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“Reason” - the driving force in genuine democracies in which social movements play a crucial role.
“New Social Movements”• civil rights movement,• feminist movement,• animal advocacy movement.
Habermas New social movements are important because they demand that reasons be given for social decisions…Social policies critically questioned rather than merely accepted.
Key modern-day orientations… • Work • Family • Career • Consuming • [Celeb culture]
LIFEWORLD and SYSTEM• Western capitalism impedes rationalisation processes • Bureaucracy has developed far more than political democratic structures • Science and technological rationality over “moral and aesthetic reason”• “Colonisation of the lifeworld” - the system level, based on instrumental reason, “penetrates” the cultural lifeworld – • Contamination of cultural rationality with system values • A scientific-technical-administrative power elite
1. Classical2. New Social Movement Theory3. Resource Mobilisation Theory4. Politics of Identity and Social Commitment
Social Movement definitions•‘any broad social alliance of people who areassociated in seeking to effect or to block anaspect of social change within a society’ (Jary &Jary).•Noun. social movement - a group of people witha common ideology who try together to achievecertain general goals (on-line dictionary)
• Loosely organized but sustainedcampaign in support of a socialgoal, typically either theimplementation or the preventionof a change in society’s structure orvalues. Although socialmovements differ in size, they areall essentially collective.
Equilibrium mechanisms • government • political parties • trade unions • associations
NO NEED FOR SMssuggests that the people in socialmovements had something wrong withTHEMprotestors were seen as• ‘exceptional’,• ‘abnormal’• people with social and mental ‘difficulties’SM = outbursts of unreason!
1960s: and now for something completely different…
Della Porta and DianiThe ‘movement’ appears to be neither classbased, nor organised within the framework ofstandard national politics; it is not competing forcontrol of the state, as an alternative potentialruling group or class, and to some extent it claimsto speak for ‘everyone’, for universal rights and‘participation’ or ‘liberation’.
Alain Touraine a fully developed movement is successful if it1. identifies a social group whose interest it serves 2. defines its “enemies” 3. develops a vision of an alternative future
Resource Mobilisation TheoryWhat happens when social movement organisations get• too big• too bureaucratic• too business-like• too flabby Greenpeace International/PeTA
Politics of Identity and Social Commitment “little communities” “tribes”On the basis of much recent discussion of newmovements, we can characterise their aimsbroadly as bringing about social change throughthe transformation of values, personal identitiesand symbols. Alan Scott (1990) Ideology and theNew Social Movements
Scott, 1990: 18These movements are identity involvingand transforming, they self-consciouslymanipulate symbols and they challengedentrenched values. This can best beachieved through the creation ofalternative life-styles and the discursivereformation of individual and collectivewills.
Steve Buechler (2000) Social Movements inAdvanced Capitalismtheir philosophical or spiritual rejection of theinstrumental rationality of advanced capitalist society andits systems of control and co-optation... this culturalemphasis rejects conventional goals, tactics andstrategies in favour of the exploration of new identities,meanings, signs and symbols. The ability to envision andsymbolically enact new and different ways of organisingsocial relationships can itself be a potential challenge todominant social arrangements (p. 47-8)
We are a tribe in far more than name. We have acollective purpose and a cultural identity as thenomadic indigenous peoples of Britain - we haveformulated our own customs, mythology, style ofdress, beliefs and are evolving our own language(“Donga Alex”, in McKay, p. 137)Senseless Acts of Beauty: Cultures of Resistance since the Sixties(London: Verso, 1996)
Richard Gale (1986)Social Movements and The State Social movements/countermovements – dyad Social movements/countermovements/government agencies – triad Activity of SMs will increase interaction between countermovements and the state Animal rights action = animal welfare reforms