Media as Levers (pdf)

718 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
718
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Media as Levers (pdf)

  1. 1. Media as Levers task alt.medium support performance Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/
  2. 2. Media as Levers The obvious approach: Determine Assemble a a framework pattern language for CALL for CALL optimization. What if video games were like schools? from Disrupting Class
  3. 3. Media as Levers Taking a contrarian approach: Search for Assemble a a framework pattern language for CALL for CALL optimization. Explore the notion ‘media levers’
  4. 4. Ubiquitous IT now Physical plant limitations => =>non-ubiquitous access to IT classrooms. Yet 'virtually' every learner does have some personal access to web and media. Though standardization remains an obstacle, IT uniquely affords individualization of learning activities. Then crucial question: How to heighten the learner's motivation/need to autonomously access task resources/media?
  5. 5. Beyond absorption Wesch http://blip.tv/file/2615703/: -stresses ‘meaningful’: <Today’s IT ubiquity throws us into a pit of meaninglessness and insignificance.> so <education needs to move beyond absorption learning and critical thinking towards developing learner creativity>.
  6. 6. Macro creativity or micro creativity? Then creativity at what level, macro or micro? Wesch stresses ‘meaningful’: nowadays, IT ubiquity throws us into a pit of meaninglessness and insignificance.“Of course, multiple-choice questions are an easy target for criticism, but even more sophisticated measures of When you watch somebody who is cognitive development may miss the point. truly “in it,” somebody who has totally given themselves over to the learning process, or if you simply imagine those moments in which you were “in it” yourself, you immediately recognize that learning expands far beyond the mere cognitive dimension. Many of these dimensions were mentioned in the issue precis, “such as emotional and affective dimensions, capacities for risk-taking and uncertainty, creativity and invention,” and the list goes on. How will we assess these? I do not have the answers, but a renewed and spirited dedication to the creation of authentic learning environments that leverage the new media environment demands that we address it. The new media environment provides new opportunities for us to create a community of learners with our students seeking important and meaningful questions. Questions of the very best kind abound, and we become students again, pursuing questions we might have never imagined, joyfully learning right along with the others. In the best case scenario the students will leave the course, not with answers, but with more questions, and even more importantly, the capacity to ask still more questions generated from their continual pursuit and practice of the subjectivities we hope to inspire. This is what I have called elsewhere, “anti-teaching,” in which the focus is not on providing answers to be memorized, but on creating a learning environment more conducive to producing the types of questions that ask students to challenge their taken-for-granted assumptions and see their own underlying biases.’ http://www.academiccommons.org/commons/essay/knowledgable-knowledge-able
  7. 7. Macro creativity or micro creativity? Hunter: in this discussion, go for fascination at the micro level. In that frame, the notion of creativity in language learning scenarios raises critical design issues: curriculum control learner time demand input/output sequencing input/output proportion
  8. 8. Design for creativity in task: partial or overall solutions? Task design to address critical design issues: curriculum control learner time demand input/output sequencing input/output proportion Recently available tools such as Cmap Tools, Yahoo Pipes and debategraph provide partial resolutions to these design issues.
  9. 9. Design for creativity in task: partial or overall solutions? <claim> Task-intrinsic behavioral constraints such as media leverage, along with content-related and structure-related constraints, can provide overall resolutions in macro scenarios while at the same time making tasks more effective in terms of motivation and available agenda.
  10. 10. For today, let’s go non-Weschian: Language tasks: overall solutions at the micro level
  11. 11. For today, let’s go non-Weschian: Language tasks: overall solutions at the micro level task same medium performance support task alt.medium support performance Make task support medium different from task medium different from performance medium
  12. 12. Non-Weschian question: how to quantify ‘involvement’? We need a bottom line: what are the markers/degrees of ‘involvement’? Possible markers: Task success Practice performance (vs. non) Practice persistence Reported experience Neuro-electric
  13. 13. Task design discourse -articulating what is usually implicit We need a ‘pattern language’: A designer way for talking about processing, task shaping, involvement, media leverage.
  14. 14. Task design discourse Tools www.patternlanguage.com A pattern language? Target behavior …The language, and the processes which stem from it, merely release the fundamental order which is native to us. They do not teach us, they only remind us of what we know already, and of what we shall discover time and time again, when we give up our ideas and opinions, and do exactly what emerges from ourselves. Christopher Alexander, The Timeless Way of Building
  15. 15. Task design discourse Tools www.patternlanguage.com A pattern language? Target behavior Pattern language emerges from practice: look at some examples first =>
  16. 16. Media lever example 1: Task: learners are to prepare for a challenge where they must write sentences to describe the information embodied in any one of a set of line graphs with discrete data points. INPUT LEVER OUTPUT line graph audio file writing task Media lever: provision of web- and mobile-accessible sound files containing 'answers’, i.e. model language for the powerpoint set of graphs being studied. Observations: In class practice sessions were lackadaisical and slow/stopped. ~70% of students did report accessing the web files in their own time. ~30% of those transcribed the speech. Frequent mention of having enjoyed the challenged of matching the unnumbered sound files to the numbered powerpoint graphs.
  17. 17. Media lever example 1 – clever extensions Task: learners are to prepare for a challenge where they must write sentences to describe the information embodied in any one of a set of line graphs with discrete data points. Media lever 1: make sound files available on the web, each file containing the utterance for one graph in the flashcard set. Listening is foregrounded. Media lever 2: put the sound files, unlabeled, in random order on the web. Learners must match the sound files to the graph slides. Both listening and graph decoding are foregrounded. Higher cognitive load. Media lever 3: provide sound files for only some of the graph slides. Both listening and graph decoding are foregrounded, and decision-making and pattern application are forced. Even higher cognitive load. Media lever 4: make the graphs similar in content. Listening is foregrounded. Make the graphs dissimilar in content. Analytical process if foregrounded.
  18. 18. Media lever example 1 power variation 1: Task: learners are to prepare for a challenge where they must write sentences to describe the information embodied in any one of a set of line graphs with discrete data points. INPUT LEVER OUTPUT 1 3 2 2 4 3 5 1 4 1 2 5 4 3 writing tasks 5 line graphs 5 audio files (jumbled) (jumbled) Media lever: provision of web- and mobile-accessible sound files containing 'answers’ but in jumbled order. Learners must match sound levers to task inputs.
  19. 19. Media lever example 1 power variation 2: Task: learners are to prepare for a challenge where they must write sentences to describe the information embodied in any one of a set of line graphs with discrete data points. INPUT LEVER OUTPUT 1 2 4 1 3 1 2 4 2 3 5 4 5 3 audio files 5 writing tasks 5 line graphs (original order) (jumbled) Media lever: provision of web- and mobile-accessible sound files containing 'answers’ to only some tasks. Learners must match sound levers to task inputs, and must transfer the training to the remaining unleveraged tasks.
  20. 20. Conscious threshold Remembering that media levers’ power lies below the conscious threshold. Remembering that the learner should be placed in executive role as much as possible – or at least feel situated there. Atmosphere change => attitude change
  21. 21. Conscious threshold Example: rikai.com's web page mouseover reading tool: compared to a JEJ dictionary, completely different atmosphere. Results: completely different text attack attitude. L2 Nihongo learners have responded ecstatically to discovery of this tool. Analysis: Asked to analyze their response, the learners gave signs of not having thought analytically about the tool.
  22. 22. Media lever example 2: Task perception: at times it is motivating to provide a 'distractor task' so as to background the actual task. Low-tech example*: Task: in a textbook, learners are to copy the sentences from the left hand page and adapt them to express the data given on the right hand page (information substitution) (appealing). Writing and calculation are foregrounded, reading backgrounded. Covert task: read the left hand page (unappealing). *don’t forget: not all media are electronic
  23. 23. Media lever example 3: Task: learners are presented with a mystery, embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ drawing. Learners are to do abduction: find a believable explanation for all the evidence in the graphic.
  24. 24. Media lever example 3: Task: learners are presented with a mystery, embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ drawing. Learners are to do abduction: find a believable explanation for all the evidence in the graphic. Obvious procedure: brainstorm in L1; compose in L2. Media lever: learners receive pages of 'fodder’ model sentences for composition within the problem solving task. Outcome: hint searching is foregrounded; reading is backgrounded.
  25. 25. Media lever example 3 variation 1: Task: learners are presented with a mystery, embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ drawing. Learners are to do abduction: find a believable explanation for all the evidence in the graphic. Media lever 3.1: give the fodder in text when the task is introduced. Outcome: the reading of the fodder is foregrounded, as a source of problem solving help.
  26. 26. Media lever example 3 variation 2: Task: learners are presented with a mystery, embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ drawing. Learners are to do abduction: find a believable explanation for all the evidence in the graphic. Media lever 3.2: give the fodder after the students have developed solutions. Outcome: problem solving is foregrounded, and the fodder becomes the matrix for a search for L2 versions of what they want to say.
  27. 27. Media lever example 3 variation 3: Task: learners are presented with a mystery, embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ drawing. Learners are to do abduction: find a believable explanation for all the evidence in the graphic. Media lever 3.3: make the fodder available as sound files linked from objects in the problem picture Outcome: listening is foregrounded and cognitive load reduced.
  28. 28. Media lever example 3 variation 4: Task: learners are presented with a mystery, embodied in a ‘scene of the crime’ drawing. Learners are to do abduction: find a believable explanation for all the evidence in the graphic. Media lever 4: make the fodder long audio files of whole solutions. Outcome: problem solving is backgrounded, listening is foregrounded and cognitive load reduced.
  29. 29. Media levers point to: The need for a framework for cognitive task design work. The need for a pattern language for professional deliberation.
  30. 30. CALL cognitive task design work Designer NEEDS A pattern language? www.patternlanguage.com Designer WANTS …The language, and the processes which stem from it, merely release the fundamental order which is native to us. They do not teach us, they only remind us of what we know already, and of what we shall discover time and time again, when we give up our ideas and opinions, and do exactly what emerges from ourselves. Christopher Alexander, The Timeless Way of Building
  31. 31. Tensions (to germinate pattern language) Typical tensions in CALL work Learner – PC Learner – software Learner – target content Learner – interface Instructor intervention – learner performance Content presentation style – learner performance Ubiquity – learner motivation
  32. 32. Tensions (to germinate pattern language) Hunter's tensions of interest Interface/task – learner perception of curriculum Representation – message comprehension Processing type – learner persistence Processing variation – learning effectiveness/efficiency Use of metalanguage – learner attack style Representation type – cognitive load in task scenario Representation type – degree of abstraction – curriculum transparency Representation type – degree of abstraction – task success
  33. 33. Tensions (to germinate pattern language) Hunter's tensions of interest Interface/task – learner perception of curriculum Representation – message comprehension Processing type – learner persistence Processing variation – learning effectiveness/efficiency Use of metalanguage – learner attack style Representation type – cognitive load in task scenario Representation type – degree of abstraction – curriculum transparency Representation type – degree of abstraction – task success
  34. 34. “Processing”: a pattern language element L2 processing Information processing Language -> information identify sounds/words/phrases Recognize symbols find L1 equivalent Identify a pattern find mental construct equivalent Identify a problem identify anaphora/exophora Select a transformation identify discourse pattern Select a technique identify discourse intent Apply a technique Evaluate results Information -> language mimic sounds/symbols create sounds/symbols encode visual impressions encode discourse impressions encode text impressions build discourse from intention
  35. 35. “Processing” types PROCESSING TYPES Remembering OUTPUT TASKS INPUT TASKS Accumulating Transforming Pointing Listening Naming Moving Looking Describing Watching Classifying Making a noise Reading a symbol Comparing Speaking Reading text Finding an answer to a question Selecting an answer to a question Drawing Feeling Applying a rule Writing Smelling Describing a rule Making Tasting Discovering a rule Sequencing Applying a process By carefully monitoring the modes Inferring Analyzing of task input and output, Synthesizing the designer can lead the learner to Evaluating Deciding a wide variety of cognitive activities (here "processing").
  36. 36. “Processing” immediacy and presence Immediate processing Tests Dictation Conversation for points Chat Classroom Classroom questioning paper tasks Minimum Maximum presence Point n’ click SMS presence chat Drag n’ drop email chat Cell phone push Homework Delayable processing
  37. 37. Pro-con Cause-effect Classification Description Sequence Comparison Inference Remembering Accumulating Transforming Naming Describing Classifying to decide task type Comparing Finding an answer to a question Selecting an answer to a question Applying a rule Describing a rule Discovering a rule Sequencing Applying a process Inferring Merging content and processing Analyzing Synthesizing Evaluating Deciding
  38. 38. Sequencing of tasks Remembering Accumulating Transforming Sample 1: False beginners (repeating same content in each task) Naming Describing Aural only Classifying A1:listen and repeat Comparing A2-listen and repeat cumulative Finding an answer to a question A3-listen and draw/signify graphically Selecting an answer to a question A4-listen and complete pattern clozes Applying a rule A5-listen and problem-solve Describing a rule Read/write Discovering a rule W1-reverse of A3 Sequencing W2-A4 with no listening Applying a process W3-Read cases and discover rules Inferring W4-Read cases and draw scenarios Analyzing W5-Read cases and solve problems Synthesizing Evaluating Deciding
  39. 39. An essential pattern language element: Baddeley and Hitch’s 1986 model of working memory, with its 3 components. Three-component model of working memory -assumes an attentional controller, the central executive, aided by two subsidiary systems: 1. the phonological loop, capable of holding speech-based information, and 2.the visuospatial sketchpad, which performs a similar function for visual information. The two subsidiary systems form active stores that are capable of combining information from sensory input, and from the central executive. Hence a memory trace in the phonological store might stem either from a direct auditory input, or from the subvocal articulation of a visually presented item such as a letter.
  40. 40. Working memory model extended (2000) Phonological loop: Central Executive Important for short-term storage -ALSO for long term phonological learning Phonological Visuo-spatial Loop Sketchpad Visual Episodic Language semantics LTM Associated with -development of vocabulary in children -speed of FLA in adults Baddeley, A. D. (2000) The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends in cognitive sciences 4(11) 417-423.
  41. 41. Working memory model extended (2000) Phonological loop effects: Central Executive 1. Phonological similarity 2. Word-length 3. Articulatory suppression Phonological Visuo-spatial 4. Code transfer Loop Sketchpad 5. Central rehearsal code, not operation Visual Episodic Language semantics LTM Baddeley, A. D. (2000) The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends in cognitive sciences 4(11) 417-423.
  42. 42. A most promising task design tool: Baddeley’s model of working memory, Central Executive with its (since 2000) 4 components. The episodic buffer: -assumed capable of storing infor- Phonological Episodic Visuo-spatial mation in a multi-dimensional Loop Buffer Sketchpad code. -thus provides a temporary interface between the slave Visual Episodic systems and LTM. semantics LTM Language -assumed to be controlled by the central executive Shaded areas: ‘crystallized’ cognitive systems -serves as a modelling space that capable of accumulating long-term knowledge is separate from LTM, but which forms an important stage in Unshaded areas: ‘fluid’ capacities (such as longterm episodic learning. attention and temporary storage), themselves unchanged by learning. Baddeley, A. D. (2000) The episodic buffer: a new component of working memory? Trends in cognitive sciences 4(11) 417-423.
  43. 43. Shall we compose a pattern language for CALL? ...a promising notion …The language, and the processes which stem from it, merely release the fundamental order which is native to us. They do not teach us, they only remind us of what we know already, and of what we shall discover time and time again, when we give up our ideas and opinions, and do exactly what emerges from ourselves. Christopher Alexander, The Timeless Way of Building
  44. 44. Thanks for your attention. Downloads from http://lawriehunter.com/presns/tw4/ http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/ http://slideshare.net/rolenzo/ Contact (please)

×