. Argument maps 5. RST* maps *Rhetorical Structure Theory Types of mapping systems
  22. 22. Hierarchy of mapping types Argument mapping Concept mapping Info-structure mapping Grammar mapping (pseudo) Association mapping (pseudo)
  23. 23. Mindmapping is for clustering/hierarching The links are only associations. http://lifehacker.com/five-best-mind-mapping-tools- 476534555 http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/8-free-mind-map-tools-best- use/
  24. 24. Critical Thinking Asahi Press 2001 A writing and presentation workbook, 6 units (6 genres) in 30 lessons Say What You Mean KUT Press 2006 A writing and mapping workbook, 5 units (5 genres) in 30 lessons Thinking in English A writing and presentation mapping text/workbook, 5 units (5 genres) in 30 lessons Graphical link mapping: ISmaps
  25. 25. <big Description Classification Degree comparison Attribute comparison Sequence Cause-effect Contrast ! Hunter’s infostructure maps
  26. 26. Argument mapping (Horn) http://www.stanford.edu/~rhorn/index.html http://www.macrovu.com/
  27. 27. http://www.austhink.com/ Argument mapping (Austhink)
  28. 28. http://www.austhink.com/ Argument mapping (Rationale)
  29. 29. RST mapping (rhetorical mapping) www.sil.org/~mannb/rst/ RST links are rhetorical devices. Bill Mann’s Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) uses various sorts of "building blocks" to describe texts. The principal block type deals with "nuclearity" and "relations" (often called coherence relations in the linguistic literature.)
  30. 30. Joseph Novak: Concept mapping INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS VERTEBRATE can be MARINETERRESTRIAL e.g. crabs, lobsters e.g. beetles, flies FEATHERSFUR e.g. robins, penguins e.g. sheep, cats M O R E S P E C I F I C COLD BLOODED ARTHROPODS WARM BLOODED can be insulated with aremostly can be This slide courtesy of Ian Kinchin
  31. 31. http://cmap.ihmc.us/ Default Novakian: Cmaps
  32. 32. Demo 1: using Cmap tools Cross-platform: Win, Mac, Linux, iPad Online platform too Free (and thus inelegant) Can make pdfs, web pages, images Huge user group Big biennial conference http://cmc.ihmc.us/
  33. 33. Demo 1: using Cmap tools
  34. 34. Background: Visual metaphors in maps
  35. 35. Visual metaphors in concept maps overarching subordinate abstract concrete passage through time more important less important more salient less salient rhetorical flow argument direction cause-effect
  36. 36. Data sufficient Ethical Good mechanics* Grammar correct Cohesive *punctuation, spelling, format These are parameters of a research paper. Separate research design parameters from writing parameters. Then rank each group from most to least crucial for publication. Logical Original Relevant Readable Written formally WORKSHOP task 1 research issue writing issue Computer based task
  37. 37. Data sufficient Ethical Good mechanics* Grammar correct Cohesive *punctuation, spelling, format Logical Original Relevant Readable Written formally research issue writing issue
  38. 38. WORKSHOP task 1 Research paper attributes Writing Research design cohesive logical data sufficient original ethical readable good mechanics relevant correct grammar written formally Paper based task
  39. 39. Part 1: current styles of concept visualization -and their attendant syntax and information structures) Part 2: introduction to the use of Cmap tools -what to map, task design, learner constraint Part 3: guided model task performance -you: the explorer (student) -Hunter: the guide Part 4: guidelines for your own exploration -download this resource-packed powerpoint
  40. 40. Map why? 1 To force summarization 2 To force text analysis 3 To force signaling analysis 4 To discover structure 5 To communicate complexity
  41. 41. Map why? 1 To force summarization (e.g. max 8) insects are burned found in the straw is actually counterproductive to protect them from harmful insects only 4% harmful insects spiders burning the mats in summer traditional tree wrapping method still employed in famous places long suspected to be low value started in the Edo period Niiho study wrapping pine trees in straw during winter insects multiply in the mats 55% beneficial insects prey on harmful insects each year for 4 years examined the insects in the mats in the spring
  42. 42. Map why? 2 To force text analysis
  43. 43. Map why? 2 To force text analysis (print) Cool hint: in Word, make each sentence a paragraph; then select all and paste into Excel: 1
  44. 44. Map why? 2 To force text analysis (electronic) Cool hint: in Word, make each sentence a paragraph; then select all and paste into Excel: 1 sentence/cell!
  45. 45. Map why? 3 To force signaling analysis (elec)
  46. 46. Map why? 3 To force signaling analysis (print)
  47. 47. Map why? 3 To force signaling analysis
  48. 48. Map why? 4 To discover structure
  49. 49. Map why? 5 To communicate complexity Research complete Your paper: many grammar problems? Find an editor Editor checks English Decide services grammar only readability argument Did the editor damage your meaning? no no Decide feedback code Mentor gives feedback on 2 pages SUBMIT! Perfect? no You revise next 2 pages yes Paper finished? no You revise Do you want to learn in this process? no yes Find a mentor yes yes Did you do dossier work and apply the patterns to your writing? no Did you do lots of rewrites in TW2RW HW? no yes Do you know how to repair all the basic meaning problems ? no yes yes yes Can you write the paper by yourself? I think so no write the paper Is it good enough to submit? SUBMIT! SUBMIT! yes not sure -made with OmniGraffle
  50. 50. WORKSHOP task 2: text analysis Chart based Analyze the text in the casual report of Sinnett (2010)
  51. 51. Map what? 1 A natural text (bad example) (good) 2 A signal enhanced text 3 A structure enhanced text 4 An artificial text (great example)
  52. 52. Map what? 1 A natural text (bad example) (good)Traditional pest control worse than useless   (Mar. 27, 2008, The Yomiuri Shimbun) The traditional method of wrapping pine trees in straw matting during winter to protect them from harmful insects is actually counterproductive, a recent study has found. Komo-maki, or straw mat wrapping, is a traditional pest control method used to trap harmful insects in the straw wrapped around the trunk. In early winter, straw mats are wrapped around the trunks to attract insects. During winter, the insects multiply in the warm mats, which are then removed from the trees and burned together with the insects inside in early spring. But a study led by Chikako Niiho, an associate professor of insect ecology at Hyogo University, found that 55 percent of insects caught in straw mats used to wrap pine trees at Himeji Castle in Himeji, Hyogo Prefecture, for four years, were beneficial to trees, while only 4 percent were harmful. An examination of about 350 straw mats used to wrap pine trees at the castle found between zero and six egger moth caterpillars, a tree pest, each year from 2002-04, and only 44 even in the worst year, 2005. The team found no long-horned beetles--not itself a pest, but a carrier of pinewood nematodes, which damage trees. Together with egger moths, pinewood nematodes are the main cause of pine wilt, a disease fatal to pine trees. On the other hand, the researchers found between 337 and 625 spiders of various species that prey on insects harmful to trees. Also found in the mats were between 90 and 486 assassin bugs, which also prey on pests. According to researchers, egger moth caterpillars live under bark and are found in cracks in the trunk after the removal of mats, with a lot of egger moth pupae found in the same places in summer. Nematodes also inhabit trunks, meaning the straw mat wrapping is useless as a way of getting rid of them. It is thought that the wrapping of pine trees in winter started in the Edo period (1603-1867), when it was common practice in the gardens of feudal lords. The wrapping has been an annual event at Himeji Castle since the 1960s. But there has long been suspicion that the wrapping serves little purpose. For this reason, while wrapping is still employed in famous places such as Miho no Matsubara (Miho Pine Grove) in Shizuoka and Okayama Korakuen garden in Okayama, the method was abandoned 20 years ago in the Outer Garden of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo and Kyoto Imperial Palace Garden in Kyoto. Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Prefecture, did not employ the method this year and Hiratsuka, Kanagawa Prefecture, is considering dropping it. Niiho said straw mats provide places for beneficial insects to pass the winter. Places that want to continue the wrapping should only burn the mats after giving the beneficial insects time to get away, she advised. A spokesman for Himeji Castle Office said: "It's true we found many spiders in the mats, but as we never knew they were good for the trees we burned them anyway. We want to figure out a better way."
  53. 53. Map what? 1 A natural text (bad example) (good)Traditional pest control worse than useless   (Mar. 27, 2008, The Yomiuri Shimbun) The traditional method of wrapping pine trees in straw matting during winter to protect them from harmful insects is actually counterproductive, a recent study has found. Komo-maki, or straw mat wrapping, is a traditional pest control method used to trap harmful insects in the straw wrapped around the trunk. In early winter, straw mats are wrapped around the trunks to attract insects. During winter, the insects multiply in the warm mats, which are then removed from the trees and burned together with the insects inside in early spring. But a study led by Chikako Niiho, an associate professor of insect ecology at Hyogo University, found that 55 percent of insects caught in straw mats used to wrap pine trees at Himeji Castle in Himeji, Hyogo Prefecture, for four years, were beneficial to trees, while only 4 percent were harmful. An examination of about 350 straw mats used to wrap pine trees at the castle found between zero and six egger moth caterpillars, a tree pest, each year from 2002-04, and only 44 even in the worst year, 2005. The team found no long-horned beetles--not itself a pest, but a carrier of pinewood nematodes, which damage trees. Together with egger moths, pinewood nematodes are the main cause of pine wilt, a disease fatal to pine trees. On the other hand, the researchers found between 337 and 625 spiders of various species that prey on insects harmful to trees. Also found in the mats were between 90 and 486 assassin bugs, which also prey on pests. According to researchers, egger moth caterpillars live under bark and are found in cracks in the trunk after the removal of mats, with a lot of egger moth pupae found in the same places in summer. Nematodes also inhabit trunks, meaning the straw mat wrapping is useless as a way of getting rid of them. It is thought that the wrapping of pine trees in winter started in the Edo period (1603-1867), when it was common practice in the gardens of feudal lords. The wrapping has been an annual event at Himeji Castle since the 1960s. But there has long been suspicion that the wrapping serves little purpose. For this reason, while wrapping is still employed in famous places such as Miho no Matsubara (Miho Pine Grove) in Shizuoka and Okayama Korakuen garden in Okayama, the method was abandoned 20 years ago in the Outer Garden of the Imperial Palace in Tokyo and Kyoto Imperial Palace Garden in Kyoto. Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Prefecture, did not employ the method this year and Hiratsuka, Kanagawa Prefecture, is considering dropping it. Niiho said straw mats provide places for beneficial insects to pass the winter. Places that want to continue the wrapping should only burn the mats after giving the beneficial insects time to get away, she advised. A spokesman for Himeji Castle Office said: "It's true we found many spiders in the mats, but as we never knew they were good for the trees we burned them anyway. We want to figure out a better way."
  54. 54. Map what? 2 A signal enhanced text In Japan, a study of the Japanese study examined the efficacy of the traditional Japanese method of wrapping pine trees in straw matting during winter to protect them from harmful insects. The report of the study claims that wrapping is actually counterproductive.In a four year study, the researcher examined the insects caught in the straw mats used to wrap pine trees at one location. More than half of the insects caught were actually helpful to trees; few were harmful. However, hundreds of spiders and bugs that prey on harmful insects were found in the mats. Harmful egger moth caterpillars live under bark of the trees, and remain there when the mats are removed. Harmless beetles which carry harmful nematodes also remain after the wraps come off.The study concluded that since beneficial insects pass the winter in the mats, the insects should be allowed to escape from the mats before they are burned.
  55. 55. Map what? 3 A structure enhanced text Not today!
  56. 56. Task 3: first, put the sentences in order. Then select the content you will map. One relatively new type of bicycle is the mountain bike, which is used for riding on rough terrain rather than on roads. Mountain bikes have large-tread tires and many gears to make climbing steep slopes easier. Although many people nowadays have mountain bikes, most mountain bike owners only ride their bikes in town, so in fact often the mountain bike is a fashion item rather than a practical necessity. Usually the human power is supplied by pedaling, pushing on pedals which transfer power to the rear wheel by means of a chain. A bicycle is a 2-wheeled vehicle propelled by human power. There are many kinds of bicycles, each designed for a specific purpose: most common are racing bicycles, touring bicycles, and urban bicycles. Map what? 4 An artificial text (great example)
  57. 57. Obstacles to successful use of mapping: 1. Using the wrong map type 2. Mapping a poor array of concepts 3. Mixed degree of abstraction
  58. 58. Map HOW? Harshly simplified rule of thumb
  59. 59. Map HOW? 1 Nouns in nodes, verbs in links ….then what kind of map is this?
  60. 60. Map HOW? 2 Argument verbs in links Original clarification map of 200 word abstract (for mentor discussion)
  61. 61. Simplified clarification map: clauses in nodes, log conns in links. Map HOW? 2 Argument verbs in links
  62. 62. Map HOW? 3 Hybrid: Nodes: nouns/clauses Links: verbs / argument verbs
  63. 63. WORKSHOP task 3: map an argument Post-it based Novakian Map the argument in Sinnett (2010) 1.Make 10 (or 8 or 12) nodes 2.Arrange the nodes 3.Create the links 4.Assign the relations to the links. 5.Peer evaluation
  64. 64. Summary of today’s workshop: Novakian mapping for summarization of argument 1 Read and analyze text type -core content/background/decoration-persuasion 1b Peer evaluation of analysis 2 Create content array 3 Create link phrases 4 Check: does argument emerge? 5 Peer evaluation of maps
  65. 65. WORKSHOP task 3 post-mortem What did Hunter not tell you?
  66. 66. GroundsGrounds ModalityModality Claim WarrantWarrant BackingBacking since on account of Toulmin model of argument Toulmin, S. (1958) The Uses of Argument, Cambridge University
  67. 67. GroundsGrounds ModalityModality Claim WarrantWarrant BackingBacking RebuttalRebuttal since on account of unless Enhanced Toulmin model of argument Toulmin, S. (1958) The Uses of Argument, Cambridge University
  68. 68. Receiver makes more errors and is slower since because unlessWhite noise in video caused reaction error and slowness Server grunts during service in tennis Video reaction is not equivalent to tennis reactionWhite noise has the same effect as grunting It is highly likely that Toulmin model of argument in Sinnett (2010) Critique: full Toulmin loses visualization benefit of mapping
  69. 69. Citation as subject Results as subject Claim as subject claims (that) proposes (that) implies (that) suggests (that) infers (that) observes (that) reveals (that) demonstrates (that) indicates (that) disproves proves (that) implies (that) is supported by is contradicted by is in agreement with is in opposition to assumes (that) Constraint Use only these links in your argument map
  70. 70. Sinnett (2010) Sinnett (2010) claims that is supported by assumes that White noise is equivalent to grunts Server grunts during service in tennis cause receiver slowness and error Video reaction is equivalent to tennis reaction Subject error and slowness in video response with white noise bursts Novakian rhetoric map of argument in Sinnett (2010) Target behavior Critique: constrained Toulmin expression loses visualization benefit of mapping
  71. 71. Sinnett (2010) Sinnett (2010) claims that is supported by assumes that white noise is equivalent to grunts video is equivalent to tenniserror and slowness with white noise Novakian rhetoric map of argument in Sinnett (2010) error, slowness grunts cause Success! compression of node content regains visualization benefit of mapping.
  72. 72. Part 1: current styles of concept visualization -and their attendant syntax and information structures) Part 2: introduction to the use of Cmap tools -what to map, task design, learner constraint Part 3: guided model task performance -you: the explorer (student) -Hunter: the guide Part 4: guidelines for your own exploration -download this resource-packed powerpoint
  73. 73. Part 1: current styles of concept visualization -and their attendant syntax and information structures) Part 2: introduction to the use of Cmap tools -what to map, task design, learner constraint Part 3: guided model task performance -you: the explorer (student) -Hunter: the guide Part 4: guidelines for your own exploration: -download this resource-packed powerpoint -when stuck, call Hunter
  74. 74. Thank you so much for your kind attention. Write me! I share. Lawrie Hunter Editor/mentor, Center for Professional Communication, National Graduate Research Institute for Policy Studies http://grips.ac.jp http://lawriehunter.com lawriehunter@gmail.com Powerpoints on SlideShare (view and download) Videos on youtube Weblinks on Delicious
  75. 75. Concept mapping - theory Joseph D. Novak & Alberto J. Cañ as http://cmap.ihmc.us/docs/theory-of-concept-maps Ausubel’s Assimilation Theory https://sites.google.com/sitecognitiveapproachtolearning/aus ubel-s-assimilation-theory A guide by Lucidchart https://www.lucidchart.com/pages/concept-map
  76. 76. Suggested Reading About Visual Thinking and Learning Ausubel, D. (1968). Educational psychology: A cognitive view. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston. Buzan, T. & Buzan, B. (1993). The mind map book: How to use radiant thinking to maximize your brain's untapped potential. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc. Buzan, T. (1983). Use both sides of your brain: New techniques to help you read efficiently, study effectively, solve problems, remember more, think clearly. New York: E.P. Dutton. Cohn, N. Japanese Visual Language: The Structure of Manga. http://www.emaki.net/essays/japanese_vl.pdf Jonassen, D.H. (1996). Computers in the classroom: Mindtools for critical thinking. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Kress, G. and van Leeuwen, T. (1996) Reading images: The grammar of visual design. Routledge. Kurosawa, M., & Kawahara,T. (1999). Alignment or Abstraction? Metaphor comprehension in Japanese. Proceedings, Second International Conference on Cognitive Science. http://www.jcss.gr.jp/iccs99OLP/p3-19/p3-19.htm Novak, J.D. & Gowin, D.B. (1984). Learning how to learn. New York: Cambridge University Press. Novak, J.D. (1998). Learning, creating and using knowledge: Concept map® as facilitative tools in schools and corporations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.http://www.inspiration.com/Parents/Visual-Thinking-and-Learning
  77. 77. Sources: academic writing Hunter the style dossier approach STRUCTURE Banerjee, D. and Wall, D. (2006) Assessing and reporting performances on pre-sessional EAP courses: Developing a final assessment checklist and investigating its validity. Journal of English for academic purposes 5(2006) 50-69. Ferris, D. (2002) Treatment of error in second language student writing. University of Michigan Press. Ginther, A. and Grant, L. (1996) A review of the academic needs of native English-speaking college students in the United States. Research monograph series MS-1. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Glasman-Deal, H. (2010) Science Research Writing. Imperial College Press. Gopen, G.D. & Swan, J.A. (1990) The Science of Scientific Writing. American Scientist 78 550-558. http://www.americanscientist.org/template/AssetDetail/assetid/23947 Harwood, N. (2006) What do we want EAP teaching materials for? Journal of English for Academic Purposes 4 (2005) 149-161. Hunter, L. Online resource for English for Academic Purposes: http://del.icio.us/rolenzo/eap Koutsantoni, D. (2006) Rhetorical strategies in engineering research articles and research theses: Advanced academic literacy and relations of power. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 5 (2006) 19-36. Liu, M. & Braine, G. (2005) Cohesive features in argumentative writing produced by Chinese undergraduates. English for specific purposes 24 (2005) Rowley-Jolivet, E. & Carter-Thomas, S. (2005) Genre awareness and rhetorical appropriacy: Manipulation of information structure by NS and NNS scientists in the international conference setting. System 33 (2005) 41-64. Swales, J.M.. and Feak, C.B. (2004) Academic writing for graduate students: essential tasks and skills (2nd ed.). University of Michigan Press. Swales, J.M.. and Feak, C.B. (2001) English in Today's Research World: A Writing Guide. University of Michigan Press.
  78. 78. Fauconnier, G. (1997) Mappings in Thought and Language. Cambridge U. Press. Gentner, D., & Wolff, P.(1997). Alignment in the Processing of Metaphor. Journal of Memory and Language, 37, 331-355. Kurosawa, M., & Kawahara, T. (1999). An Experimental Study in Metaphor Comprehension. Bulletin of the Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo 39, 247-257. Kurosawa, M., & Kawahara, T. (1999). Alignment or Abstraction? Metaphor Comprehension in Japanese. Proceedings, Second International Conference on Cognitive Science. http://www.jcss.gr.jp/iccs99OLP/p3-19/p3-19.htm Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson 1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Mazuka, R. (1998) The Development of Language Strategies: a Cross-Linguistic Study Between Japanese and English. Erlbaum. Nisbett, R.E. (2003) The geography of thought. Free Press. Novak, J.D. (1998). Learning, creating and using knowledge: Concept map® as facilitative tools in schools and corporations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Sources: mapping and metaphor
  79. 79. Baddeley, A. D. & Hitch, G. (2001). Working memory in perspective: Foreword. In J. Andrade (Ed.), Working memory in perspective (pp. xv-xix). Hove: Psychology Press. Cañas, A. J., & Novak, J.D. (2006) Re-examining the foundations for effective use of concept maps. In Cañas, A. J., & Novak, J.D. (Eds.), Concept Maps: Theory, Methodology, Technology. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Concept Mapping. Cañas, A. J., Hill, G., Carff, R., Suri, N., Lott, J., Eskridge, T., Gomez, G., Arroyo, M. and Carvajal, R. (2004) Cmaptools: A knowledge modeling and sharing environment. Downloaded April 8, 2008 from http://cmc.ihmc.us/papers/cmc2004-283.pdf Chandler, P. and J. Sweller (1992) The split-attention effect as a factor in the design of instruction. British Journal of Educational Psychology 62: 233-246. Chun, D. M. and Plass, J. L. 1997. Research on text comprehension in multimedia environments. Language learning and technology 1(1): 60-81. Cmap tools. Institute for Human & Machine Cognition. http://cmap.ihmc.us/ Dansereau, D.F. (2005) Node-Link Mapping Principles for Visualizing Knowledge and Information. In Tergan, S. and Keller, T. (Eds.) Node-Link Mapping Principles for Visualizing Knowledge and Information. Springer. 61-81. Fulkerson, R. (1996) Teaching the argument in writing. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Goldman, S.R., & Rakestraw, J.A. (2000). Structural aspects of constructing meaning from text. In M.L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. II, pp. 311-335). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Gopen, G.D. and Swan, J.A. (1990) The Science of Scientific Writing. American Scientist (Nov-Dec 1990), Volume 78, 550-558. Downloadable as a pdf from http://www.amstat.org/publications/jcgs/sci.pdf Grow, G. (1996) Serving the strategic reader: cognitive reading theoryand its implications for the teaching of writing. Viewed June 30, 2007 at http://www.longleaf.net/ggrow/StrategicReader/index.html Horn, R. E. (1998) Visual Language: Global Communication for the 21st Century. Bainbridge Island, WA: MacroVU Press. http://www.macrovu.com
  80. 80. Hunter L. (2005) Technical Hypertext Accessibility: Information Structures and Rhetorical Framing. Presentation at HyperText 2005, Salzburg. http://www.lawriehunter.com/presns/%20HT05poster0818.htm Hunter, L. (2002) Information structure diagrams as link icons. Learning Technology 4(3) July 2002. ISSN 1438- 0625. 2002. http://lttf.ieee.org/learn_tech/issues/july2002/index.html#1 Hunter, L. (1998) Text nouveau, visible structure in text presentation. Computer Assisted Language Learning 11 (4) October 1998. Mann, B. (1999) An introduction to rhetorical structure theory (RST). http://www.sil.org/mannb/rst/rintro99.htm Moffett, J. (1992). Detecting growth in language. New Hampshire: Boynton/Cook. Mohan, B.A. (1986) Language and content. Addison-Wesley. Novak, J.D. and Cañas, A.J. (2006) The theory underlying concept maps and how to construct them. Report IHMC CmapTools 2006-01, Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC), 2006. Viewed April 8, 2008 at http://cmap.ihmc.us/Publications/ResearchPapers/TheoryCmaps/TheoryUnderlyingConceptMaps.htm Olive, Thierry (2004) Working memory in writing: Empirical evidence from the dual-task technique. European psychologist 9(1), pp. 32-42. Working paper downloaded from http://cat.inist.fr/? aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15431008 Shannon, C.E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Explained at http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/introductory/sw.html Taboada, M. and Mann, W.C. (2006) Rhetorical Structure Theory: looking back and moving ahead. Discourse studies 8: 423-459 Toulmin, S. (1958) The Uses of Argument, Cambridge University Press. Tufte, E.R. (1990) Envisioning information. Cheshire, CONN: Graphics Press. Ueta, R., Hunter, L. & Ren, X. Text usability for non-native readers of English. Proceedings, Information Processing Society of Japan, Vol. 2003.7. Pp. 199-200.
  81. 81. Introduction Method Results Analysis Conclusion What is the argument in a Research Paper?

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