Indus Valley


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Indus Valley

  1. 1.  The Indus Valley Civilization, also known as Harappan culture, is among the worlds earliest civilizations, contemporary to the Bronze Age civilizations of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. It peaked around 2500 BCE in the western part of South Asia, declined during the mid-2nd millennium BCE and was forgotten until its rediscovery in the 1920s by R.D. Banerjee.
  2. 2.  Thus there is an Indus Valley site on the Oxus river at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan (Kenoyer 1998:96) and the Indus Valley site Alamgirpur at the Hindon river is located only 28 km from Delhi. Geographically, it was spread over an area of some 1,260,000 km, comprising the whole of modern day Pakistan and parts of modern-day India and Afghanistan. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million.
  3. 3.  It was in the mid 4th millennium BC that the first major civilizations began to arise along major river systems such as the Nile and the Tigris Euphrates. Though not so well known the Indus Valley or Harappan culture was one of the greatest of these early civilizations. It arose along the Indus Valley in what is now Pakistan around 3500 BC and reached its peak from 2900 - 1900 BC. The capital seems to have been near the small modern town of Harappa whence its name but there were other large cities at Mohenjo Daro, Mehrgarh and elsewhere. At its peak it was a vast empire of cities, towns and public works that stretched from Afghanistan to the Indian ocean. But by c. 1300 the Harappan civilization had vanished likely due to prolonged failure of the monsoon rains. In contrast to cuneiform and hieroglyphics the writing system of the Indus culture has still not been deciphered.
  4. 4. SIZABLE ANCIENT INDIAN /INDUS VALLEY POTTERY HEAD, 5"h x 4"w x 3"d. Heavy solidhard fired pottery.Provenance. Gifted to thefather of the current ownerin appreciation to hisservices to the localcommunity in India in theearly 20th century.
  5. 5. SIZABLE ANCIENT INDIAN /INDUS VALLEY POTTERY HEAD(left in the photo), 5.5"h x 4"w x4.5"d. Heavy solid hard firedpottery. Provenance. Gifted tothe father of the currentowner in appreciation to hisservices to the localcommunity in India in the early20th century.
  6. 6. SIZABLE ANCIENT INDIAN /INDUS VALLEY POTTERY HEAD, 4"h x 4.5"w x 2.75"d. Heavysolid hard fired pottery.Provenance. Gifted to thefather of the current ownerin appreciation to hisservices to the localcommunity in India in theearly 20th century.
  7. 7. MEHRGARH BICHROMEFIGURAL POT, IndusValley, c. 3rd millenniumBC. The pot painted withtwo large bulls separatedby vegetation, four fowlsabove. Minor limedeposits attestingauthenticity. 4 x 4 inches.
  8. 8. MEHRGARH BICHROMEFIGURAL PLATTER, Indus Valley,c. 3rd millennium BC. Theplatter painted with fowlbetween large trees, a bandof many small ibex near therim. Some lime depositsattesting authenticity. 2.5 x 10inches.
  9. 9. MEHRGARH BICHROMEFIGURAL POT, IndusValley, c. 3rdmillennium BC. The potpainted with register offelines and treesbetween two bands ofnumerous small ibex, araised wavy line below.Minor lime depositsattesting authenticity.5.5 x 5.5 inches.
  10. 10. MEHRGARH BICHROMEFIGURAL CUP, IndusValley, c. 3rd millenniumBC. The cup paintedwith two large bullsseparated byvegetation. Some limedeposits attestingauthenticity. 3 x 4inches.
  11. 11. MEHRGARH BICHROMEFIGURAL POT, IndusValley, c. 3rdmillennium BC. The potpainted with registersof felines and ibexseparated by flowers.Some lime depositsattesting authenticity.6 x 6.5 inches.
  12. 12. . MEHRGARH LARGE FISHBICHROME BOWL, IndusValley, c. 3rd millenniumBC. The bowl painted withthree large fish with linearand arrow bands aboveand below. Some limedeposits attestingauthenticity. 4.5 x 7 inches.
  13. 13. MEHRGARH BICHROMEFIGURAL POT, IndusValley, c. 3rd millenniumBC. The pot painted witha register of numeroussmall ibex within linearbands. Some limedeposits attestingauthenticity. 3 x 3 inches.
  14. 14. MEHRGARH BICHROMEOIL LAMP, Indus Valley, c.3rd millennium BC. Of fourpinch square form, the potpainted with geometricdesigns on the outer rim.Some lime depositsattesting authenticity. 1.5 x2.5 inches.
  15. 15. MEHRGARH LARGEBICHROME FIGURAL POT,Indus Valley, c. 3rdmillennium BC. The potpainted with large bulls,fowls and trees a register ofnumerous small ibex above.Repaired from five largeshards. Some lime depositsattesting authenticity. 6 x 7inches.
  16. 16. AN INDUS VALLEYTRIANGULAR SEAL, c. 3rd-2nd millennium BC. Theblack stone seal withfigures of serpent, wingedanimal and man standingwith staff. 25 mm. Excellentcondition.
  17. 17. AN INDUS VALLEYGLASS BEAD, c. 3rd-2nd millennium BC.The tan cylindricalbead with applieddots and stands. 27mm. Rare and nice.
  18. 18. AN INDUSVALLEY/BACTRIANBEAD NECKLACE, c.2nd-1st millenniumBC. Various stoneand glass beads. 22”.Wearable.
  19. 19. A PAIR OF EARLY INDUSVALLEY POLYCHROMECHALICES. MehrgarhCulture, c. 4000 BC. 4inches. From a newvery early culturerecently unearthedalong the Indus.Extremely rare!
  20. 20. . AN EARLY INDUS VALLEYPOLYCHROME DIPPERSPOON. Mehrgarh Culture,c. 4000 BC. 3.4 inches. Froma new very early culturerecently unearthed alongthe Indus. Amazing state ofpreservation considering thedelicate handle. Extremelyrare!
  21. 21. A RARE MOHENJO DAROFERTILITY IDOL. IndusValley, c. 2500-1500 BC.The female idol with armscrossed under breasts, ananimal or child on leftarm. 2.25 x 6 inches. Rearbase rim missing. Veryrare, especially with theadditional figure!
  22. 22. AN INDUS VALLEY ORBACTRIAN SILVERRING, c. 2500-1000 BC.The heavy ring withbands of raisedknobs, two silverrosettes likely the topsand bottoms of lotusflowers attached oneither side. 1 inch, 0.7-0.75 inches internal.Wearable. Rare.
  23. 23. A FINE INDUS VALLEY ORBACTRIAN BRONZEMEDICAL OR COSMETICSET, c. 2500-1000 BC. Theunusual pin probe withthree knobbed terminals,the spatula/scalpel withornate knobbed handlewith suspension loop. To 3.5inches. Rare this nice.
  24. 24. A CHOICE LARGE INDUSVALLEY STAMP SEAL, c. 1stmillennium BC. Theterracotta seal withincised animals aroundthe periphery, ornatehandle on back. 3 inches.Choice example.
  25. 25. AN INDUS VALLEYTERRACOTTA BULL, c.2500-1500 BC.Humped bullattached to vesselshard which nowserves as a base. 4.5inches.
  26. 26.  s I‟m proposing theory of „Pre-Dravidian Invasion‟. This has a stronger case in the Vaidik age Indo-Aryan literature. Most of the Vaidik literature talk about Aryans fight against a dark skinned people called Dasyus. The description of these people hardly suits to the urbanized people of IVC. So it‟s very clear that these people can not be the ones who built IVC. But they can be the people who destroyed it. Around 1700B.C Pre-Dravidian people of South India started attacking IVC. IVC was not known to possess a strong army. These urban, trading people along with their grand constructions became easy victims of attacking pre-Dravidians. A closer analogy could be barbarians (Germanic tribes) attacking Rome. It looks like these pre-Dravidians were mainly from South India, since pre-Dravidians of East India do not exhibit Dravidian culture( languages and Shaivism, which I feel is the main religion of Harappan people) of South India but still practices pre- Dravidian rituals of worshipping dark skinned goddesses. Now back to the main argument. Emergence of Dravidian people:
  27. 27.  While pre-Dravidians were destroying their homeland, the IVC population started migrating to Southern regions. Ironically, moving to the homelands of their destroyers. And overtime they mingled and crossbred with local pre-Dravidian population, influencing and assimilating with local culture. Since it was no more a homogenous block, these people never had any distinct identity of themselves. It was probably during first or second century AD these people were classified as Dravidians by the Indo-Aryans who by this time settled in all of North-India. „Manusmriti‟, written around this time, categorizes all Dravidians as „Shudras‟. Though there were further divisions in the society after Aryan Brahmin missionaries started arriving between 4th to 7th centuries.
  28. 28.  After defeating and destroying IVC something around 1700BC, pre- Dravidians continued to live in north-west of India. Possibly when Indo- Aryans started arriving around 1500BC they were the pale shadow of their forefathers who invaded that territory. Even the numbers could be favouring the Aryans. Defeated by these Indo-European people, Dasyus started retreating from IVC area and migrated to other parts of the country. A part of them might have been assimilated with Indo-Aryans. But some of these disintegrated people because of Aryan onslaught found it difficult to become a single, strong entity and degenerated to live a pathetic life. And in later centuries these people might possibly oppressed as „untouchables‟(This argument is influenced by Ambedkar‟s theory of origin of untouchablilty in India. I am proposing my theory of brokenmen ) by other Indians, now a mixed race of Aryans and pre-Dravidians. In this series of articles, I have proposed IVC population was light skinned Mediterranean race. This civilization was destroyed by the dark skinned pre- Dravidians(australoids) of South India. The escaping Mediterranean population migrated to South India and assimilated with local people and gave rise to culture described as “Dravidian” by the Indo-Aryans. Indo- Aryans defeated pre-Dravidians on entering India from north-west and established their civilization. This argument tries to explain the missing link between end of the Indus valley civilization and invasion/migration of Indo- Aryans.
  29. 29. Thank You