SOCIAL MARKETING A communicationapproach to Development
The Diffusion of Innovations approach to development: strong but insufficientDiffusion concepts: imprecise and did not properly record recipient feedbackDiffusion research gave way to a new communication approach to development: Social Marketing
The design, implementation, and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas and involving considerations of product, planning, pricing, communication, distribution, and marketing research – Kotler & ZaltmanScience-based commercial marketing strategies to disseminate ideas to promote social causesWhat is Social Marketing?
Social marketing…- Intended to change values, attitudes and behavior- Offered means to maximize spread of innovations- Brought out concepts such as audience segmentation, market research, product development, incentives, facilitation
Market Research Product Development Incentives FacilitationMarketing maneuvers?
- Investigating the market for the specific product, idea or service- Dividing the broad audience groups based on knowledge, cultural characteristics- Identifying cost-effective means of communication to segregated audiences1. Market Research
- Promoting a host of products to target audience- Identifying the product which appeals the most to the audience, and pushing it forward- sales approach:one vital product is marketed extensively to promote sales; marketing technique to find the product the people need2. Product development
- Offering motivation to adopt a product or service- Monetary or psychological incentivesExample: GOI gives Rs.1000 to expectant women in last 3 months of pregnancy, in rural areas, for delivery and post-natal care3. Incentives
- Making the product or service readily available to the target audience- Reducing time and effort for the target to adopt the innovation and continue its usage- Also adjusting cost to suit the needs of the audienceExample. Rural health clinics, Condom dispensers, etc.4. Facilitation
Therefore…Social marketing takes a holistic view of the process of dissemination of innovations, by emphasizing the four Ps in the marketing chain: Product, Pricing, Placement, Promotion
Started with ‘clinic approach’ in 1970sContraceptives and products to limit child-birth promoted through mass media and clinicsReplaced by ‘field approach’Trained health extension agents took messages to homes and communitiesFamily PlanningCommunication
Extension approach vs. Clinic approach??Extension or field approach was a clear winner.- Supplemented by radio shows, posters, folk media performances, mobile film vans, etc.
Awareness increased rapidlyFavorable attitude towards family planningContraceptives not an ill anymoreBoons…
Relatively low adoption rates for following reasons:- Coherence of communication messages seldom checked- Lack of multimedia campaigns and attention to segregated audienceBanes…
- Lack of systematic pretesting of messages- Lack of clear understanding between communication messages and behavior change- Lack of formative and summative evaluations of communication campaigns- Assumption that awareness and knowledge will lead to behavior change
Callfor strategic family planning programsUse of social marketing conceptsFormative research approaches like focus groups, surveys, pretesting of messages- Population Communication Services (aided by USAID)The 1990s