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the aspects on connected speech


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the aspects on connected speech

  1. 1. R O K S A N A U M A R O V A G 1 2 1 5 0 8 6 Connected speech. Reduction, elision and secondary articulation.
  2. 2. Connected speech -  Spoken language as it is used in a continuous sequence, as in normal conversations.  Words flowing together to form a stream of speech that is different from the sum of individual words. Sounds are simplified and reduced and the energy profile is extended from individual words to groups of words, that is, from word stress, which is relatively fixed, to intonation (pitch) and prominence (emphasis) that is chosen by the speaker.
  4. 4. REDUCTION  The substitution of the weak central vowel (called schwa /ə/) in unstressed syllables.  Example:  Two or/ə/ three; a bit of/əv/ time
  5. 5. ELISION  the omission of certain sounds in certain contexts. The most important occurrences of this phenomenon regard:  1)Alveolar consonants /t/ and /d/ when „sandwiched‟ between two consonants (CONS – t/d – CONS), e.g.  The next day…. /ðə ˈneks ˈdeɪ/  The last car… /ðə ˈlɑ:s ˈkɑ:/  Hold the dog! /ˈhəʊl ðə ˈdɒg/  Send Frank a card. /sen ˈfræŋk ə ˈkɑ:d/
  6. 6. ELISION  This can also take place within affricates /t∫/ and /ʤ/ when preceded by a consonant, e.g.  lunchtime /ˈlʌntʃtaɪm/ - /ˈlʌnʃtaɪm/   strange days/ˈstreɪndʒˈdeɪz/ - /ˈstreɪnʒˈdeɪz/
  7. 7. ELISION  The elision of the phoneme /t/ in a fundamental part of the negative particle “not”. Followed by a consonant the /t/ may easily disappear  I can speak…. /aɪ kən ˈspi:k/  I can‟t speak… /aɪ ˈkɑ:n(t) ˈspi:k/
  8. 8. ELISION  2) A second form involves the omission of the schwa /ə/ before liquids /l/ and /r/, e.g.  secretary /ˈsekrət(ə)ri/  camera /ˈkæm(ə)rə/  memory /ˈmem(ə)ri/
  9. 9. SECONDARY ARTICULATION  When an approximant articulation occurs at the same time as another articulation is being made at different place in the vocal tract, the approximant is said to form a secondary articulation.
  10. 10. SECONDARY ARTICULATION, types:  1. labialization (look, root)  2. Palatalization (telephone, canyon)  3. Velarization (feel)
  11. 11. References  1.Aspects of connected speech. [online at e_19.htm]  2. Secondary articulation. Encyclopedia Britannica, 2010. [online at 55/phonetics/69023/Secondary-articulations  3. Phillip Carr. English Phonetics and Phonology: An Introduction. 2001. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.