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Bio electronics devices
By
Rohit kumar
M.Tech (LEOC)
Content
• Introduction
• History
• Bioelectronics
• Biosensor
• Application
• pacemaker
Introduction
• The integration of biomolecules with
electronic elements to form multifunctional
devices
• For real time di...
History
• The first reference to bioelectronics, published in
1912, focused on measurement of electrical
signals generated...
Bioelectronics
• bioelectronics is the application of electronics
to problems in biology, medicine, and security.
• This i...
Biosensors
• Functional devices can successfully convert
(bio)chemical information into electronic one by means
of an appr...
Application
• The integration of biomaterials with electronic
elements, such as electrodes, chips and
transistors, yields ...
Pacemaker
• A pacemaker is a small device that's placed in the chest or
abdomen to help control abnormal heart rhythms. Th...
Heart Electrical System
• heart has its own internal electrical system that controls the rate and
rhythm of heart beat
• W...
Components of Pacemaker
Components of Pacemaker
• Battery:
• the pacemaker battery is the power supply. It is a
small, sealed, lithium battery, th...
• Case:
the battery and circuitry are sealed inside a
metal case.
• Connector block:
the plastic (epoxy) connector, which ...
• The lead
• The pacing lead is an insulated wire that carries the
electrical impulse to the heart, and carries informatio...
How Pacemaker Works
• A pacemaker has two essential tasks: pacing
and sensing
• Pacing means that the pacemaker paces the
...
What types of pacing there
• Depending on your heart condition, your doctor
will prescribe which chambers should be paced....
Types of pacing Continued....
• In dual chamber pacing, the pacemaker senses
(monitors) electrical activity in both the
at...
Thank You
Bioelectronics devices
Bioelectronics devices
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Bioelectronics devices

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Bioelectronics devices

  1. 1. Bio electronics devices By Rohit kumar M.Tech (LEOC)
  2. 2. Content • Introduction • History • Bioelectronics • Biosensor • Application • pacemaker
  3. 3. Introduction • The integration of biomolecules with electronic elements to form multifunctional devices • For real time diagnostic and monitoring of diseases has driven wonderful developments in sensors and particularly in biosensors. • Biosensor can integrate portable and implantable devices and be used in biological and biomedical systems.
  4. 4. History • The first reference to bioelectronics, published in 1912, focused on measurement of electrical signals generated by the body, which is the basis of the electrocardiogram • In the 1960s two new trends in bioelectronics began to appear. One trend, enabled by the invention of the transistor, centered on the development of implantable electronic devices and systems to stimulate organs, e.g., the pacemaker
  5. 5. Bioelectronics • bioelectronics is the application of electronics to problems in biology, medicine, and security. • This includes electronics for both detection and characterization of biological materials, such as on the cellular and subcellular level. • Bioelectronics also focuses on physically interfacing electronic devices with biological systems (e.g., brain-machine, cell-electrode, or protein-electrode).
  6. 6. Biosensors • Functional devices can successfully convert (bio)chemical information into electronic one by means of an appropriate transducer which contains specific molecular recognition structure • Enzymes are well-known biological sensing materials used in the development of biosensors due to their specific nature • enzyme-free biosensors have been actively developed owing to their simple fabrication, stability and reproducible characteristics • Nanostructures can provide optimal composite electrode materials for high-performance enzyme-free biosensors.
  7. 7. Application • The integration of biomaterials with electronic elements, such as electrodes, chips and transistors, yields hybrid systems that may function as biofuel cells, biosensors, and biocomputing devices. • Bioelectronic devices have huge scientific and practical importance for basic science as well as for possible applications in medicine, the high-tech industry, the military, etc
  8. 8. Pacemaker • A pacemaker is a small device that's placed in the chest or abdomen to help control abnormal heart rhythms. This device uses electrical pulses to prompt the heart to beat at a normal rate. • Pacemakers are used to treat arrhythmias. Arrhythmias are problems with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat. During an arrhythmia, the heart can beat too fast, too slow, or with an irregular rhythm • During an arrhythmia, the heart may not be able to pump enough blood to the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue (tiredness), shortness of breath, or fainting. Severe arrhythmias can damage the body's vital organs and may even cause loss of consciousness or death
  9. 9. Heart Electrical System • heart has its own internal electrical system that controls the rate and rhythm of heart beat • With each heartbeat, an electrical signal spreads from the top of your heart to the bottom. As the signal travels, it causes the heart to contract and pump blood. • Each electrical signal normally begins in a group of cells called the sinus node or sinoatrial (SA) node. As the signal spreads from the top of the heart to the bottom, it coordinates the timing of heart cell activity. • First, the heart's two upper chambers, the atria (AY-tree-uh), contract. This contraction pumps blood into the heart's two lower chambers, the ventricles (VEN-trih-kuls). The ventricles then contract and pump blood to the rest of the body. The combined contraction of the atria and ventricles is a heartbeat.
  10. 10. Components of Pacemaker
  11. 11. Components of Pacemaker • Battery: • the pacemaker battery is the power supply. It is a small, sealed, lithium battery, that will generally last for many years (the average battery lifetime is 8 years). The energy from the battery is delivered as tiny electrical impulses that stimulate the heart. • Circuitry: • the circuitry is a kind of miniature computer inside the pacemaker. It controls the timing and intensity of the electrical impulses delivered to the heart.
  12. 12. • Case: the battery and circuitry are sealed inside a metal case. • Connector block: the plastic (epoxy) connector, which lies on top of the pacemaker's metal case, provides the connection between the pacemaker and the lead(s).
  13. 13. • The lead • The pacing lead is an insulated wire that carries the electrical impulse to the heart, and carries information about the heart’s natural activity back to the pacemaker. One end of the lead is connected to the connector block. The other end is usually inserted through a vein and placed in the right ventricle or the right atrium. Either one or two leads are used depending on the type of pacemaker. At a heart rate of 70 beats per minute, the lead will bend about 100,000 times a day! Therefore, leads are extremely flexible and strong, so that they can withstand the twisting and bending caused by movement of the body and of the beating heart.
  14. 14. How Pacemaker Works • A pacemaker has two essential tasks: pacing and sensing • Pacing means that the pacemaker paces the heart in case the heart’s own rhythm is interrupted, irregular, or too slow • Sensing means that the pacemaker monitors the heart’s natural electrical activity. If a pacemaker senses a natural heartbeat it will not stimulate the heart.
  15. 15. What types of pacing there • Depending on your heart condition, your doctor will prescribe which chambers should be paced. Pacemakers are designed for either (rate responsive) single chamber or (rate responsive) dual chamber pacing • In single chamber pacing, either the right atrium or the right ventricle is paced. Only one lead is used. The pacemaker senses (monitors) electrical activity in either the atrium or the ventricle and determines whether or not pacing is needed.
  16. 16. Types of pacing Continued.... • In dual chamber pacing, the pacemaker senses (monitors) electrical activity in both the atrium and the ventricle and determines whether or not pacing is needed. Dual chamber pacemakers help the upper and lower chambers of your heart to beat in their natural sequence. This way, a paced heartbeat mimics a natural heartbeat.
  17. 17. Thank You

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