China: Political Development


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Transition from Chinese Imperialism to Communism.

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China: Political Development

  1. 1. : Roy Vincent Guardados
  2. 2. China’s Political Development Ancient China Shang Dynasty (1523- 1028 BC) - Aristocracy Zhou Dynasty (1027- 250 BCE) - Early Feudal System - Taoism and Confucianism
  3. 3. China’s Political Development Qin Dynasty (221- 207 BCE) - Adopted Legalism - Highly Centralized Government Han Dynasty (202 BCE- 221 CE) - Legalism to Confucianism - Introduced Civil Service Examination - Warlords control China - no centralized gov’t
  4. 4. China’s Political Development Tang Dynasty (618- 907 CE) - Rebuilt Bureaucracy - Examination System - Confucian Education - Limited Social Mobility - Weak Emperors Song Dynasty - Large centralized Bureaucracy (Neo- Confu)
  5. 5. China’s Political Development Yuan Dynasty  (1279- 1368 CE) - Kublai Kahn Conquered China - Open to economic Trade The Silk Road
  6. 6. China’s Political Development Ming Dynasty (1368- 1644 CE) - Tried to erase all Mongol sign - Reinstated Civil Service - Collapse due to Imperial Extravagance
  7. 7. Qing Dynasty OPIUM WAR
  8. 8. Opium War  Trade frictions grew with the European powers, especially Britain.  the Chinese had little need for anything more than silver from the West, selling porcelain, silk, and tea in return.  Eventually the British began illegally importing Indian opium into China.  The Qing government moved to halt the illegal trade by burning confiscated opium.
  9. 9. Qing Dynasty Treaty of Nanjing -First of the unequal treaties between China and foreign imperialist powers. - China paid the British an indemnity. - China agreed to establish a fair and reasonable tariffs.
  10. 10. Qing Dynasty Taiping Rebellion ~Peasants were upset that foreigners were treated differently (they were given special privileges) ~Resented Chinese Christians
  11. 11. From Qing, to
  12. 12. The Turning Point  By the End of 19th Century  Serious Changes must be made.
  13. 13. 1911 - Sun Yixian (Sun Yat-Sen) leads his Kuomintang (Guomintang) or ___________ Party and overthrows the Qing Dynasty. Develops ____________________________: 1. ______________- overthrow weak government and unite all Chinese under a strong centralized government. 2. _______________- Use constitutional government: equality for all and elected officials. 3. _______________- Give fair and equal ownership of land so all Chinese live well. Nationalist Three Principles of the People NationalismDemocracy Livelihood
  14. 14. 1916 - Nationalist Party has trouble controlling warlords and loses power.
  15. 15. An Unlikely Alliance In a hope for common action the Nationalists (Kuomintang) turn to the Communists Mao Zedong…
  16. 16. 1921 - Communist Party formed - Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) leads Communist party which is influenced by __________ and ______________. Their goal was to take over the government and create a centralized government to regulate the agricultural output, education, and society. Mao believed the peasants were most important and sought to distribute land equally to all. Karl Marx Vladimir Lenin
  17. 17. The 1st Great Leap Forward  Expand the success of the 5 year plans  Communes-collective farms  15,000 acres and 25,000 people  Communal living
  18. 18. Giant step backward  Poor planning and inefficient industry  Ended in 1961 after crop failure caused famine that killed 20 million people
  19. 19. The 2nd Great Leap Forward  Says failures from ’55 because he wasn’t bold enough…  Collectives build public works projects  Mao’s attempt to catch up with the rest of the world
  20. 20. 1949 - With the wide and mass support of the peasants and workers, Mao Zedong defeats Jiang Jieshi and creates ___________________ ________. The Nationalists flee mainland China to Taiwan, creating Two Chinas. Communists create a one-party state led by Mao Zedong - Begin Reforms: 1. All resources are directed toward political, social, and economic growth 2. Improved medical supplies and hospitals 3. Schools built 4. Regulation of all media (press, writing, speech, etc.) the Peoples Republic of China
  21. 21. The Cultural Revolution (mid 1966)  Eradicate the remains of so-called bourgeois ideas and Customs.  Increase his power over the government by discrediting or removing party leaders who had challenged his authority or disagreed with his Policy
  22. 22. “Learn Revolution by Making Revolution”  Mao felt new policies weakened Communist goal of social equality  Millions of high school and college students left classrooms and formed militia units called the Red Guards  Wanted to revive the revolution in 1966
  23. 23. The Red Guards •the Red Guards traveled throughout China, going to schools, universities, and institutions, spreading the teachings of Mao. •Many were violent and oppressive to those who went against the teachings of Mao or criticized him. •The role of Red Guard was mainly to attack the "Four Olds" of society, old ideas, cultures, manners, and customs of China at the time.
  24. 24. The Cultural Revolution  New Hero: peasants who worked with their hands  Intellectual activity and art: useless and dangerous  Schools and colleges: shut down  Resistance to the regime:  Purification in hard labor camps  Execution  Imprisonment
  25. 25. Four Modernizations Agriculture Military Technology Equipments
  26. 26.  Clunas, Craig, et al. "China." Microsoft® Encarta® 2009 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2008.  N.S Gill. (n.d). Dynasties of Ancient China. In Retrieved August 12, 2013, from Dynasties033009.htm.