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# Labsheet2

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### Labsheet2

1. 1. F2037 PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTAL OF C++LAB 2: OPERATORS AND EXPRESSIONLearning Outcome:By the end of this lab, students should be able to:• Understand operators, operator’s precedence and expression.Theory/ Topics• A simple C++ program is similar to a C program. In C++ programs the statements to be executed are contained inside the function.• In operators and expressions, student must know about: a) Arithmetic operators ( +, -, *, /, % )  The five arithmetical operations supported by the C++ language are: + addition - subtraction * multiplication / division % modulus b) Compound assignment (+=, -=, *=, /=, %=, >>=, <<=, &=, ^=, | =) c) Increment and decrement (++, --) Shortening even more some expressions, the increase operator (++) and the decrease operator (--) increase or reduce by one the value stored in a variable. They are equivalent to +=1 and to -=1, respectively. Example 1 Example 2 B=3; B=3; A=++B; A=B++; // A contains 4, B contains 4 // A contains 3, B contains 4 d) Relational and equality operators (==, !=, >, <, >=, <= ) 1
2. 2. F2037 PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTAL OF C++ In order to evaluate a comparison between two expressions we can use the relational and equality operators. The result of a relational operation is a Boolean value that can only be true or false, according to its Boolean result. e) Logical operators ( !, &&, || ) The Operator ! is the C++ operator to perform the Boolean operation NOT, it has only one operand, located at its right, and the only thing that it does is to inverse the value of it, producing false if its operand is true and true if its operand is false. Basically, it returns the opposite Boolean value of evaluating its operand. Precedence of operatorsWhen writing complex expressions with several operands, wemust follow the precedence which is what operand is evaluatedfirst and which later. For example, in this expression: a=5+7%2 7%2 is evaluated first, then followed by operator +Activity 2AProcedure :Step 1: Type the programs given belowStep 2: Compile and run the program. Write the output.Step 3: Save the program as Lab2A.cpp.#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ int class1 = 100; int class2 = 200; int class3 = 300; int class4 = 400; int class5 = 500; 2
3. 3. F2037 PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTAL OF C++ int sum = 0; double average; sum = class1 + class2 + class3 + class4 + class5; average = sum/5; cout << " Sum = " << sum << endl; cout << " Average = " << average << endl; return 0;}Activity 2BProcedure :Step 1: Type the programs given belowStep 2: Compile and run the program. Write the output.Step 3: Save the program as Lab2B.cpp.#include <iostream>using namespace std;void main(){ int x = 180, y = 200; y = x++; cout << " x : " << x << endl << " y : " << y << endl;}Activity 2CProcedure :Step 1: Type the programs given belowStep 2: Compile and run the program. Write the output.Step 3: Save the program as Lab2C.cpp.#include <iostream>using namespace std; 3
4. 4. F2037 PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTAL OF C++void main(){ int x = 180, y = 200; y = ++ x; cout << " x : " << x << endl << " y : "<< y << endl;}Activity 2DProcedure :Step 1: Type the programs given belowStep 2: Compile and run the program. Write the output.Step 3: Save the program as Lab2D.cpp.#include <iostream>using namespace std;void main(){ double p = 12.5; double q = 3.234; p *= q - 1; q += p + 1;cout << " p is " << p << endl << " q is " <<q << "n";}Lab 2EProcedure :Step 1: Type the programs given belowStep 2: Compile and run the program. Write the output.Step 3: Save the program as Lab2E.cpp.// Demonstrate the modulus operator.#include <iostream>using namespace std; 4
5. 5. F2037 PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTAL OF C++int main(){ int x, y; x = 10; y = 3; cout << x << " / " << y << " is " << x / y << " with a remainder of " << x % y << "n"; x = 1; y = 2; cout << x << " / " << y << " is " << x / y << "n" << x << " % " << y << " is " << x % y; return 0;}Lab 2FProcedure :Step 1: Type the programs given belowStep 2: Compile and run the program. Write the output.Step 3: Save the program as Lab2F.cpp.// Demonstrate the relational and logical operators.#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ int i, j; bool b1, b2; i = 10; j = 11; if(i < j) cout << "i < jn"; if(i <= j) cout << "i <= jn"; if(i != j) cout << "i != jn"; if(i == j) cout << "this wont executen"; if(i >= j) cout << "this wont executen"; if(i > j) cout << "this wont executen"; b1 = true; b2 = false; if(b1 && b2) cout << "this wont executen"; 5
6. 6. F2037 PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTAL OF C++ if(!(b1 && b2)) cout << "!(b1 && b2) is truen"; if(b1 || b2) cout << "b1 || b2 is truen"; return 0;}Lab 2GProcedure :Step 1: Type the programs given belowStep 2: Compile and run the program. Write the output.Step 3: Save the program as Lab2G.cpp.#include<iostream>using namespace std;void main(){ int i; for(i=1;i<=10;i++) cout<<i<<" /2 is: " << (float) i/2 << "n";}LAB EXERCISE1. Write the C++ expression for the following mathematical statement a. y=(x-2)(x+3) b. min = a + b + c + d + e 5 (2 marks)2. Given the values x=5, y=5 and c=3. Write a program to calculate the value of z and display the output of z 6
7. 7. F2037 PROGRAMMING FUNDAMENTAL OF C++ z = xy % c + 10 / 2y + 5; (4 marks)3. Based on the flowchart, find the values for a and b. Write a program to calculate the values and display the output (4 marks) start x=12, y=8,z=5 a=x*y-z b = (6*a/2+3-z)/2 print a,b endCONCLUSION_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7