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Academic writing
process:
Cycling between Cmaps and text analysis
=>Cmaps as an essential tool
Lawrie Hunter
Kochi Univers...
No need to take notes (:^0)
All materials can be downloaded
from Hunter’s websites
http://lawriehunter.com/
http://www.cor...
Academic writing process: Cmaps as an essential tool
For mapping approaches to summarizing and argument, graphics software...
'Some people say':
IT tools R technology
'Some people say':
IT tools R technology
=> Unconscious narrowing
-of instructional frame
-of design scope
=> Handicapped design process
-away from 'where we live'...
Everything That Doesn’t Work Yet
Alan Kay, a brilliant polymath who has worked
at Atari, Xerox, Apple, and Disney:
“Techno...
"INVISIBLE" communication TECHNOLOGY
-paragraph
-argument
-metaphor
-visual metaphor
the paragraph,
argument?
Reading between the lines:
our own worst enemy.
NOTHING
READ
IS EVER
BETWEEN
WHAT IT
THE LINES.
SEEMS.
Reading between the lines
ASSUMES
RELATIONSHIPS
between concepts.
But specifying
RELATIONSHIPS
between concepts
requires SPACE.
Is that why
we now see
"long tweets"?
Academic writing process: Cmaps as an essential tool
For mapping approaches to summarizing and argument, graphics
software...
What structure
can you see here?
What structure
can you see?
Among those software, Cmap Tools freeware has the further distinct
advantage that it forces th...
What structure
can you see?
What structure
can he see?
Cmaps are Novakian maps.
In Novakian maps,
each link between two nodes
is labeled with a phrase
specifying the relation
be...
Visual metaphors
Visual metaphors
Visual metaphors
Visual metaphors
Using visual metaphors to enhance Cmaps
 
To create an even more compressed representation,
use visual metaphors:
1. up is...
Visual metaphors
in concept maps
overarching
subordinate
abstract
concrete
passage through time
more important
less import...
Using visual metaphors to enhance Cmaps
TODAY'S OUTLINE  
===
THE TAUGHT (INSTRUCTED) WRITING CENTER
Working with text
Working with concepts
 ===
TOOLS for WC cli...
CASE study:
MAPPING for summarization
Case study:
Cmaps in academic writing
Asian EAP PhD students of
academic writing for management.
KUT
32
Dimensions of
Media Object Compehensibility
Lawrie Hunter
Kochi University of Technology
http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac....
Foreign PhD students
2003-2013
China 93
Thailand 14
Bangladesh 5
Vietnam 9
Cambodia 3
Mongolia 2
Spain 2
Czech 1
india 1
I...
34
Since 2003:
- Japanese government scholarships
- for foreign students
- in technical doctoral programmes.
!Graduation r...
Text analysis TOOLS
Graphical* tools, at the sentence level:
a. Core content/ background/persuasion
b. Communication moves...
Text analysis:
core/background chart
Core content Background
Text analysis:
core/background chart
Core content Background Persuasion
Text analysis:
core/background chart
Communication moves analysis
(freestyle)
Communication moves analysis
(Discussion: following Swales & Feak)
Swales, J.M.. and Feak, C.B. (2004) 
Academic writing f...
Text analysis: cohesion
MAPPING work for
abstracts
Sajda
study
Less accurate
EEG signals
Were not reliable
Electronic 
image scanning 
speed
1. Human 
using PC
2. PC using h...
48
Sample argument map
Sinnett
(2010)
Sinnett
(2010)
claims that
is supported by
assumes that
White noise is
equivalent to
grunts
Server grunts
d...
Case study:
MAPPING for
summarization
Case study 2:
Step 1: map an RP's introduction
Clients draw a constrained map
the introduction section of a research paper...
Step 1: map a RP's introduction
Step 1: map a RP's introduction
Step 1: map a RP's introduction
Step 2: critique the maps
The clients critique their maps and
arrive at consensus
on an accurate mapping.
Key point:
-no r...
Visual metaphors
in concept maps
overarching
subordinate
abstract
concrete
passage through time
more important
less import...
Step 2:
critique
the maps
Check:
1. Same level,
same rank?
2. Node
content is
uniform?
3. Link labels
are uniform?
Step 3:
make a
consensus
map
The clients come to agreement
on an optimal map.
!!!
Step 3:
make a
consensus
map
Step 4: rewrite the text
The clients write a new version
of the introduction,
based only on the content of the map.
Hunter's
original
vision
Map
a text
Critique
the map
Make a
consensus
map
Rewrite
the text
Client behavior: text analysis
The clients developed their own approach,
using text analysis charts
from previous course w...
Client behavior: text analysis
The clients developed their own approach,
using text analysis charts
from previous course w...
Map
a text
Critique
the map
Make a
consensus
map
Rewrite
the text
Analyze
the text
Re-map
the text
Re-rewrite
the text
?
E...
Text analysis:
core/background chart
Core content Background
Text analysis:
core/background chart
Core content Background Persuasion
Communication moves analysis
(freestyle)
Communication moves analysis
(prescribed: following Swales & Feak)
Swales, J.M.. and Feak, C.B. (2004)
Academic writing fo...
Communication moves analysis
(prescribed: following Glasman-Deal)
Glasman-Deal, H. (2012)
Science Research Writing
Imperia...
Client behavior: remapping
The clients worked in a cyclic manner,
going back to mapping
to apply realizations
from their t...
Reordered
chart
G R O U P I N G
Key
Principles of
TQM
1-2 Much research has been done with regard to the implementation of...
Reordered
chart
with
cohesion
work
Hunter's
original
vision
Map
a text
Critique
the map
Make a
consensus
map
Rewrite
the text
Emergent
process
Map
a text
Critique
the map
Make a
consensus
map
Rewrite
the text
Analyze
the text
Re-map
the text
Re-rew...
Clients' variable process
Client 1 Client 2 Client 3 Client 4
Map the source text Map the source text Map the source text ...
Map
a text
Critique
the map
Make a
consensus
map
Rewrite
the text
Analyze
the text
Re-map
the text
Re-rewrite
the text
?
E...
Question: is Cmap Tools
the best argument mapping tool?
Horn’s argument mapping
www.stanford.edu/~rhorn/index.html
www.macrovu.com/
Argument mapping
Info-structure mapping
Syntac...
AusThink
argument
mapping
http://www.austhink.com/
Argument mapping
Info-structure mapping
Syntactic mapping
Grammar mappi...
Rationale argument mapping
Argument mapping
Info-structure mapping
Syntactic mapping
Grammar mapping (pseudo)
Association ...
RST mapping
www.sil.org/~mannb/rst/
RST links are rhetorical devices.
Bill Mann’s Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST)
uses v...
http://cmap.ihmc.us/
Default Novakian: Cmaps
Matching mapping styles
to instructional purposes
Representations of the information structures
underlying the witting use...
Matching mapping styles
to instructional purposes
Representations of the information structures
underlying the witting use...
Thank you for your attention.
Please write to me.
I'm happy to share/teach/collaborate.
Download this .ppt and many others...
Cmaps as intellectual prosthesis: Cycling between text analysis and rhetorical mapping
Mind maps are ubiquitous today, and...
Sources: GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS
Suggested Reading About Visual Thinking and Learning
Ausubel, D. (1968). Educational psycholog...
Sources: academic writing
Hunter
the style dossier approach
STRUCTURE
Banerjee, D. and Wall, D. (2006) Assessing and repor...
Fauconnier, G. (1997) Mappings in Thought and Language. Cambridge U. Press.
Gentner, D., & Wolff, P.(1997). Alignment in t...
Baddeley, A. D. & Hitch, G. (2001). Working memory in perspective: Foreword. In J. Andrade (Ed.), Working memory
in perspe...
Hunter L. (2005) Technical Hypertext Accessibility: Information Structures and Rhetorical Framing. Presentation at
HyperTe...
Academic writing process: Cmaps as an essential tool  (JALTCALL 2013, Matsumoto)
Academic writing process: Cmaps as an essential tool  (JALTCALL 2013, Matsumoto)
Academic writing process: Cmaps as an essential tool  (JALTCALL 2013, Matsumoto)
Academic writing process: Cmaps as an essential tool  (JALTCALL 2013, Matsumoto)
Academic writing process: Cmaps as an essential tool  (JALTCALL 2013, Matsumoto)
Academic writing process: Cmaps as an essential tool  (JALTCALL 2013, Matsumoto)
Academic writing process: Cmaps as an essential tool  (JALTCALL 2013, Matsumoto)
Academic writing process: Cmaps as an essential tool  (JALTCALL 2013, Matsumoto)
Academic writing process: Cmaps as an essential tool  (JALTCALL 2013, Matsumoto)
Academic writing process: Cmaps as an essential tool  (JALTCALL 2013, Matsumoto)
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Academic writing process: Cmaps as an essential tool  (JALTCALL 2013, Matsumoto)

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For mapping approaches to summarizing and argument, graphics software and mapping software in general are preferable to pencil and paper because of ease of revision and restructuring. Among those software, Cmap Tools freeware has the further distinct advantage that it forces the user to specify the relations between links and thus reveals rhetorical structure or orchestration (or their absence) that is not visually apparent in text. Cmaps are Novakian maps, i.e. each link between two nodes is labeled with a phrase specifying the relation between those nodes. If we strengthen Novakian maps with several visual metaphors (e.g. up is abstract, down is concrete; up is overarching, down is subordinate) we get an even more compressed representation. This presents an altogether more powerful representation than that offered by mind maps.
 
Grounded on a case study of a fruitful application of Cmap Tools, wherein EAP learners of academic writing for management discover intellectual leverage in argument mapping, this paper argues that Cmap Tools deserves a place amongst the essential tools for instructional discourse, particularly in settings such as EAP where the identification of rhetorical orchestration is difficult, where argument is often masked by other rhetorical devices, and where one's own thinking about an approach to a problem is complex and difficult to encode directly in text.
 
To tentatively support its claims, this paper tracks EAP (English for Academic Purposes) learners' cycling between discourse analysis and concept mapping as they worked to unpack a paper that they had initially identified as a 'good model'.

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Academic writing process: Cmaps as an essential tool  (JALTCALL 2013, Matsumoto)

  1. 1. Academic writing process: Cycling between Cmaps and text analysis =>Cmaps as an essential tool Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter JALTCALL 2013 June 1, 2013
  2. 2. No need to take notes (:^0) All materials can be downloaded from Hunter’s websites http://lawriehunter.com/ http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/ and many more ppts available at http://slideshare.net/rolenzo/
  3. 3. Academic writing process: Cmaps as an essential tool For mapping approaches to summarizing and argument, graphics software and mapping software in general are preferable to pencil and paper because of ease of revision and restructuring. Among those software, Cmap Tools freeware has the further distinct advantage that it forces the user to specify the relations between links and thus reveals rhetorical structure or orchestration (or their absence) that is not visually apparent in text. Cmaps are Novakian maps, i.e. each link between two nodes is labeled with a phrase specifying the relation between those nodes. If we strengthen Novakian maps with several visual metaphors (e.g. up is abstract, down is concrete; up is overarching, down is subordinate) we get an even more compressed representation. This presents an altogether more powerful representation than that offered by mind maps. Grounded on a case study of a fruitful application of Cmap Tools, wherein EAP learners of academic writing for management discover intellectual leverage in argument mapping, this paper argues that Cmap Tools deserves a place amongst the essential tools for instructional discourse, particularly in settings such as EAP where the identification of rhetorical orchestration is difficult, where argument is often masked by other rhetorical devices, and where one's own thinking about an approach to a problem is complex and difficult to encode directly in text. To tentatively support its claims, this paper tracks EAP (English for Academic Purposes) learners' cycling between discourse analysis and concept mapping as they worked to unpack a paper that they had initially identified as a 'good model'. ace lookatthest8i*min
  4. 4. 'Some people say': IT tools R technology
  5. 5. 'Some people say': IT tools R technology
  6. 6. => Unconscious narrowing -of instructional frame -of design scope => Handicapped design process -away from 'where we live' 'Some people say': IT tools R technology
  7. 7. Everything That Doesn’t Work Yet Alan Kay, a brilliant polymath who has worked at Atari, Xerox, Apple, and Disney: “Technology, is anything that was invented after you were born.” http://www.kk.org/thetechnium/archives/2007/02/everything_that.php
  8. 8. "INVISIBLE" communication TECHNOLOGY -paragraph -argument -metaphor -visual metaphor
  9. 9. the paragraph, argument?
  10. 10. Reading between the lines: our own worst enemy.
  11. 11. NOTHING READ IS EVER BETWEEN WHAT IT THE LINES. SEEMS.
  12. 12. Reading between the lines ASSUMES RELATIONSHIPS between concepts.
  13. 13. But specifying RELATIONSHIPS between concepts requires SPACE.
  14. 14. Is that why we now see "long tweets"?
  15. 15. Academic writing process: Cmaps as an essential tool For mapping approaches to summarizing and argument, graphics software and mapping software in general are preferable to pencil and paper because of ease of revision and restructuring. Among those software, Cmap Tools freeware has the further distinct advantage that it forces the user to specify the relations between links and thus reveals rhetorical structure or orchestration (or their absence) that is not visually apparent in text. What structure can you see here?
  16. 16. What structure can you see here?
  17. 17. What structure can you see? Among those software, Cmap Tools freeware has the further distinct advantage that it forces the user to specify the relations between links and thus reveals rhetorical structure or orchestration (or their absence) that is not visually apparent in text.
  18. 18. What structure can you see?
  19. 19. What structure can he see?
  20. 20. Cmaps are Novakian maps. In Novakian maps, each link between two nodes is labeled with a phrase specifying the relation between those nodes.
  21. 21. Visual metaphors
  22. 22. Visual metaphors
  23. 23. Visual metaphors
  24. 24. Visual metaphors
  25. 25. Using visual metaphors to enhance Cmaps   To create an even more compressed representation, use visual metaphors: 1. up is abstract, down is concrete;  2. up is overarching, down is subordinate 3. concepts on the same level  have the same degree of abstraction 4. rhetorical flow is top to bottom (NO ARROWHEADS!)
  26. 26. Visual metaphors in concept maps overarching subordinate abstract concrete passage through time more important less important more salient less salient rhetorical flow argument direction cause-effect
  27. 27. Using visual metaphors to enhance Cmaps
  28. 28. TODAY'S OUTLINE   === THE TAUGHT (INSTRUCTED) WRITING CENTER Working with text Working with concepts  === TOOLS for WC clients / work:  Text analysis work (separating levels of abstraction) Moves analysis work Metaphor / frames / cognitive blends   Restructuring vs. reordering Argument mapping / Novakian / Cmap Tools   Cohesion work  === CASE study 1 MAPPING for summarization of an RP introduction (DOSSIER WORK)  Clients' auto-return to TOOLS CONCLUSION Better summaries (scant data tho) BTW lower WC activity (growing autonomy? peer consulting? other resources?)  === CASE study 2  MAPPING for distillation of an extended (wandering) document a. analysis: part by part mapping b. synthesis: combining maps of parts into an integrated whole map CONCLUSION: achieved results not possible with extended text work ===
  29. 29. CASE study: MAPPING for summarization
  30. 30. Case study: Cmaps in academic writing Asian EAP PhD students of academic writing for management. KUT
  31. 31. 32 Dimensions of Media Object Compehensibility Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/ KUT Island of Shikoku
  32. 32. Foreign PhD students 2003-2013 China 93 Thailand 14 Bangladesh 5 Vietnam 9 Cambodia 3 Mongolia 2 Spain 2 Czech 1 india 1 Indonesia 2 Jordan 1 Myanmar 1 Nepal 1 Niger 1 Pakistan 1 Sri Lanka 2 Uzbekistan 1 TOTAL 140 KUT EAP scenario
  33. 33. 34 Since 2003: - Japanese government scholarships - for foreign students - in technical doctoral programmes. !Graduation requirements: - 2+ refereed papers in top journals - dissertation in English L2 study during the PhD program is NOT a realistic strategy. KUT EAP scenario
  34. 34. Text analysis TOOLS Graphical* tools, at the sentence level: a. Core content/ background/persuasion b. Communication moves c. Cohesion *graphical = low-text, with spatial structure
  35. 35. Text analysis: core/background chart Core content Background
  36. 36. Text analysis: core/background chart Core content Background Persuasion
  37. 37. Text analysis: core/background chart
  38. 38. Communication moves analysis (freestyle)
  39. 39. Communication moves analysis (Discussion: following Swales & Feak) Swales, J.M.. and Feak, C.B. (2004)  Academic writing for graduate students University of Michigan Press.
  40. 40. Text analysis: cohesion
  41. 41. MAPPING work for abstracts
  42. 42. Sajda study Less accurate EEG signals Were not reliable Electronic  image scanning  speed 1. Human  using PC 2. PC using human  unconscious input Faster EEG spike is a  signal of  unconscious  identification To evaluate  Sajda’s new  technology Sample argument map
  43. 43. 48 Sample argument map
  44. 44. Sinnett (2010) Sinnett (2010) claims that is supported by assumes that White noise is equivalent to grunts Server grunts during service in tennis cause receiver slowness and error Video reaction is equivalent to tennis reaction Subject error and slowness in video response with white noise bursts Sample argument map
  45. 45. Case study: MAPPING for summarization
  46. 46. Case study 2: Step 1: map an RP's introduction Clients draw a constrained map the introduction section of a research paper. Purpose: summarize for citation Constraints: -fewer than 10 nodes, -fewer than 5 words/node -links must be verbs
  47. 47. Step 1: map a RP's introduction
  48. 48. Step 1: map a RP's introduction
  49. 49. Step 1: map a RP's introduction
  50. 50. Step 2: critique the maps The clients critique their maps and arrive at consensus on an accurate mapping. Key point: -no reading between the lines!
  51. 51. Visual metaphors in concept maps overarching subordinate abstract concrete passage through time more important less important more salient less salient rhetorical flow argument direction cause-effect
  52. 52. Step 2: critique the maps Check: 1. Same level, same rank? 2. Node content is uniform? 3. Link labels are uniform?
  53. 53. Step 3: make a consensus map The clients come to agreement on an optimal map.
  54. 54. !!! Step 3: make a consensus map
  55. 55. Step 4: rewrite the text The clients write a new version of the introduction, based only on the content of the map.
  56. 56. Hunter's original vision Map a text Critique the map Make a consensus map Rewrite the text
  57. 57. Client behavior: text analysis The clients developed their own approach, using text analysis charts from previous course work: -core content vs background charts -communication moves analysis charts
  58. 58. Client behavior: text analysis The clients developed their own approach, using text analysis charts from previous course work: -core content vs background charts -communication moves analysis charts They worked in a cyclic manner, mapping in counterpoint with text analysis work.
  59. 59. Map a text Critique the map Make a consensus map Rewrite the text Analyze the text Re-map the text Re-rewrite the text ? Emergent process
  60. 60. Text analysis: core/background chart Core content Background
  61. 61. Text analysis: core/background chart Core content Background Persuasion
  62. 62. Communication moves analysis (freestyle)
  63. 63. Communication moves analysis (prescribed: following Swales & Feak) Swales, J.M.. and Feak, C.B. (2004) Academic writing for graduate students University of Michigan Press.
  64. 64. Communication moves analysis (prescribed: following Glasman-Deal) Glasman-Deal, H. (2012) Science Research Writing Imperial College Press.
  65. 65. Client behavior: remapping The clients worked in a cyclic manner, going back to mapping to apply realizations from their text analysis work.
  66. 66. Reordered chart G R O U P I N G Key Principles of TQM 1-2 Much research has been done with regard to the implementation of TQM and it is believed that the benefits of higher customer satisfaction, better quality products, and higher market share are often obtained following the adoption of TQM by construction companies. 2-2 TQM is a way of thinking about goals, organizations, processes, and people to ensure that the right things are done right the first time. 3-1 TQM is an approach to improving the competitiveness, effectiveness, and flexibility of the whole organization. 3-2 Oakland (1995) observed that it is essentially a way of planning, organizing, and understanding each activity that depends on each individual at each level. Requirement to implement TQM 1-3 It requires a complete turnaround in corporate culture and management approach (Quazi and Padibjo 1997) as compared to the traditional way of top management giving orders and employees merely obeying them. 2-1 It is believed that the single most important determinant of the success an organization in implementing TQM is its ability to translate, integrate, and ultimately institutionalize TQM behaviors into everyday practice on the job. 2-3 Motwani (2001) feels that implementing TQM is a major organizational change that requires a transformation in the culture, process, strategic priorities, beliefs, etc. of an organization. 3-3 Ideas of continuous learning allied to concepts such as empowerment and partnership, which are facets of TQM, also imply that a change in behavior and culture is required if construction firms are to become learning organizations (Love et al. 2000). Benefit of implementing TQM 1-2 Much research has been done with regard to the implementation of TQM and it is believed that the benefits of higher customer satisfaction, better quality products, and higher market share are often obtained following the adoption of TQM by construction companies. 4-1 Idris et al. (1996) showed that the electrical and electronic engineering industry in Malaysia has widely adopted TQM and the main benefits that resulted were improved customer satisfaction, teamwork, productivity, communication, and efficiency. 4-2 ~ 4-3 Mc-Cabe (1996) reported a study of UK companies from different industries which have already implemented TQM. The results showed that a majority had achieved greater success against performance indicators than was the average for their respective industries. 4-4 ~ 4-6 Culp (1993) cited an example of HDR Inc., Omaha, Nebraska, a large engineering firm that has implemented TQM. The experience of applying TQM concepts provided the organization with improvements, information, and learning that occurred only because of the TQM process. This is in addition to positive customer responses and client referrals that the organization received as a result of implementing TQM. 5-1 There are also other means of achieving TQM success. Ford Motor Company has found success by implementing its own Ford’s Q1 Award process which, in essence, involves the implementation of many quality principles and tools that are often associated with a TQM organization (Stephens 1997). Problems 5-2 ~ 5-3 According to Ghosh and Wee (1996), manufacturing companies in Singapore have reached a certain state of development with regard to TQM and, hence, are on their way to world-class manufacturing. However, their survey indicated that Japanese manufacturing companies showed a greater commitment to TQM than their local/regional counterparts. 5-4 ~ 5-6 In a survey carried out by the National Productivity Board in Singapore, Quazi and Padibjo (1997) reported that out of the 300 firms surveyed, only one-third of the manufacturing companies and one-fourth of the services and construction companies had implemented TQM programs. Of those companies that have implemented TQM, most were of foreign origin. This appears to suggest that local companies were lagging behind their foreign competitors. Research objectives 6-1 The aim of this paper is to examine how TQM can be applied more actively in the construction industry. 6-2 It seeks to assist contractors in identifying the steps necessary for the implementation of TQM. Research methodology 6-3 For this purpose, a comparison of the benefits experienced and the TQM performance measures in two case studies are presented.
  67. 67. Reordered chart with cohesion work
  68. 68. Hunter's original vision Map a text Critique the map Make a consensus map Rewrite the text
  69. 69. Emergent process Map a text Critique the map Make a consensus map Rewrite the text Analyze the text Re-map the text Re-rewrite the text
  70. 70. Clients' variable process Client 1 Client 2 Client 3 Client 4 Map the source text Map the source text Map the source text Map the source text Critique the map Critique the map Critique the map Critique the map Make consensus map Make consensus map Make consensus map Make consensus map Rewrite from map Rewrite from map Rewrite from map Rewrite from map Analyze original text: freestyle moves Analyze original text: AWGS moves Analyze original text: SRW moves Analyze original text: freestyle moves Reorder/reduce source text Reorder source text + insert cohesion Rewrite/extract some sentences of source text Combine own version with reordered source text Rewrite own version Rewrite own version Rewrite own version Note: this chart is approximate, due to partial reporting
  71. 71. Map a text Critique the map Make a consensus map Rewrite the text Analyze the text Re-map the text Re-rewrite the text ? Emergent process
  72. 72. Question: is Cmap Tools the best argument mapping tool?
  73. 73. Horn’s argument mapping www.stanford.edu/~rhorn/index.html www.macrovu.com/ Argument mapping Info-structure mapping Syntactic mapping Grammar mapping (pseudo) Association mapping
  74. 74. AusThink argument mapping http://www.austhink.com/ Argument mapping Info-structure mapping Syntactic mapping Grammar mapping (pseudo) Association mapping
  75. 75. Rationale argument mapping Argument mapping Info-structure mapping Syntactic mapping Grammar mapping (pseudo) Association mapping www.austhink.com/
  76. 76. RST mapping www.sil.org/~mannb/rst/ RST links are rhetorical devices. Bill Mann’s Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) uses various sorts of "building blocks" to describe texts. The principal block type deals with "nuclearity" and "relations" (often called coherence relations in the linguistic literature.) There are 31 main relations in RST mapping. Rhetoric mapping Info-structure mapping Syntactic mapping Grammar mapping (pseudo) Association mapping
  77. 77. http://cmap.ihmc.us/ Default Novakian: Cmaps
  78. 78. Matching mapping styles to instructional purposes Representations of the information structures underlying the witting use of maps: Writers work with Rhetorical structure Argument structure Information structure Text structure Paragraph structure Sentence structure
  79. 79. Matching mapping styles to instructional purposes Representations of the information structures underlying the witting use of maps: Writers work with Rhetorical structure Argument structure Information structure Text structure Paragraph structure Sentence structure Mappers make Rhetorical structure maps Argument maps Information structure maps Association maps Syntactic maps Grammar maps (not maps)mystery zone
  80. 80. Thank you for your attention. Please write to me. I'm happy to share/teach/collaborate. Download this .ppt and many others from http://www.lawriehunter.com/presns/ or view/download at http://slideshare.net/rolenzo/ Lawrie Hunter Kochi University of Technology http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/References
  81. 81. Cmaps as intellectual prosthesis: Cycling between text analysis and rhetorical mapping Mind maps are ubiquitous today, and have great fruitful applications. However, in mind maps the links between nodes in mind maps are simply lines representing association; each dyad (two nodes joined by a line) looks like every other. The mind map maker cannot articulate the relations between nodes and hence the clusters of nodes in a mind map can be interpreted widely. This raises a question: are there low text representations of the content of text that reveal rhetorical structure or orchestration (or their absence)? In Novakian maps, or Cmaps, each link between two nodes is labeled with a phrase specifying the relation between those nodes. As well, applying several visual metaphors (up is abstract, down is concrete; up is overarching, down is subordinate) can make the representation even more compressed. This presents an altogether more powerful representation than mind maps. Cmap representation has gained a wide usership, particularly in science education, thanks to the popularity of the freeware Cmap Tools, which forces the user to specify the relations between links. This paper reports a case study of a fruitful application of Cmaps, wherein EAP learners of academic writing for management discover intellectual leverage in mapping. The learners were asked to draw a constrained map (fewer than 10 nodes, 4 words or fewer per node, links must be verbs) of the content of the introduction section of a published research paper, and then to critique their maps and arrive at consensus on an accurate mapping. Then they were asked to write a new version of the introduction based only on the content of the map. The learners developed their own approach, working in an iterative manner, mapping in counterpoint with text analysis work. This paper tracks the learners' cycling between moves analysis and concept mapping as they worked to unpack a paper that they had initially identified as a 'good model'. The observations made here suggest that the Cmap deserves a place amongst the essential tools for instructional discourse, particularly in settings such as EAP where the identification of rhetorical orchestration is difficult, where argument is often masked by other rhetorical devices, and where one's own thinking about an approach to a problem is complex and difficult to encode directly in text. Biodata: Lawrie Hunter is a professor at Kochi University of Technology. His infostructure maps provide the underlying structure of "Critical Thinking" (Greene & Hunter, Asahi Press 2002) and "Thinking in English" (Hunter, Cengage 2008).He is also the author of "How Academic Writing Works" and "Technical Academic Writing". http://www.core.kochi-tech.ac.jp/hunter/
  82. 82. Sources: GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS Suggested Reading About Visual Thinking and Learning Ausubel, D. (1968). Educational psychology: A cognitive view. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston. Buzan, T. & Buzan, B. (1993). The mind map book: How to use radiant thinking to maximize your brain's untapped potential. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc. Buzan, T. (1983). Use both sides of your brain: New techniques to help you read efficiently, study effectively, solve problems, remember more, think clearly. New York: E.P. Dutton. Jonassen, D.H. (1996). Computers in the classroom: Mindtools for critical thinking. Englewood Cliffs, NJ. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Novak, J.D. & Gowin, D.B. (1984). Learning how to learn. New York: Cambridge University Press. Novak, J.D. (1998). Learning, creating and using knowledge: Concept map® as facilitative tools in schools and corporations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. http://www.inspiration.com/Parents/Visual-Thinking-and-Learning
  83. 83. Sources: academic writing Hunter the style dossier approach STRUCTURE Banerjee, D. and Wall, D. (2006) Assessing and reporting performances on pre-sessional EAP courses: Developing a final assessment checklist and investigating its validity. Journal of English for academic purposes 5(2006) 50-69. Ferris, D. (2002) Treatment of error in second language student writing. University of Michigan Press. Ginther, A. and Grant, L. (1996) A review of the academic needs of native English-speaking college students in the United States. Research monograph series MS-1. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. Glasman-Deal, H. (2010) Science Research Writing. Imperial College Press. Gopen, G.D. & Swan, J.A. (1990) The Science of Scientific Writing. American Scientist 78 550-558. http://www.americanscientist.org/template/AssetDetail/assetid/23947 Harwood, N. (2006) What do we want EAP teaching materials for? Journal of English for Academic Purposes 4 (2005) 149-161. Hunter, L. Online resource for English for Academic Purposes: http://del.icio.us/rolenzo/eap Koutsantoni, D. (2006) Rhetorical strategies in engineering research articles and research theses: Advanced academic literacy and relations of power. Journal of English for Academic Purposes 5 (2006) 19-36. Liu, M. & Braine, G. (2005) Cohesive features in argumentative writing produced by Chinese undergraduates. English for specific purposes 24 (2005) Rowley-Jolivet, E. & Carter-Thomas, S. (2005) Genre awareness and rhetorical appropriacy: Manipulation of information structure by NS and NNS scientists in the international conference setting. System 33 (2005) 41-64. Swales, J.M.. and Feak, C.B. (2004) Academic writing for graduate students: essential tasks and skills (2nd ed.). University of Michigan Press. Swales, J.M.. and Feak, C.B. (2001) English in Today's Research World: A Writing Guide. University of Michigan Press.
  84. 84. Fauconnier, G. (1997) Mappings in Thought and Language. Cambridge U. Press. Gentner, D., & Wolff, P.(1997). Alignment in the Processing of Metaphor. Journal of Memory and Language, 37, 331-355. Kurosawa, M., & Kawahara, T. (1999). An Experimental Study in Metaphor Comprehension. Bulletin of the Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo 39, 247-257. Kurosawa, M., & Kawahara, T. (1999). Alignment or Abstraction? Metaphor Comprehension in Japanese. Proceedings, Second International Conference on Cognitive Science. http://www.jcss.gr.jp/iccs99OLP/p3-19/p3-19.htm Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson 1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Mazuka, R. (1998) The Development of Language Strategies: a Cross-Linguistic Study Between Japanese and English. Erlbaum. Nisbett, R.E. (2003) The geography of thought. Free Press. Novak, J.D. (1998). Learning, creating and using knowledge: Concept map® as facilitative tools in schools and corporations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Sources: mapping and metaphor
  85. 85. Baddeley, A. D. & Hitch, G. (2001). Working memory in perspective: Foreword. In J. Andrade (Ed.), Working memory in perspective (pp. xv-xix). Hove: Psychology Press. Cañas, A. J., & Novak, J.D. (2006) Re-examining the foundations for effective use of concept maps. In Cañas, A. J., & Novak, J.D. (Eds.), Concept Maps: Theory, Methodology, Technology. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Concept Mapping. Cañas, A. J., Hill, G., Carff, R., Suri, N., Lott, J., Eskridge, T., Gomez, G., Arroyo, M. and Carvajal, R. (2004) Cmaptools: A knowledge modeling and sharing environment. Downloaded April 8, 2008 from http://cmc.ihmc.us/papers/cmc2004-283.pdf Chandler, P. and J. Sweller (1992) The split-attention effect as a factor in the design of instruction. British Journal of Educational Psychology 62: 233-246. Chun, D. M. and Plass, J. L. 1997. Research on text comprehension in multimedia environments. Language learning and technology 1(1): 60-81. Cmap tools. Institute for Human & Machine Cognition. http://cmap.ihmc.us/ Dansereau, D.F. (2005) Node-Link Mapping Principles for Visualizing Knowledge and Information. In Tergan, S. and Keller, T. (Eds.) Node-Link Mapping Principles for Visualizing Knowledge and Information. Springer. 61-81. Fulkerson, R. (1996) Teaching the argument in writing. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English. Goldman, S.R., & Rakestraw, J.A. (2000). Structural aspects of constructing meaning from text. In M.L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. II, pp. 311-335). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Gopen, G.D. and Swan, J.A. (1990) The Science of Scientific Writing. American Scientist (Nov-Dec 1990), Volume 78, 550-558. Downloadable as a pdf from http://www.amstat.org/publications/jcgs/sci.pdf Grow, G. (1996) Serving the strategic reader: cognitive reading theoryand its implications for the teaching of writing. Viewed June 30, 2007 at http://www.longleaf.net/ggrow/StrategicReader/index.html Horn, R. E. (1998) Visual Language: Global Communication for the 21st Century. Bainbridge Island, WA: MacroVU Press. http://www.macrovu.com
  86. 86. Hunter L. (2005) Technical Hypertext Accessibility: Information Structures and Rhetorical Framing. Presentation at HyperText 2005, Salzburg. http://www.lawriehunter.com/presns/%20HT05poster0818.htm Hunter, L. (2002) Information structure diagrams as link icons. Learning Technology 4(3) July 2002. ISSN 1438- 0625. 2002. http://lttf.ieee.org/learn_tech/issues/july2002/index.html#1 Hunter, L. (1998) Text nouveau, visible structure in text presentation. Computer Assisted Language Learning 11 (4) October 1998. Mann, B. (1999) An introduction to rhetorical structure theory (RST). http://www.sil.org/mannb/rst/rintro99.htm Moffett, J. (1992). Detecting growth in language. New Hampshire: Boynton/Cook. Mohan, B.A. (1986) Language and content. Addison-Wesley. Novak, J.D. and Cañas, A.J. (2006) The theory underlying concept maps and how to construct them. Report IHMC CmapTools 2006-01, Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC), 2006. Viewed April 8, 2008 at http://cmap.ihmc.us/Publications/ResearchPapers/TheoryCmaps/TheoryUnderlyingConceptMaps.htm Olive, Thierry (2004) Working memory in writing: Empirical evidence from the dual-task technique. European psychologist 9(1), pp. 32-42. Working paper downloaded from http://cat.inist.fr/? aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=15431008 Shannon, C.E., & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Explained at http://www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/introductory/sw.html Taboada, M. and Mann, W.C. (2006) Rhetorical Structure Theory: looking back and moving ahead. Discourse studies 8: 423-459 Tufte, E.R. (1990) Envisioning information. Cheshire, CONN: Graphics Press. Ueta, R., Hunter, L. & Ren, X. Text usability for non-native readers of English. Proceedings, Information Processing Society of Japan, Vol. 2003.7. Pp. 199-200.

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