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Cmaps as intellectual prosthesis (GERAS 34, Paris)

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At the present time, 'increasing accessibility of technology' is readily read as 'increasing accessibility of electronic information technology', but this is to ignore a history of pre-electronic technologies which have generally been conflated with the original media of education, first speech and rather later the writing of continuous text.

The insertion of spaces between words in text was a technology for accessibility of encoding. The paragraph was a technology for the signaling of rhetorical shifts. The bullet list is used for the representation of clusters of notions, either atomic (listing) or aggregates (classification). More substantial technological innovations include the data table and the graph.

One revolutionary technology that has not become mainstream in instructional communication is the Novakian concept map (i.e. the map whose links have text labels to specify the relation between two nodes). This technology has been substantially migrated to electronic information technology, and is arguably more prevalent there than in the traditional sphere, though it is still largely regarded as a novelty or non-essential element of instructional discourse.

This paper reports a case study of a fruitful application of Novakian mapping, wherein EAP learners of academic writing for management discover intellectual leverage in mapping, and develop their own use of the technique, in an iterative manner, in counterpoint with text analysis work. It tracks the cycling between moves analysis and concept mapping as these members of a graduate seminar work to unpack a paper that they have identified as a 'good model', but which they have realized is not a well-written paper.

The observations made here suggest that concept mapping is a pre-electronic technology that deserves a place amongst the essential tools for instructional discourse, particularly in settings such as EAP where the identification of rhetorical orchestration is difficult and where argument is often masked by other rhetorical devices.

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Cmaps as intellectual prosthesis (GERAS 34, Paris)

  1. 1. Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology http://lawriehunter.com Cmaps as intellectual prosthesis: Cycling between text analysis and rhetorical mapping 34 DOMAINES, TERRITOIRES ET FRONTIÈRES EN ANGLAIS DE SPECIALITE 34e colloque du GERAS, É cole normale supé rieure de Cachan, 21, 22, 23 mars
  2. 2. Cmaps as intellectual prosthesis: Cycling between text analysis and rhetorical mapping Mind maps are ubiquitous today, and have great fruitful applications. However, in mind maps the links between nodes in mind maps are simply lines representing association; each dyad (two nodes joined by a line) looks like every other. The mind map maker cannot articulate the relations between nodes and hence the clusters of nodes in a mind map can be interpreted widely. This raises a question: are there low text representations of the content of text that reveal rhetorical structure or orchestration (or their absence)? In Novakian maps, or Cmaps, each link between two nodes is labeled with a phrase specifying the relation between those nodes. As well, applying several visual metaphors (up is abstract, down is concrete; up is overarching, down is subordinate) can make the representation even more compressed. This presents an altogether more powerful representation than mind maps. Cmap representation has gained a wide usership, particularly in science education, thanks to the popularity of the freeware Cmap Tools, which forces the user to specify the relations between links. This paper reports a case study of a fruitful application of Cmaps, wherein EAP learners of academic writing for management discover intellectual leverage in mapping. The learners were asked to draw a constrained map (fewer than 10 nodes, 4 words or fewer per node, links must be verbs) of the content of the introduction section of a published research paper, and then to critique their maps and arrive at consensus on an accurate mapping. Then they were asked to write a new version of the introduction based only on the content of the map. The learners developed their own approach, working in an iterative manner, mapping in counterpoint with text analysis work. This paper tracks the learners' cycling between moves analysis and concept mapping as they worked to unpack a paper that they had initially identified as a 'good model'. The observations made here suggest that the Cmap deserves a place amongst the essential tools for instructional discourse, particularly in settings such as EAP where the identification of rhetorical orchestration is difficult, where argument is often masked by other rhetorical devices, and where one's own thinking about an approach to a problem is complex and difficult to encode directly in text. Biodata: Lawrie Hunter is a professor at Kochi University of Technology. His infostructure maps provide the underlying structure of "Critical Thinking" (Greene & Hunter, Asahi Press 2002) and "Thinking in English" (Hunter, Cengage 2008).He is also the author of "How Academic Writing Works" and "Technical Academic Writing". http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/
  3. 3. No need to take notes (:^0) All materials can be downloaded from Hunter’s websites http://lawriehunter.com/ http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/ and many more ppts available at http://slideshare.net/rolenzo/
  4. 4. http://wordle.net
  5. 5. Case study: Cmaps in academic writing Asian EAP PhD students of academic writing for management.
  6. 6. Case study: Cmaps in academic writing Asian EAP PhD students of academic writing for management. KUT
  7. 7. 7 Dimensions of Media Object Compehensibility Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology http://www.core.kochi- tech.ac.jp/hunter/ KUT Island of Shikoku
  8. 8. Foreign PhD students 2003-2013 China 93 Thailand 14 Banglades h 5 Vietnam 9 Cambodia 3 Mongolia 2 Spain 2 Czech 1 India 1 Indonesia 2 Jordan 1 Myanmar 1 Nepal 1 Niger 1 Pakistan 1 Sri Lanka 2 Uzbekistan 1 TOTAL 140 KUT EAP scenario
  9. 9. 9 Since 2003: - Japanese government scholarships - for foreign students - in technical doctoral programmes. !Graduation requirements: - 2+ refereed papers in top journals - dissertation in English L2 study during the PhD program is NOT a realistic strategy. KUT EAP scenario
  10. 10. Client needs accessible writing sound argument production strategy readable text explicit cohesion clarity logicality mimicry, conformity assistance
  11. 11. Client needs accessible writing sound argument production strategy readable text explicit cohesion clarity logicality mimicry, conformity assistance Intervention: instruction, exercises, low-text tools Intervention: instruction, exercises, mapping Intervention: instruction, exercises, simulations
  12. 12. Client needs accessible writing sound argument production strategy readable text explicit cohesion Exercises: -topic/stress -S-V separation -old/new -pronoun reference -logical connectors Exercises: -topic based cohesion -pronoun reference -logical connectors Tools: -cohesion charts
  13. 13. Client needs accessible writing sound argument production strategy clarity logicality Exercises: -parallelism -nominalization -subordinate clauses -eliminating vagueness -eliminating ambiguity Exercises: -claim and hedging -summarizing -data commentary Tools: Argument maps
  14. 14. Client needs accessible writing sound argument production strategy mimicry assistanceconformity Exercises: -paraphrasing -concordance -citation -lexical units Activity: -dossier creation Exercises: -register (FAE) -usage Tools: -style guides -word lists Activity: -self assessment -editor/mentor -coded feedback -communication
  15. 15. Client profile TL reading -slow -persistent -compliant L1 persuasion: -by repetition -by continuation -unsignalled TL writing -jumbled -unsignalled -malsignalled Case study L1: first language TL: target language
  16. 16. Client strategies Argument construction -using L1 skills -using L1 knowledge Writing: use model TL -for structure -for style -for cohesion -for logic -for proof Case study L1: first language TL: target language
  17. 17. Case study L1: first language TL: target language HW: homework tasks HW feedback: -edit surface -critique structure -critique cohesion -critique argument Instructor interventions Analytical work: -analyze model TL -summarize model TL Construction work -cluster of concepts -find structure -create expression
  18. 18. grammar/surface features usage/convention document format argument supporting claim 18 Possible EAP teaching approach research design/results researchers start here
  19. 19. grammar/surface features usage/convention document format argument supporting claim 19 Possible EAP teaching approach research design/results Writing instruction starts here
  20. 20. Case study: Step 1: map an RP's introduction Clients draw a constrained map the introduction section of a research paper. Constraints: -fewer than 10 nodes, -fewer than 5 words/node -links must be verbs
  21. 21. Step 1: map an RP's introduction
  22. 22. Step 1: map an RP's introduction
  23. 23. Step 1: map an RP's introduction
  24. 24. Step 2: critique the maps The clients critique their maps and arrive at consensus on an accurate mapping. Key point: -no reading between the lines!
  25. 25. Visual metaphors in concept maps overarching subordinate abstract concrete passage through time more important less important more salient less salient rhetorical flow argument direction cause-effect
  26. 26. Step 2: critique the maps Check: 1. Same level, same rank? 2. Node content is uniform? 3. Link labels are uniform?
  27. 27. Step 3: make a consensus map The clients come to agreement on an optimal map.
  28. 28. !!! Step 3: make a consensus map
  29. 29. Step 4: rewrite the text The clients write a new version of the introduction, based only on the content of the map.
  30. 30. Critique the map Make a consensus map Write a summary from map Hunter's original vision Map source text
  31. 31. Client behavior: text analysis The clients developed their own approach, using text analysis charts from previous course work: -core content vs background charts -communication moves analysis charts
  32. 32. Client behavior: text analysis The clients developed their own approach, using text analysis charts from previous course work: -core content vs background charts -communication moves analysis charts They worked in a cyclic manner, mapping in counterpoint with text analysis work.
  33. 33. Text analysis: core/background chart Core content Background
  34. 34. Text analysis: core/background chart Core content Background Persuasion
  35. 35. Communication moves analysis (freestyle)
  36. 36. Communication moves analysis (prescribed: following Swales & Feak) Swales, J.M.. and Feak, C.B. (2004) Academic writing for graduate students University of Michigan Press.
  37. 37. Communication moves analysis (prescribed: following Glasman-Deal) Glasman-Deal, H. (2012) Science Research Writing Imperial College Press.
  38. 38. Client behavior: remapping The clients worked in a cyclic manner, going back to mapping to apply realizations from their text analysis work.
  39. 39. Reordered chart G R O U P I N G Key Principles of TQM 1-2 Much research has been done with regard to the implementation of TQM and it is believed that the benefits of higher customer satisfaction, better quality products, and higher market share are often obtained following the adoption of TQM by construction companies. 2-2 TQM is a way of thinking about goals, organizations, processes, and people to ensure that the right things are done right the first time. 3-1 TQM is an approach to improving the competitiveness, effectiveness, and flexibility of the whole organization. 3-2 Oakland (1995) observed that it is essentially a way of planning, organizing, and understanding each activity that depends on each individual at each level. Requirement to implement TQM 1-3 It requires a complete turnaround in corporate culture and management approach (Quazi and Padibjo 1997) as compared to the traditional way of top management giving orders and employees merely obeying them. 2-1 It is believed that the single most important determinant of the success an organization in implementing TQM is its ability to translate, integrate, and ultimately institutionalize TQM behaviors into everyday practice on the job. 2-3 Motwani (2001) feels that implementing TQM is a major organizational change that requires a transformation in the culture, process, strategic priorities, beliefs, etc. of an organization. 3-3 Ideas of continuous learning allied to concepts such as empowerment and partnership, which are facets of TQM, also imply that a change in behavior and culture is required if construction firms are to become learning organizations (Love et al. 2000). Benefit of implementing TQM 1-2 Much research has been done with regard to the implementation of TQM and it is believed that the benefits of higher customer satisfaction, better quality products, and higher market share are often obtained following the adoption of TQM by construction companies. 4-1 Idris et al. (1996) showed that the electrical and electronic engineering industry in Malaysia has widely adopted TQM and the main benefits that resulted were improved customer satisfaction, teamwork, productivity, communication, and efficiency. 4-2 ~ 4-3 Mc-Cabe (1996) reported a study of UK companies from different industries which have already implemented TQM. The results showed that a majority had achieved greater success against performance indicators than was the average for their respective industries. 4-4 ~ 4-6 Culp (1993) cited an example of HDR Inc., Omaha, Nebraska, a large engineering firm that has implemented TQM. The experience of applying TQM concepts provided the organization with improvements, information, and learning that occurred only because of the TQM process. This is in addition to positive customer responses and client referrals that the organization received as a result of implementing TQM. 5-1 There are also other means of achieving TQM success. Ford Motor Company has found success by implementing its own Ford’s Q1 Award process which, in essence, involves the implementation of many quality principles and tools that are often associated with a TQM organization (Stephens 1997). Problems 5-2 ~ 5-3 According to Ghosh and Wee (1996), manufacturing companies in Singapore have reached a certain state of development with regard to TQM and, hence, are on their way to world-class manufacturing. However, their survey indicated that Japanese manufacturing companies showed a greater commitment to TQM than their local/regional counterparts. 5-4 ~ 5-6 In a survey carried out by the National Productivity Board in Singapore, Quazi and Padibjo (1997) reported that out of the 300 firms surveyed, only one-third of the manufacturing companies and one-fourth of the services and construction companies had implemented TQM programs. Of those companies that have implemented TQM, most were of foreign origin. This appears to suggest that local companies were lagging behind their foreign competitors. Research objectives 6-1 The aim of this paper is to examine how TQM can be applied more actively in the construction industry. 6-2 It seeks to assist contractors in identifying the steps necessary for the implementation of TQM. Research methodology 6-3 For this purpose, a comparison of the benefits experienced and the TQM performance measures in two case studies are presented.
  40. 40. Reordered chart with cohesion work
  41. 41. Critique the map Make a consensus map Write summary from map Hunter's original vision Map source text
  42. 42. Map source text Critique the map Make a consensus map Write summary from map Analyze source text Rewrite summary Emergent process
  43. 43. Clients' variable process Client 1 Client 2 Client 3 Client 4 Map the source text Map the source text Map the source text Map the source text Critique the map Critique the map Critique the map Critique the map Make consensus map Make consensus map Make consensus map Make consensus map Rewrite from map Rewrite from map Rewrite from map Rewrite from map Analyze original text: freestyle moves Reorder source text + insert cohesion Rewrite/extract some sentences of source text Analyze original text: freestyle moves Reorder/reduce source text Rewrite own version Rewrite own version Rewrite own version Combine own version with reordered source text Note: this chart is approximate, due to partial reporting
  44. 44. Evaluation of writing product 1. Line of argument Before: flawed, cluttered After: sound, uncluttered 2. Clarity Before: unsatisfactory After: satisfactory to good 3. Cohesion Before: variable, generally weak After: in 3 cases, good, consistent Sample size: 4 Intervention time 3 hours in a 3 week period Client effort time: 5-6 hours
  45. 45. Question: Is Cmap Tools the best argument mapping tool?
  46. 46. Horn’s argument mapping www.stanford.edu/~rhorn/index.html www.macrovu.com/ Argument mapping Info-structure mapping Syntactic mapping Grammar mapping (pseudo) Association mapping
  47. 47. Horn’s argument mapping www.stanford.edu/~rhorn/index.html www.macrovu.com/ Relations in links: 1. is supported by 2. is disputed by
  48. 48. AusThink argument mapping http://www.austhink.com/ Argument mapping Info-structure mapping Syntactic mapping Grammar mapping (pseudo) Association mapping
  49. 49. AusThink argument mapping http://www.austhink.com/ Relations in links: 1. supports 2. opposes
  50. 50. Rationale argument mapping www.austhink.com/ Argument mapping Info-structure mapping Syntactic mapping Grammar mapping (pseudo) Association mapping
  51. 51. Rationale argument mapping www.austhink.com/ Relations in links: 1. but 2. because 3. however Node character: 1. position 2. reason 3. objection 4. rebuttal
  52. 52. RST mapping Bill Mann’s Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) uses various sorts of "building blocks" to describe texts. The principal block type deals with "nuclearity" and "relations" (often called coherence relations in the linguistic literature.) Rhetoric mapping Info-structure mapping Syntactic mapping Grammar mapping (pseudo) Association mapping www.sil.org/~mannb/rst/
  53. 53. RST mapping Bill Mann’s Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) mapping uses various sorts of "building blocks" to describe texts. The principal block type deals with "nuclearity" and "relations" (often called coherence relations in the linguistic literature.) www.sil.org/~mannb/rst/ Link relations: 31 phrases (31 rhetorical moves)
  54. 54. http://cmap.ihmc.us/ Optimum: Novakian: Cmaps
  55. 55. Matching mapping styles to instructional purposes Representations of the information structures underlying the witting use of maps: Writers work with Rhetorical structure Argument structure Information structure Text structure Paragraph structure Sentence structure
  56. 56. Matching mapping styles to instructional purposes Representations of the information structures underlying the witting use of maps: Writers work with Rhetorical structure Argument structure Information structure Text structure Paragraph structure Sentence structure Mappers make Rhetorical structure maps Argument maps Information structure maps Association maps (mind maps) Syntactic maps Grammar maps (not maps) mystery zone
  57. 57. Thank you for your attention. Please write to me. I'm happy to share/teach/collaborate. Download this .ppt and many others from http://www.lawriehunter.com/presns/ or view/download at http://slideshare.net/rolenzo/ Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology http://www.core.kochi- tech.ac.jp/hunter/ References
  58. 58. Cmaps as intellectual prosthesis: Cycling between text analysis and rhetorical mapping Mind maps are ubiquitous today, and have great fruitful applications. However, in mind maps the links between nodes in mind maps are simply lines representing association; each dyad (two nodes joined by a line) looks like every other. The mind map maker cannot articulate the relations between nodes and hence the clusters of nodes in a mind map can be interpreted widely. This raises a question: are there low text representations of the content of text that reveal rhetorical structure or orchestration (or their absence)? In Novakian maps, or Cmaps, each link between two nodes is labeled with a phrase specifying the relation between those nodes. As well, applying several visual metaphors (up is abstract, down is concrete; up is overarching, down is subordinate) can make the representation even more compressed. This presents an altogether more powerful representation than mind maps. Cmap representation has gained a wide usership, particularly in science education, thanks to the popularity of the freeware Cmap Tools, which forces the user to specify the relations between links. This paper reports a case study of a fruitful application of Cmaps, wherein EAP learners of academic writing for management discover intellectual leverage in mapping. The learners were asked to draw a constrained map (fewer than 10 nodes, 4 words or fewer per node, links must be verbs) of the content of the introduction section of a published research paper, and then to critique their maps and arrive at consensus on an accurate mapping. Then they were asked to write a new version of the introduction based only on the content of the map. The learners developed their own approach, working in an iterative manner, mapping in counterpoint with text analysis work. This paper tracks the learners' cycling between moves analysis and concept mapping as they worked to unpack a paper that they had initially identified as a 'good model'. The observations made here suggest that the Cmap deserves a place amongst the essential tools for instructional discourse, particularly in settings such as EAP where the identification of rhetorical orchestration is difficult, where argument is often masked by other rhetorical devices, and where one's own thinking about an approach to a problem is complex and difficult to encode directly in text. Biodata: Lawrie Hunter is a professor at Kochi University of Technology. His infostructure maps provide the underlying structure of "Critical Thinking" (Greene & Hunter, Asahi Press 2002) and "Thinking in English" (Hunter, Cengage 2008).He is also the author of "How Academic Writing Works" and "Technical Academic Writing". http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/
  59. 59. Sources: GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS Suggested Reading About Visual Thinking and Learning Ausubel, D. (1968). Educational psychology: A cognitive view. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston. Buzan, T. & Buzan, B. (1993). The mind map book: How to use radiant thinking to maximize your brain's untapped potential. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc. Buzan, T. (1983). Use both sides of your brain: New techniques to help you read efficiently, study effectively, solve problems, remember more, think clearly. New York: E.P. Dutton. Jonassen, D.H. (1996). Computers in the classroom: Mindtools for critical thinking. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Novak, J.D. & Gowin, D.B. (1984). Learning how to learn. New York: Cambridge University Press. Novak, J.D. (1998). Learning, creating and using knowledge: Concept map® as facilitative tools in schools and corporations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. http://www.inspiration.com/Parents/Visual-Thinking-and-Learning
  60. 60. Sources: academic writing Hunter the style dossier approach STRUCTURE Banerjee, D. and Wall, D. (2006) Assessing and reporting performances on pre-sessional EAP courses: Developing a final assessment checklist and investigating its validity. Journal of English for academic purposes 5(2006) 50-69. Ferris, D. (2002) Treatment of error in second language student writing. University of Michigan Press. Ginther, A. and Grant, L. (1996) A review of the academic needs of native English-speaking college students in the United States. Research monograph series MS-1. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Glasman-Deal, H. (2010) Science Research Writing. Imperial College Press. Gopen, G.D. & Swan, J.A. (1990) The Science of Scientific Writing. American Scientist 78 550-558. http://www.americanscientist.org/template/AssetDetail/assetid/23947 Harwood, N. (2006) What do we want EAP teaching materials for? Journal of English for Academic Purposes 4 (2005) 149-161. Hunter, L. Online resource for English for Academic Purposes: http://del.icio.us/rolenzo/eap Koutsantoni, D. (2006) Rhetorical strategies in engineering research articles and research theses: Advanced academic literacy and relations of power. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 5 (2006) 19-36. Liu, M. & Braine, G. (2005) Cohesive features in argumentative writing produced by Chinese undergraduates. English for specific purposes 24 (2005) Rowley-Jolivet, E. & Carter-Thomas, S. (2005) Genre awareness and rhetorical appropriacy: Manipulation of information structure by NS and NNS scientists in the international conference setting. System 33 (2005) 41-64. Swales, J.M.. and Feak, C.B. (2004) Academic writing for graduate students: essential tasks and skills (2nd ed.). University of Michigan Press. Swales, J.M.. and Feak, C.B. (2001) English in Today's Research World: A Writing Guide. University of Michigan Press.
  61. 61.   Fauconnier, G. (1997) Mappings in Thought and Language. Cambridge U. Press. Gentner, D., & Wolff, P.(1997). Alignment in the Processing of Metaphor. Journal of Memory and  Language, 37, 331-355.  Kurosawa, M., & Kawahara, T. (1999). An Experimental Study in Metaphor Comprehension. Bulletin of  the Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo 39, 247-257. Kurosawa, M., & Kawahara, T. (1999). Alignment or Abstraction? Metaphor Comprehension in  Japanese.  Proceedings, Second International Conference on Cognitive Science.  http://www.jcss.gr.jp/iccs99OLP/p3-19/p3-19.htm Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson 1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: The University of Chicago  Press.   Mazuka,  R. (1998) The Development of Language Strategies: a Cross-Linguistic Study Between  Japanese and English. Erlbaum. Nisbett, R.E. (2003) The geography of thought. Free Press. Novak, J.D. (1998). Learning, creating and using knowledge: Concept map® as facilitative tools in  schools and corporations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.   Sources: mapping and metaphor
  62. 62. Baddeley, A. D. & Hitch, G. (2001). Working memory in perspective: Foreword. In J. Andrade (Ed.), Working memory in perspective (pp. xv-xix). Hove: Psychology Press. Cañas, A. J., & Novak, J.D. (2006) Re-examining the foundations for effective use of concept maps. In Cañas, A. J., & Novak, J.D. (Eds.), Concept Maps: Theory, Methodology, Technology. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Concept Mapping. Cañas, A. J., Hill, G., Carff, R., Suri, N., Lott, J., Eskridge, T., Gomez, G., Arroyo, M. and Carvajal, R. (2004) Cmaptools: A knowledge modeling and sharing environment. Downloaded April 8, 2008 from http://cmc.ihmc.us/papers/cmc2004-283.pdf Chandler, P. and J. Sweller (1992) The split-attention effect as a factor in the design of instruction. British Journal of Educational Psychology 62: 233-246. Chun, D. M. and Plass, J. L. 1997. Research on text comprehension in multimedia environments. Language learning and technology 1(1): 60-81. Cmap tools. Institute for Human & Machine Cognition. http://cmap.ihmc.us/ Dansereau, D.F. (2005) Node-Link Mapping Principles for Visualizing Knowledge and Information. In Tergan, S. and Keller, T. (Eds.) Node-Link Mapping Principles for Visualizing Knowledge and Information. Springer. 61-81. Fulkerson, R. (1996) Teaching the argument in writing. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Goldman, S.R., & Rakestraw, J.A. (2000). Structural aspects of constructing meaning from text. In M.L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. II, pp. 311-335). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Gopen, G.D. and Swan, J.A. (1990) The Science of Scientific Writing. American Scientist (Nov-Dec 1990), Volume 78, 550-558. Downloadable as a pdf from http://www.amstat.org/publications/jcgs/sci.pdf Grow, G. (1996) Serving the strategic reader: cognitive reading theoryand its implications for the teaching of writing. Viewed June 30, 2007 at http://www.longleaf.net/ggrow/StrategicReader/index.html Horn, R. E. (1998) Visual Language: Global Communication for the 21st Century. Bainbridge Island, WA: MacroVU Press. http://www.macrovu.com
  63. 63. Hunter L. (2005) Technical Hypertext Accessibility: Information Structures and Rhetorical Framing. Presentation at HyperText 2005, Salzburg. http://www.lawriehunter.com/presns/%20HT05poster0818.htm Hunter, L. (2002) Information structure diagrams as link icons. Learning Technology 4(3) July 2002. ISSN 1438- 0625. 2002. http://lttf.ieee.org/learn_tech/issues/july2002/index.html#1 Hunter, L. (1998) Text nouveau, visible structure in text presentation. Computer Assisted Language Learning 11 (4) October 1998. Mann, B. (1999) An introduction to rhetorical structure theory (RST). http://www.sil.org/mannb/rst/rintro99.htm Moffett, J. (1992). Detecting growth in language. New Hampshire: Boynton/Cook. Mohan, B.A. (1986) Language and content. Addison-Wesley. Novak, J.D. and Cañas, A.J. (2006) The theory underlying concept maps and how to construct them. Report IHMC CmapTools 2006-01, Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC), 2006. Viewed April 8, 2008 at http://cmap.ihmc.us/Publications/ResearchPapers/TheoryCmaps/TheoryUnderlyingConceptMaps.htm Olive, Thierry (2004) Working memory in writing: Empirical evidence from the dual-task technique. European psychologist 9(1), pp. 32-42. Working paper downloaded from http://cat.inist.fr/? aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15431008 Shannon, C.E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Explained at http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/introductory/sw.html Taboada, M. and Mann, W.C. (2006) Rhetorical Structure Theory: looking back and moving ahead. Discourse studies 8: 423-459 Tufte, E.R. (1990) Envisioning information. Cheshire, CONN: Graphics Press. Ueta, R., Hunter, L. & Ren, X. Text usability for non-native readers of English. Proceedings, Information Processing Society of Japan, Vol. 2003.7. Pp. 199-200.

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