Objectives• Clarify the use of criteria and selection process• List the uses of job analysis information• Describe the sources and ways of collecting job analysis information• Discuss the different job analysis methods• Describe the evidence for reliability and validity of job analysis methods• Explain how job evaluation is used to set salary levels for jobs
Selection• What is selection? – Using scientific methodology to choose one alternative (job candidate) over another. • Job Analysis • Measurement • Statistics• Why is selection important? – Decreases the likelihood of hiring “bad” employees – Increases the likelihood that people will be treated fairly when hiring decisions are made • Reduces discrimination • Reduces likelihood of discrimination lawsuits• What do I/O psychologists need to know about selection? – How to select predictors of job performance (criteria problem) – How to accurately indentify and validate predictors for specific jobs (job analysis) • Rely on cognitive and personality variables – How to reliably and validly measure these predictors – How to use these predictors to make selection decisions
Criteria• Standards used to help make evaluative judgments about objects, people, or events.Example: What is good Teaching? Student A: Preparedness, Relevance, Clarity Student B: Enthusiasm, Inspiration, AbilityNote: There is a need to level-off or agree in one general criteria to define the context of ‘good teaching’
Criteria• Criteria - standards used to judge the quality of (discriminate among) alternatives.• For I/O psychologists, this means judging the quality of employees, programs, and units in the organization
Points to Ponder• Values and taste also dictate people’s choice of criteria.• Even people who use the same standards in making judgements do not always reach the same conclusion.
Conceptual vs Actual Criteria• Conceptual Criterion – The theoritical standard that researchers seek to understand through their research. – An abstract idea that can never be actually be measured.• Actual Criterion – The operational or actual standard of measure or assess. – Served as measure of the conceptual criteria.
Criteria of College StudentConceptual Criteria Actual CriteriaIntellectual Growth Grade point average or QPIEmotional Growth Adviser rating of emotional maturityCitizenship Number of volunteer organization joined in college
CRITERION DEFICIENCYConceptual Criterion CRITERION RELEVANCE Actual Criterion CRITERION CONTAMINATION
• Criterion Deficiency: The degree to which the actual criteria fail to overlap the criteria – that is, how deficient the actual criteria are in representing the conceptual ones.• Criterion Relevance: The degree to which the actual criteria and the conceptual critria coincide.• Criterion Contamination: The part of the actual criteria that is unrelated to the conceptual criteria.
Issue: Good College StudentIntellectual Growth What If: Student A know nothing about the subject while student B has prior knowledge. By the end of the learning period, student A might gained more Grade intellectual knowledge but point student B might get a higher grade since he knew the topic Average at hand. Therefore, using GPA as our criterion would falsely conclude which student grew more intellectually.
Citizenship number of Volunteer Org.joined in College
Example: College Success Extra- curricular Involvement MorallyPhysically Have latest Co-curricular Up-right gadgets Involvement Healthy College Spiritually Developed Sucess Emotional Stable Travel Positive Abroad Numerous Above Self- Relationship Average QPI Esteem (BF/GF)
Classification of Criteria I/O Psychologists try to Judgements quantifiable More easily made about choose criteria that assess employees performance Production performance excellence. general factor touchdowns Number of (effectiveness) Number of units Criteria are typically classified in one of two ways specific factors produced Sales quantity of work Objective quality of work Tenure/Turnover Subjective voluntariness Note: More complex jobs requirefunctionality for more criteria Absenteeism effective evaluation Accidents Theft
Illegal Criteria Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act prohibits using selection practices that have an unequal impact on members of a different: Race Color Sex Religion National Origin
Types of Illegal Discrimination Disparate Treatment (Opportunities) Discrimination decisions based on one of five prohibited categories Disparate Impact (Outcomes) Illegal discrimination is any practice (without a business justification) that has unequal consequences for members of protected groups. Roger Parloff, Fortune senior editor: Though disparate treatment and disparate impact cases are both aimed at eradicating the same thing, there is potential tension between them. The goal of disparate treatment cases is to guarantee every worker equal opportunity, but not equal outcomes. The focus of disparate impact cases is on equal outcomes. If one pursues equal outcomes too single-mindedly, one can compromise the principle of equal opportunity by inducing the use of quotas.
Determining Disparate Impact The 4/5thsapplicants 100 male Rule 50 female applicants Disparate impact occurs if the selection ratio for any minority group is less than 4/5ths of the* selection ratio 20 males selected 50 .16 = 8 of the majority group 20/100 = .20 At least 8 females should be selected .20 * 4/5ths(.80) = .16At least 16% of people from minority group should be selected using agiven procedure.
Summary Criteria Reliable and valid predictors of job performance. All criteria suffer from: Deficiency Contamination Criteria typically classified as: Objective Subjective These labels can be misleading There are several illegal criteria There are two types of illegal discrimination Disparate treatment Disparate impact
Our Textbook: Definition• Job analysis – A formal procedure by w/c the content of a job is defined in terms of tasks performed and human qualifications needed to perform the job. – Harvey (1991) definition: the collection of data describing observable job behaviors performed by workers, including both what is accomplished as well as what technologies are employed to accomplish the end results, and verifiable characteristics of the job environment w/ w/c workers interact, including physical , mechanical, social, and informational elements. – A procedure useful in identifying the criteria or performance dimensions of job.
What Is Job Analysis?• Job analysis is the method for describing jobs and/ or the human attributes necessary to perform them – The procedure must be systematic – A job is broken into smaller units – The analysis results in some written product, either electronic or on paper – Job analysis techniques can be used to collect information that job oriented or person oriented, depending on the purpose of the job analyst• The Job-oriented Approach – Provides information about the nature of tasks does on the job • Describes common features that cut across tasks that provide a picture of what people do on a job
What Is Job Analysis?– Tasks can be divided into a hierarchy in which higher-level descriptions are broken down into smaller pieces of the job– Levine (1983) divides the major functions of job into 4 levels of specificity: • 1. Duty 2. Tasks 3. Activity 4. Element – Duty is a major component of a job » Accomplished by performing one or more associated tasks – Task is a complete piece of work that accomplishes some particular objective – Task can be divided into activities which are the individual parts that make up the task – To accomplish this activity, a number of very specific actions, or elements are involved– Contain a great deal of very specific information about what happens on a particular job– The level of job actions produces a long and detailed report
What Is Job Analysis?• The Person-Oriented Approach – Description of the attributes, characteristics or KSAOs necessary for a person to perform a particular job successfully – KSAOs are the knowledge, skills, abilities and other personal characteristics necessary for a job • First 3 characteristics mainly on job performance itself • Other relate to job adjustment and satisfaction • Knowledge is what a person needs to know to do a particular job • Skill is what a person is able to do an the job • Ability is a person’s aptitude or capability to do job tasks or learn to do job tasks • Other personal characteristics relevant to the job that is not covered by the other three – KSAO is an attribute or characteristic that a person needs in order to do a particular task or tasks
Purposes of Job Analysis?• Career Development – Career ladder- a progression of position is established for individuals who acquire the necessary skills and maintain good job performance – Not everyone climbs to the top of the ladder • Limited opportunities for promotion and inability to achieve the necessary KSAOs – Job analysis provide a picture of the KSAO requirements for jobs at each level of career ladder• Legal Issues – Laws prohibiting discriminatory employment practices, especially in the hiring of employees – Job analysis provides a list of relevant KSAOs that can be used as the basis for hiring in place of irrelevant personal characteristics – Legal concept in US employment is that of essential function, which is an action that must be done on a job, especially deciding whether to hire a person with a disability
Purposes of Job Analysis? – The nonessntial function ia an action that might be done occasionally, but is not important for a person in that position to do – Job analysis is used to identify essential functions and KSAOs and thus can help ensure that decision affecting people are based on personal factors that are job relevant – When KSAOs are derived from a properly conducted job analysis, employer actions based on those KSAOs are likely to be legal• Performance Appraisal – A well-designed performance appraisal system will be used on a job analysis – Job-oriented analysis provides a list of the major components of a job, which can be used as dimensions for performance evaluation – The behavior-focused performance appraisal methods are based on a job analysis
Purposes of Job Analysis? – Critical incidents that represent different levels of job performance, from outstanding to poor • The good incident would describe something a person did that worked well• Selection – Person-oriented job analysis should be the first step in the design of an employee- selection system – KSAOs for a job are identified, procedures can be chosen to determine how well job applications fit the requirements for the job – A person-oriented job analysis produces a list of KSAOs for a particular job • Expected to have at the time of hiring • Characteristics that will be developed on the job through experience and training• Training – KSAOs that applicants do not have when they apply for a position are areas for training after they are hired
Purposes of Job Analysis? – Training program is based on a through analysis of the KSAO requirements for a job – Training efforts might be directed if the characteristics can be acquired• Research – An additional use of job analysis information is in research – Determine the role of job requirements or task characteristics in organizational phenomena – Ranging from employee motivation and performance to health and safety
Sources of Job Analysis Info?• Who provides the information? – SME (Subject Matter Experts) – Job analysis information comes from one of four sources: a. Job analysts c. Supervisors b. Job incumbents d. Trained observers – Job analysts and trained observes actually do the job or spend time observing employees doing job and translate those experiences into a job analysis – Incumbents and supervisors are considered subject-matter experts, people with detailed knowledge about the content and requirements of their own jobs or the jobs that they supervise
Sources of Job Analysis Info?• How do people provide job analysis information? – Perform Job • Benefits: – The job analyst can perform the tasks as an employee would or under simulated conditions – The analyst gains insight into the nature of the tasks and how they interrelate – Provides an apperception for the context in which people do their jobs • Not often used: – Experiencing the job by doing it can be costly and time-consuming – Some jobs are dangerous, particularly for an inexperienced person – Dose not clearly indicate that tasks can differ among employees with the same job title – Observe • Collect information about a job is to observe people doing it • Observing employees can give insights into the context in which job tasks are performed • It can also be expensive and time-consuming
Sources of Job Analysis Info?– Interview • Interviewing subject-matter experts who are familiar with the job • Interviews are carried out by job analysts or trained interviewers • Used to generate listed of all tasks and activities done by everyone who has the same job title • Other tasks might be performed by every employee, but only on race occasions– Questionnaire • Most efficient means of collecting job analysis information • No other technique can provide as much information about jobs with as little effort on the part of the job analyst– Multiple methods • Often used so that the limitations of one are offset by the strengths of another
Methods Job Analysis?• Job Components Inventory (JCI) – Allows for the simultaneous assessment of the job requirements and person’s KSAOs – The inventory includes KSAOs for both jobs and individuals – 5 components of job features are represented: • Use of tool and equipment • Perceptual and physical requirements • Mathematics • Communication • Decision making and responsibility• Functional Job Analysis – Provides both a description of a job and scores in several dimensions for the job and potential workers – Procedure can be used to make comparisons among jobs
Methods Job Analysis?• Occupational Information Network – Is a computer-based resource for job-related information on approximately 1,100 groups of jobs sharing common characteristics – Occupation characteristics deal with other kinds of information are concerned with characteristic of job tasks – Look up a particular job and get a description and detailed information about 6 domains• Position Analysis Questionnaire – Contains 189 items dealing with the task requirements or elements of jobs – The elements of the PAQ are general and allow comparisons of different jobs on a common set of dimensions or KSAOs
Methods Job Analysis? – Cover a wide variety of task requirements • The inputting and processing of information • The use of equipment and tools • General body movement • Interpersonal interaction • Work context – PAQ generates a standard list of KSAOs, jobs can be compared on their KSAO requirements• Task inventions – Is a questionnaire that contains a list of specific tasks that might be done on the job that is being analyzed – Rating might be made on dimensions: • Amount of time spent doing the task • Critically of the task for doing a good job • Difficulty of learning the task • Important of the task
Methods Job Analysis?• Combination Job Analysis Method (C-JAM) – Both interviews and questionnaires to collect information about KSAOs and tasks – Produces a detailed picture of the KSAOs for a job and the task performed• Choosing a Job Analysis Method – Job analysis experts to rate the effectiveness of seven job analysis methods for 11 purposes – Choice of method requires consideration of several factors, including cost and purpose
Our Textbook: Job Analysis ProcedureJob Family CLERICALJob Secretary Receptionist Data Entry Person 1: Person 2: Person 3: Person 4: Person 5: Person 6:Position Task A, B, C Task A, B, C Task D, E, F Task D, E, F Task G, H, I Task G, H, I A. Types D. Answers G. Enters data correspondence telephone H. Updates filesTask B. Schedule meetings E. Greets Visitors I. Reconciles C. Takes dictation F. Maintains register statements
Our Textbook: Job Analysis Procedure• Task Oriented Procedure – A procedure or set of operations in job analysis designed to identify important or frequently performed tasks as a means of understanding the work performed.• Functional Job Analysis – A method of job analysis that describes the content of jobs in terms of PEOPLE, DATA, THINGS.• Worker-oriented procedure – A procedure or set of operations in the job analysis designed to identify important or frequently utilized human attributes as a means of understanding the work performed. The use of KSAOs.
Our Textbook:Job Analysis Collection of Information• Interviews (SMEs)• Direct Observation• Questionnaires or inventories • Taxonomy • Position Analysis Questionnaire • Occupational Information Network
Reliability and Validity of Job Analysis Information• Reliability – Test-retest reliabilities ranged from 0.68 to 0.90 – Reasonably consistent in their job analysis rating when they repeated them over time – Correlations among rating of different people ranged from 0.46 to 0.79• Validity – The best evidence for the validity of job analysis comes from studies that compared different methods or sources information – Job analysis ratings might be less valid than I/O psychologists usually assume – Need to improve job analysis procedures, the various methods are important tools used by I/O psychologists
Choosing Predictors of Job Performance When selecting new employees, I/O psychologists use criteria that will identify effective on-the-job performancePerformance = (KSA)*Motivation – Situational Constraints Performance is a function of the following: Knowledge Skills Abilities Motivation Situational Constraints
Job Analysis Describes: the tasks that are performed type of work tools used working conditions human qualities (KSAOs or competencies) needed to perform the work Tells us what tasks people do and the knowledge, skills and abilities they need to accomplish those tasks.
Purposes of Job Analysis Recruiting Career development What does it take to move up? Legal defense Essential functions: What tasks must be done? Performance appraisal Selection What sorts of people should we hire? Training What knowledge and skills are needed? Research
Person-Oriented Job Analysis KSAO’s (for a carpenter) Knowledge: Have information to do a task Skill: Practiced act or behavior. Ability: Stable capacity to do task. Other personal characteristics: personality, interests, etc.
Examples Of KSAOs For Different Occupations Job Knowledge Skill Ability Other Personal CharacteristicsLawyer Constitutional Writing clearly Communica- Willingness to rights tion work long hoursNurse Surgical Drawing blood Remain calm Lack of procedures in a crisis squeamishness in the sight of bloodPlumber Pipe design Soldering Hand-eye Willingness to joints coordination get dirtyPolice Knowledge of Writing clearly Vigilence Willingness toOfficer legal arrest risk personal procedures safety
Hiring the Best Job: College Professor What are the major duties of a college professor? What tasks are performed to complete each duty Develop a set of KSAO’s necessary for these tasks. should be useable for recruiting and evaluating Challenges? What other information would you want? How would you get it?
Data Collection Approaches Questionnaire Who do you collect data diaries from? Interview critical incidents Subject Matter Experts Observation -incumbent Analyst does work -supervisor -co-worker
Occasions for Formal Job Analysis Major Restructuring afterdramatic growth downsizing new positions Large Selection Procedure Dramatic changes in technology Passage of Time
Job Evaluation• Refers to a family of quantitative techniques that used to determine the salary levels of jobs• Job evaluation determines are relative salaries for different jobs by mathematically combining job information• Point method – First, a panel determines the compensable factors for the job – Second, a panel judges the degree to which each job has each compensable factor • Quantitative scale so that each job has each compensable factor – Third, the points for the factors are summed for each job – Fourth and final, the plot the actual salaries for each job against the point totals for each job – The point system is just one of many different job evaluation methods
Job Evaluation• Comparable Worth – Used to demonstrate pay discrimination against women – Means that different but comparable jobs should be paid the same • Held predominantly by women contribution as much to the organization as jobs held primarily by men, the salaries for the jobs should be the same – Using the mathematical procedures to calculate how much adjustment each of the underpaid jobs should receive • Might undervalue lower-paid predominantly women-held jobs and overvalue the higher-paid, predominantly men-held jobs
Future Issues and Challenges• Job analysis is one of the most frequently used tools of practicing I/O psychologists – Concerned with developing new methods rather than with the validity of old methods• Rater training is another area of possible research – Better understanding of how people make their ratings would suggest useful ways of training raters• Increased call for organizations to keep their employee actions, such as promotions and selection – Ensured that decisions about whom to hire or promote will be based on the KSAOs for a job• Electronic tools in conducting job analysis – More accurate picture of the time spent in various activities• More focus on describing competencies rather than on what are often minimum KSAO requirements found in a typical job analysis
Our Textbook: Job Evaluation• Job Evaluation – A procedure for assessing the relative value of jobs in an organization for the purpose of establishing levels of compensation.• External Equity – A theoretical concept that is the basis for using wage and salary surveys in establishing compensation rate.
Our Textbook: Job Evaluation• Internal Equity – A theoretical concept that is the basis for using job evaluation in establishing compensation rate.• Compensable Factor – A dimension of work used to assess the relative value of a job for determining compensation rates. – In practice: Effort, Skills, responsibility, working condition – Others: Know-how, problem solving, accountability, additional compensable elements
Our Textbook: Job Performance Criteria• Objective Performance Criteria – A set of factors used to assess job performance that are (relatively) objective or factual in character.• Subjective Performance Criteria – A set of factors used to assess job performance that are product of someone’s (e.g. supervisor, peer, customer) subjective rating of these factors.
Objectives• To increase your understanding of psych testing and its use in the workplace, including: – The benefits of using psych testing – How psych tests can be most effectively used in the selection and development process – The types of tests available – The limitations of psych tests
• What is testing?• Why do we have so many tests?• What are the pros and cons to testing?• How can we use testing to improve . . .?• What types of tests do we take?
Psychological Testing• A psychological test is a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behavior that is used to measure the individual differences that exist among people.
Types of Psychological Testing• There are two types of Psychological tests. –Mental Ability tests –Personality tests
Why use tests?• Psychological tests are used in research, however, most serve a practical purpose.
Mental Ability Tests• Includes three subcategories. –Intelligence tests –Aptitude tests –Achievement tests
Intelligence tests • Measure general mental abilities. They are intended to measure intellectual potential.
Examples• Emily is four years old. Her big sister Amy is three times as old as Emily. How old will Amy be when she is twice as old as Emily?• WOLF is to FLOW as 8526 is to: 2856 - 6258 - 5862 - 5682 - 6852
Examples• Hanger is to closet as tree is to: Branch - Bushes - Forest - Ground - Nest• What would be the next number in this series? 15 ... 12 ... 13 ... 10 ... 11 ... 8 ... ?
Aptitude tests• Assess talent for specific kinds of learning. (clerical speed, mechanical reasoning, etc.)
Examples• Are You a Self-Starter?• Climbing the ladder would bring a load of responsibility and pressure that I wouldnt want to carry.• If my boss or supervisor told me I were being promoted, the fact that they had so much confidence in my abilities would:
Achievement tests • Gauge a person’s mastery and knowledge of various subjects
Examples• Who was the 43rd President of the United States?• What is 5x6 divided by 2?• How many branches of Government exist in the U.S.?
Personality Tests• Measure aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values, and attitudes.
Examples • Do you become upset when. . ? • Do you feel like you lose control when. .? • Are you happy when . . ?
In our TextBook• Speed Test vs. Power Test• Individual Test vs. Group Test• Pen & Paper Test vs. Performance Test
Test Design• In order for a test to be accurate, it must meet the three standards below. – Standardization – Validity – Reliability
Standardization• Standardization refers to the uniform procedures used in administrating and scoring a test.• Test norms: information used to rank scores in relation to other scores on the test.• Can you think of examples
Validity• Examples• What psychologist • Refers to the promoted ability of a test introspection?• Who developed the to measure four mechanisms for what it was dreaming? designed to• What school of psychology does measure. Skinner belong to?
ValidityConstruct Validity• Degree to w/c a test is accurate and faithful measure of the construct it purports to measure.Criterion-related Validity• The degree to w/c a test forecasts or is statistically related to a criterion.
ValidityValidity Coefficient• A statistical index that reveals the degree of association between two variables. Often used in the context of prediction.Content Validity• The degree to w/c subject matter experts agree that the items in a test are a representative sample of the domain of knowledge the test purports to measure.
ValidityFace Validity• The appearance that items in a test are appropriate for the intended use of the test by the individuals who take the test.
Reliability • Example• Reliability • You take a personality refers to the test and are scored as measurement “assertive”. Three weeks later you take consistency of a the same test and are test (or other scored as “passive”. A drastic change is techniques). probably a result of an unreliable test.
Testing ReliabilityTest-retest–Comparing subjects’ scores on two administrations of a test.Correlation Coefficient–A numerical index of the degree of relationship (-1, +1)
Testing ReliabilityEquivalent-form–Reveals the equivalence of test scores between two versions or forms of the test.Internal-consistency–Reveals the homogeneity of the items comprising a test.
Testing ReliabilityInter-rater –Reveals the degree of agreement among the assessments of two or more raters.
Think!• Why do we have so many tests?• How can we use testing to improve . . .?• How does psychological testing apply to school, careers, sports, etc?
Ethical Standards• Invasion of Privacy – a condition associated w/ testing pertaining to asking of questions on a test that are unrelated to the test’s intent or are inherently intrusive to the test taker.• Confidentiality - a condition associated w/ testing pertaining to w/c parties have access to test results.
Test Content (Major types of construct)• Intelligence Test• Mechanical Aptitude Test• Sensory/Motor Ability Test• Personality Inventories• Integrity Test• Physical Abilities Test• Multiple-Aptitude Test Batteries• Computerized Adaptive Testing
Other methods• Interviews (Unstructured vs. Structured)• Situational Interviews (Experience based vs situational questions)• Work Samples• Situational Exercise• Biographical Information• Letter of Recommendation• Drug Testing
ControversyThe use of the following test…• Polygraphy or Lie Detection• Graphology• Emotional Intelligence
Four major standard in selecting a test• Validity• Fairness• Applicability• Cost
By the way…• What is the difference between psych testing and psych assessment or evaluation?• What are the general reasons of the use of psychological tests?