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Bio electronics devices
• The integration of biomolecules with
electronic elements to form multifunctional
• For real time diagnostic and monitoring of
diseases has driven wonderful developments
in sensors and particularly in biosensors.
• Biosensor can integrate portable and
implantable devices and be used in biological
and biomedical systems.
• The first reference to bioelectronics, published in
1912, focused on measurement of electrical
signals generated by the body, which is the basis
of the electrocardiogram
• In the 1960s two new trends in bioelectronics
began to appear. One trend, enabled by the
invention of the transistor, centered on the
development of implantable electronic devices
and systems to stimulate organs, e.g., the
• bioelectronics is the application of electronics
to problems in biology, medicine, and security.
• This includes electronics for both detection
and characterization of biological materials,
such as on the cellular and subcellular level.
• Bioelectronics also focuses on physically
interfacing electronic devices with biological
systems (e.g., brain-machine, cell-electrode,
• Functional devices can successfully convert
(bio)chemical information into electronic one by means
of an appropriate transducer which contains specific
molecular recognition structure
• Enzymes are well-known biological sensing materials
used in the development of biosensors due to their
• enzyme-free biosensors have been actively developed
owing to their simple fabrication, stability and
• Nanostructures can provide optimal composite
electrode materials for high-performance enzyme-free
• The integration of biomaterials with electronic
elements, such as electrodes, chips and
transistors, yields hybrid systems that may
function as biofuel cells, biosensors, and
• Bioelectronic devices have huge scientific and
practical importance for basic science as well
as for possible applications in medicine, the
high-tech industry, the military, etc
• A pacemaker is a small device that's placed in the chest or
abdomen to help control abnormal heart rhythms. This
device uses electrical pulses to prompt the heart to beat at
a normal rate.
• Pacemakers are used to treat arrhythmias. Arrhythmias are
problems with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat. During
an arrhythmia, the heart can beat too fast, too slow, or with
an irregular rhythm
• During an arrhythmia, the heart may not be able to pump
enough blood to the body. This can cause symptoms such
as fatigue (tiredness), shortness of breath, or fainting.
Severe arrhythmias can damage the body's vital organs and
may even cause loss of consciousness or death
Heart Electrical System
• heart has its own internal electrical system that controls the rate and
rhythm of heart beat
• With each heartbeat, an electrical signal spreads from the top of your
heart to the bottom. As the signal travels, it causes the heart to contract
and pump blood.
• Each electrical signal normally begins in a group of cells called the sinus
node or sinoatrial (SA) node. As the signal spreads from the top of the
heart to the bottom, it coordinates the timing of heart cell activity.
• First, the heart's two upper chambers, the atria (AY-tree-uh), contract. This
contraction pumps blood into the heart's two lower chambers, the
ventricles (VEN-trih-kuls). The ventricles then contract and pump blood to
the rest of the body. The combined contraction of the atria and ventricles
is a heartbeat.
Components of Pacemaker
Components of Pacemaker
• the pacemaker battery is the power supply. It is a
small, sealed, lithium battery, that will generally last for
many years (the average battery lifetime is 8 years).
The energy from the battery is delivered as tiny
electrical impulses that stimulate the heart.
• the circuitry is a kind of miniature computer inside the
pacemaker. It controls the timing and intensity of the
electrical impulses delivered to the heart.
the battery and circuitry are sealed inside a
• Connector block:
the plastic (epoxy) connector, which lies on
top of the pacemaker's metal case, provides
the connection between the pacemaker and
• The lead
• The pacing lead is an insulated wire that carries the
electrical impulse to the heart, and carries information
about the heart’s natural activity back to the pacemaker.
One end of the lead is connected to the connector block.
The other end is usually inserted through a vein and placed
in the right ventricle or the right atrium. Either one or two
leads are used depending on the type of pacemaker. At a
heart rate of 70 beats per minute, the lead will bend about
100,000 times a day! Therefore, leads are extremely
flexible and strong, so that they can withstand the twisting
and bending caused by movement of the body and of the
How Pacemaker Works
• A pacemaker has two essential tasks: pacing
• Pacing means that the pacemaker paces the
heart in case the heart’s own rhythm is
interrupted, irregular, or too slow
• Sensing means that the pacemaker monitors
the heart’s natural electrical activity. If a
pacemaker senses a natural heartbeat it will
not stimulate the heart.
What types of pacing there
• Depending on your heart condition, your doctor
will prescribe which chambers should be paced.
Pacemakers are designed for either (rate
responsive) single chamber or (rate responsive)
dual chamber pacing
• In single chamber pacing, either the right atrium
or the right ventricle is paced. Only one lead is
used. The pacemaker senses (monitors) electrical
activity in either the atrium or the ventricle and
determines whether or not pacing is needed.
Types of pacing Continued....
• In dual chamber pacing, the pacemaker senses
(monitors) electrical activity in both the
atrium and the ventricle and determines
whether or not pacing is needed. Dual
chamber pacemakers help the upper and
lower chambers of your heart to beat in their
natural sequence. This way, a paced heartbeat
mimics a natural heartbeat.