With blueprinting, some customers are able to beat those odds and emerge successful. In the end, it’s all about delivering the right project on time and under budget. Productivity is essential and here are some examples where blueprinting has helped our clients be more productive in their job. <sample bullets> Prior: RSA is an established, proven performer. It is used throughout the world by companies that wish to improve the way they develop and deploy complex IT applications. As an example, a very large company that provides financial services has successfully implemented RSA for understanding their IT architecture and developing powerful applications that best serve the needs of their staff and clients. This firm has measured productivity improvements where tasks that used to take a month to complete can now be done in a single day! Time is saved in every aspect of their development approach, from analysis and understanding through to the development of code and documentation. These savings result from an improved architectural approach enabled by visualizing and analyzing their complete IT system in RSA. Rather than manually keeping track of how the system components are supposed to interconnect with each other and the outside environment, RSA allows the architects to establish the connections and intended workflow as part of the overall design, so that they can analyze functionality, as well as to immediately determine the impacts of changes to any piece of the system.
Facilitate, preserve, and communicate all of the key thinking that happens between initial requirement identification, and final requirement realization Create a basis for accelerating that thinking with automation Align business- and technology-oriented perspectives Establish a basis for measurement (complexity, progress, health) Establish a basis for traceability and impact analysis In short: representations of abstractions – i.e. “models” -- can be used as a sort of “glue” that holds the rest of the lifecycle together
Modeling is an approach that has been around software for over 20 years. Much like building a model airplane or car, models give a representation of what is to be built, so that you can confirm it meets certain requirements. Modeling is like documentation – which is where most people begin describing software – in requirements documents or spreadsheet lists of features. Many deployment teams today use PowerPoint or Visio to draw or diagram, which are clearly an improvement over plain documentation, but is still “two-dimensional” in its approach. Modeling goes beyond drawings and diagrams by capturing smart-information about the items you are documenting (for example, amount of RAM or Hard disk size). Information such as this can be VALIDATED automatically by the model as you add constraint information. Modeling also goes beyond simple drawing & diagramming tools, with a “dictionary” concept. This dictionary or catalog approach allows users to make changes in one place and then have that change automatically propagate to all the different views of that element (in PowerPoint for example, you have to do a search/replace for each item). Unlike the physical world, In the realm of software, in the software DEVELOPMENT phase models can actually generate the resulting software! Further beyond modeling are capabilities which enhance the model based on various automation or governance tasks you’d like to take advantage of.
Let’s start with a quick look at some of the key public sector challenges. Government organizations are facing extreme challenges to deliver more with fewer resources, to maintain or increase service levels with a reduced workforce and smaller budgets. Addressing these challenges requires a strategic approach to determining what businesses the government should be in and to what extent they should be in them based on citizens' needs and available revenue. What governments need is a rational process for planning and budgeting, performance management, and operations that maximize outcomes from available revenue. This requires a means of capturing, assessing and communicating information about their current environment and then determining, evaluating and choosing actions that evolve their programs and services to achieve desired results while managing costs.
Policy planning and budgeting requires a process and supporting information to address three fundamental concerns. First you need determine what are the highest priority things you need to do in terms of the services you provide to address citizen needs. Second you need to determine the most efficient and cost effective way of delivering those services. And third you need to find ways to leverage citizen groups, community organizations and private sector businesses to collaboratively work together for transparent, effective and efficient government. The goal is to provide methods, processes and tools that enable and foster continuous improvement as a means to facilitate government evolution to meet changing citizen needs. These tools and techniques are intended to address both the needs of "Steeres", those addressing the policy domain having needs for accountability, planning and budgeting, and those of the "Rowers", those addressing the functional domain having needs for to improve operations in order to “Do the right things right”.
You can use the models to capture and document the things that are motivating change in your jurisdiction, the results you wish to achieve in response to those influencers, and the strategies for achieving those results. Then you can evolve your municipal business architecture by designing the programs and services that deliver the outcomes that achieve the desired results and address your citizens’ needs. Budgeting for outcomes is a Government Financial Officers Association recommended practice for allocating budgets to results delivered by programs and services that address the highest priority needs within available budgets. You can’t do everything, but you can always do the best you can with what you’ve got. Once plans are in place and services are operational, you can use performance management to assess actual performance against targets to drive operational improvements and inform future strategic planning activities to close the right performance gaps. Information technology is becoming more strategic in the public sector as you provide more information services for citizens and rely on IT to deliver other services. You can integrate your municipal business architecture with your information systems architecture to help identify opportunities to exploit IT for more efficient, cost effective, or smarter realization of public services – delivering more with less through IT exploitation. These models can also help you identify opportunities for IT application consolidation, or situations where you could collaborate with other jurisdictions to provide services through cost sharing.
The MISA Municipal Reference Model, a model created by the Canadian government over the last 20 years, defines a language for expressing the relationship between the organization units in government as service providers, and target groups in the community as service consumers. Government organization units are accountable for programs that deliver outcomes experienced by target groups in the community. These programs administer services that commit to providing outputs that have direct value to receiving clients, and indirect value through the outcomes they contribute to. Services are implemented by processes that consume resources. Performance indicators are used to measure how effective a program is at delivering its outcome, how well a service produces its output, how well processes implement services, and how well a resource contributes to the needs of it consuming processes. Projects encapsulate plans for evolving the government enterprise by changing the organization, programs, services, process or resources that deliver the outcomes addressing possibly changing community needs. The reference model provide a model of typical municipality capturing the programs, services, processes, resources and outcomes that have been proven through common practice to effectively address specific target group needs. The reference model provides valuable reusable assets that can save years of business analysis work as well as provide ideas for innovative solutions to specific community needs.
For example, Public Health is a program intended to deliver Improved Health as an outcome experienced by Municipal Residents and visitors. An outcome is a change in level of need experienced by a target group. Part of the planning process is to determine how we might measure an outcome and precisely what targets we wish to obtain. These considerations can lead to better expression of outcomes which can help determine what services and programs are required to deliver those outcomes. The Public Health program administers two services: Food Premise Inspection and H1N1 Immunization. The output of the Food Premise Inspection service is an Inspection Report which establishes permission to continue food preparation services. This output has direct value to the food premise owner and operator since they can stay in business. It has indirect benefit for patrons of the operation through the reduction of illnesses resulting from improper food preparation. The Food Premise Inspection service is implemented by a process that includes scheduling the inspection, conducting the inspection, preparing a report, and scheduling any required follow-up according to current laws and regulations.
Managing any kind of change requires a thorough understanding of the current, or as-is situation. Changing something that is complex and poorly understood can often lead to very poor or unexpected outcomes and results. Establishing an as-is municipal architecture would be a huge endeavor in its own right, taking years to complete, and possibly being significantly out of date by the time it is done. Municipalities cannot afford to make costly and time consuming investments in enterprise architecture before they can make decisions about how to address the destruction from the latest tornado or flood. However, municipalities can easily instantiate the existing Municipal Reference Model, and quickly customize it to reflect their as-is municipal model. The MRM: Provides a starting point for developing a municipal model saving potentially years of enterprise architecture development effort Contains hundreds of programs and services Is based on municipal analysis and best practices over the last 20 years Shows municipalities what a good municipal model looks like and provide guiding principles for evolving the model to meet community needs Provides a list of candidate programs and services that can be immediately mined to address community needs
In summary, Government By Design encompasses a set of methods, tools, techniques and work product templates that enable you to taken a results-driven approach to effective, open and transparent government to deliver the best results you can with available revenue. These concepts can be organized into four categories.
The primary benefit is government has the methods, tools, techniques and reusable assets to help in planning what services to provide its constituents, at what service levels, assessed by what performance indicators, and delivering what impact to the community - all at a price its citizens are willing to pay and its legislative bodies are willing to approve. The alternative is government by a thousand cuts, motivated by threats of punishment or withheld rewards that have little to do with outcomes and that no one is happy with.
Author Note: Optional Rational slide. Graphic is available in English only.
Author Note: Mandatory Rational closing slide (includes appropriate legal disclaimer). Graphic is available in English only.
2013 good design is good business industry frameworks