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At the present time, 'increasing accessibility of technology' is readily read as 'increasing accessibility of electronic information technology', but this is to ignore a history of pre-electronic technologies which have generally been conflated with the original media of education, first speech and rather later the writing of continuous text.
The insertion of spaces between words in text was a technology for accessibility of encoding. The paragraph was a technology for the signaling of rhetorical shifts. The bullet list is used for the representation of clusters of notions, either atomic (listing) or aggregates (classification). More substantial technological innovations include the data table and the graph.
One revolutionary technology that has not become mainstream in instructional communication is the Novakian concept map (i.e. the map whose links have text labels to specify the relation between two nodes). This technology has been substantially migrated to electronic information technology, and is arguably more prevalent there than in the traditional sphere, though it is still largely regarded as a novelty or non-essential element of instructional discourse.
This paper reports a case study of a fruitful application of Novakian mapping, wherein EAP learners of academic writing for management discover intellectual leverage in mapping, and develop their own use of the technique, in an iterative manner, in counterpoint with text analysis work. It tracks the cycling between moves analysis and concept mapping as these members of a graduate seminar work to unpack a paper that they have identified as a 'good model', but which they have realized is not a well-written paper.
The observations made here suggest that concept mapping is a pre-electronic technology that deserves a place amongst the essential tools for instructional discourse, particularly in settings such as EAP where the identification of rhetorical orchestration is difficult and where argument is often masked by other rhetorical devices.