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Charles and Ray Eames

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  1. 1. 20th Century Modern in America Eero Saarinen & Charles and Ray Eamesjeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  2. 2. 20th Century Modern: 1945-1990 Modern design is a story of influences and innovation. While the International Style was dominating the world of architecture and interiors, other designers and architects were exploring new ways of expression in building and furniture. Designers from Scandinavia, Italy and America produced a wealth of furniture, decorative crafts and textiles after World War II.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  3. 3. Influences & Icons European designers & architects influenced design in America and the world throughout the century, especially those associated with the German Bauhaus: Mies van der Rohe, Marcel Breuer and Walter Gropius. The style they championed became known as the International Style, and incorporated the use of steel, glass, chromed metal and geometric forms.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  4. 4. American Style In reaction to this highly industrialized aesthetic, some designer of the post- war eras advocated a return to the hand-crafts and the use of natural materials. Sam Maloff, Wendell Castle and others relied on natural forms and more organic materials for their designs.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  5. 5. American Style Other designers and architects continued to work and experiment with modern materials, and to design for machine production. One of the centers for both education and design was Cranbrook Academy outside Detroit, Michigan. The Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen was appointed to the directorship in 1922, and Cranbrook produced some of the most innovative designers of the century.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  6. 6. Eero Saarinen 1910-1961 Eero Saarinen was born in Finland, the son of Eliel Saarinen. The family moved to the US in 1922 and Eliel became head of Cranbrook Academy, where Eero grew up. Eero’s mother was also a talented textile designer.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  7. 7. Eero Saarinen 1910-1961 He studied architecture at Yale from 1930 to 1934. Saarinen’s design aesthetic is based on the concept of relationship: relating an object to its next-largest context, a chair to a room, a building to the street, a vase to the table it sits on (which he learned from his father). His furniture is very sculptural, and he designed many pieces in molded plastic. Some early pieces were executed in molded plywood, and designed in collaboration with fellow students at Cranbrook.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  8. 8. Saarinen The Womb chair was designed as a the contemporary answer to the traditional wing chair, to provide a sense of comfort and being cradled and held.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  9. 9. Saarinen Saarinen became well-known for a line of pedestal furniture in molded plastic and enameled steel. He was attempting to find a solution to the forest of legs usually associated with chairs and tables. The chair is called the Tulip Chair, and is made from molded plastic supported by a steel pedestal base.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  10. 10. Saarinen Saarinen also taught at Cranbrook with his father Eliel, and they established an architectural partnership. Architectural projects include the Gateway Arch, St. Louis, and Dulles International Airport outside Washington, D.C, in addition to several buildings at Cranbrook in collaboration with his father.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  11. 11. Saarinen The terminal for TWA at JFK airport in New York is one of Saarinen’s most distinctive designs. Constructed from concrete, steel and glass, both exterior and interior are very sculptural.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  12. 12. Saarinen The interior of the terminal incorporates organic, flowing forms. The roof is poured in place.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  13. 13. Charles & Ray Eames ….. Charles & Ray Eames contributed in many ways to 20th century architecture, furniture design, industrial design and photography. The couple met at Cranbrook Academy of Art, in the 1930s, where they collaborated with Eero Saarinen on designs for furniture.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  14. 14. Charles Eames 1907-1978 Charles Eames trained as an architect at Washington University in St. Louis and was offered a fellowship to Cranbrook Academy by Eliel Saarinen in 1936. Ray studied painting in New York with Hans Hofmann before moving to Cranbrook at about the same time.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  15. 15. Design philosophy ….. Along with other designers and architects after the war, the Eameses worked to encourage mass- production, which would spread high quality, affordable modern design across the country, and to integrate modern materials and construction methods with good craftsmanship. Although they built few houses, their ideas were spread through their furnishings, toys, films and slide shows.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  16. 16. Design challenges ….. The Eameses were driven to find answers to these questions: How do we produce affordable, high-quality furniture? How do we build economical living and working spaces? How do we help people see beauty in the everyday? How do we promote cross-cultural understanding? How can we make fundamental scientific principles understandable to lay people?jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  17. 17. Furniture ….. The Eameses used four basic materials for chairs: molded plywood fiberglass-reinforced plastic bent & welded wire mesh cast aluminum Us of modern materials that were easy to mass- produce allowed for an affordable product.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  18. 18. The Eames’ & Saarinen Charles & Ray Eames and Eero Saarinen collaborated on several experimental designs for competitions that were also put into production. The team competed in the MOMA Organic Furniture Competition in 1940-1941, and won first place in two categories. They also placed 2nd in the MOMA Low-Cost Furniture Competition in 1949 with the fiberglass shell chair.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  19. 19. Move to California ... The Eameses moved to California in 1941 where they continued experimenting with molded plywood. They were commissioned by the US Navy to design splints and stretchers during World War II, and their first molded plywood chair was produced by Evans Products in 1946.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  20. 20. Bent Laminated Plywood Good design using prefabricated standardized parts at low cost ….jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  21. 21. Molded plywood …. This screen of bent laminated wood is a classic example of the Eameses’ experimental ability. It is reminiscent of Alvar Aalto’s screen, but made from a single piece of plywood rather than wood strips.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  22. 22. Molded fiberglass ‘Shock mounted’ steel wire An early challenge for the Eameses’ was finding a way to join two dissimilar materials in a practical way. The developed a method for joining fiberglass and steel that they called ‘shock mounts’.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  23. 23. Molded reinforced plastic ….. Molded fiberglass shell chairs padded and upholstered with leather or vinyl, on chromed steel legs. Inspired by the original competition chairs, these were produced by Herman Miller.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  24. 24. Wire and plastic ….. The steel wire base table was designed for Herman Miller. The wire framed chair was a later version of the fiberglass shell chairjeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  25. 25. The Eames Lounge Possibly the most famous of the Eames’ furniture designs, this lounge and ottoman are still in production. The original specified bent and laminated Rosewood with leather upholstery. In response to concerns about endangered wood species, new chairs are made from walnut.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  26. 26. Modular storage ... Using plywood, laminate, steel and masonite, the Eameses designed modular storage that provided flexibility, function and beauty.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  27. 27. From drawing to product …... The Hang-it-all echoes an earlier painting by Ray Eames.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  28. 28. What is a house? Charles Eames graphically represented the idea of ‘house’ to illustrate an article about residential design published in Arts & Architecture in 1944.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  29. 29. Eames House The house designed by Charles Eames in Pacific Palisades, California in 1949 expresses the aesthetic and functional ideas that flow throughout all of the Eameses’ work: innovative use of materials, organic form, human scale and economical use of space.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  30. 30. Textiles ... This design by Ray Eames for a textile, called ‘Crosspatch’, was inspired by a trip to India. The Eameses sought to promote cross-cultural understanding through films, lectures and design.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  31. 31. House of Cards … affecting the larger community. The House of Cards pack was designed to stimulate innovative thinking. Available to anyone, working with the cards was intended to improve creativity in a playful way.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  32. 32. Promotional Postcard ….communication of ideas. The original drawing for the postcard evolved into the example at the right:jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  33. 33. Public spaces ……. Designing for public spaces was an important element in the Eameses’ goal to educate the public in good design. Tandem chairs like these were designed for Dulles International airport, among others.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  34. 34. Powers of Tenjeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  35. 35. Powers of Ten Electricity deals with measurements that can vary from very, very large to very, very small We simplify numbers using powers of ten to describe themjeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  36. 36. Powers of Ten The integer powers of ten are:jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  37. 37. Eames in India The Government of India asked for recommendations on a programme of training in design that would serve as an aid to the small industries; and that would resist the present rapid deterioration in design and quality of consumer goods. Charles Eames, American industrial designer and his wife and colleague Ray Eames, visited India for three months at the invitation of the Government, with the sponsorship of the Ford Foundation, to explore the problems of design and to make recommendations for a training programme. The Eameses toured throughout India, making a careful study of the many centres of design, handicrafts and general manufacture. They talked with many persons, official and non-official, in the field of small and large industry, in design and architecture, and in education.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  38. 38. Eames in India You have the right to work but for the works sake only; You have no right to the fruits of work. Desire for the fruits of work must never be your motive in working. Never give way to laziness, either. Perform every action with your heart fixed on the Supreme Lord. Renounce attachment to the fruits. Be even-tempered in success and failures, for it is this evenness of temper which is meant by Yoga. Work done with anxiety about results is far inferior to work done without such anxiety, in the calm of self-surrender. Seek refuge in the knowledge of Brahman. They who work selfishly for results are miserable. Bhagavad Gitajeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  39. 39. Functionalism vs. Aesthetics “What … works is better than what looks good. The looks good can change, but what works, works.” Ray Eames It is clear from their work that although functional issues may dominate, what ‘works’ is also often beautiful.jeudi, 8 décembre 2011
  40. 40. A legacy …….. “The Eameses wholehearted belief that design could improve peoples lives remains their greatest legacy. Even more remarkable is how they achieved their seriousness of purpose with elegance, wit, and beauty.” Eames Furniture Exhibition Catalogjeudi, 8 décembre 2011