Counter culture


Published on

Counter Culture in Culture & Design class

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Counter culture

  1. 1. Counterculture
  2. 2. In sociology, counterculture is a term usedto describe a cultural group whose valuesand norms are at odds with those of thesocial mainstream, a cultural equivalent ofa political opposition. In casual practice,the term came to prominence in thegeneral press as it was used to refer tothe youth rebellion that swept NorthAmerica and Western Europe in the 1960sand early 1970s
  3. 3. Counter Culture in the 60th
  4. 4. This movement was a reaction against theconservative social norms of the 1950s, thepolitical conservatism (and perceived socialrepression) of the Cold War period, and theUS governments extensive militaryintervention in Vietnam. It is sometimesdiscussed as the inheritor of the "BeatGeneration" sensibility of the late 1940sand 1950s. Opposition to the war wasexacerbated in the US by the compulsorymilitary draft.
  5. 5. In one view, the 1960s youth rebellionlargely originated on college campuses. TheFree Speech Movement at the University ofCalifornia, Berkeley was one earlyexample. However, other rebellious-youthformats also contributed, some involvingpeople who had never been collegestudents.The beatnik café and bar scene was atributary stream.
  6. 6. Beat GenerationThe Beat Generation was a group of Americanwriters who came to prominence in the late1950s and early 1960s. Their most importantworks are Jack Kerouacs On the Road (1957),Allen Ginsbergs Howl (1956), and William S.Burroughs Naked Lunch (1959).By either definition, the members of the BeatGeneration were new bohemian ecstaticepicureans, who often engaged in a spontaneouscreativity.
  7. 7. Beat GenerationThe style of their work may seem chaotic, but thechaos was purposeful; it highlighted the primacyof such Beat Generation essentials as spontaneity,open emotion, visceral engagement in often grittyworldly experiences.Kerouac introduced the phrase Beat Generationsometime around 1948 to describe his friends andas a general term describing the underground,anti-conformist youth gathering in New York atthat time.
  8. 8. Beat GenerationThe adjective beat (introduced to the group byHerbert Huncke) had the connotations of "tired"or "down and out", but Kerouac added theparadoxical connotations of upbeat, beatific, andthe musical association of being "on the beat".
  9. 9. Jack Kerouac(March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969)American novelist, writer, poet,artist, and part of the BeatGeneration. While enjoyingpopular but little critical successduring his own lifetime, Kerouacis now considered one ofAmericas most importantauthors. The spontaneous,confessional prose style inspiredother writers, including TomRobbins, Lester Bangs, KenKesey, Tom Waits and Bob Dylan.Kerouacs best known work isOn the Road.
  10. 10. Jack KerouacKerouac wrote On the Road inApril, 1951. Fueled by Benzedrineand coffee, he completed thefirst version of the novel duringa three week extended sessionof spontaneous confessionalprose. This session produced thenow famous scroll. His techniquewas heavily influenced by Jazz.Publishers rejected the book dueto its experimental writing styleand its sympathetic tone towardsmarginalized social groups of theUS in the 50ths. In 1957, VikingPress purchased the novel,demanding major revisions
  11. 11. ON the Road “Scroll”The scroll is the physicalembodiment of Kerouacsspontaneous writing method. Oneof the most remarkable literarymanuscripts in existence, "On theRoad" is a key work of Americanliterature and marked a turningpoint in 20th-century culture.Typed by Kerouac in New York ina 20-day marathon in April 1951,the scroll comprises the first draftof the definitive Beat Generationnovel. The original manuscript wastypewritten onto 12-foot lengthsof paper that were tapedtogether.
  12. 12. The 0nly people for me are the mad ones, theones who are mad to live, mad to talk, mad tobe saved, desirous of everything at the sametime, the ones who never yawn or say acommonplace thing, but burn, burn, burn, likefabulous yellow roman candles exploding likespider across the stars....Jack Kerouac
  13. 13. Bob DylanBob Dylan (born Robert AllenZimmerman on May 24, 1941) is anAmerican singer-songwriter,author, musician and poet whohas been a major figure in popularmusic for five decades. Much ofDylans best known work is fromthe 1960s when he became aninformal documentarian andreluctant figurehead of Americanunrest.
  14. 14. He had thefinger on the pulse of his generation
  15. 15. Bob DylanSome of his songs, such as"Blowin in the Wind" and "TheTimes They Are a-Changin",[1]became anthems of the anti-warand civil rights movements.
  16. 16. From Beat Generation to HippiesThere were certainly some stylistic differencesbetween "beatniks" and "hippies" — sombercolors, dark shades, and goatees gave way tocolorful "psychedelic" clothing and long hair. Thebeats were known for "playing it cool" (keepinga low profile) but the hippies became known for"being cool" (displaying their individuality).In there were some changes in substance: thebeats tended to be essentially apolitical, but thehippies became actively engaged with the civilrights movement and the anti-war movement.
  17. 17. Revolution Drugs Sex & Music
  18. 18. Another way of viewing the countercultureis as the principle of expansion as appliednot to economies or political spheres ofinfluence but to aspects of personal lifeand to creativity.
  19. 19. The Key
  20. 20. Picture yourself in a boat on a river,With tangerine trees and marmalade skiesSomebody calls you, you answer quite slowly,A girl with kaleidoscope eyes.Cellophane flowers of yellow and green,Towering over your head.Look for the girl with the sun in her eyes,And she’s gone.Lucy in the sky with diamonds.Follow her down to a bridge by a fountainWhere rocking horse people eat marshmellow pies,Everyone smiles as you drift past the flowers,That grow so incredibly high.Newspaper taxis appear on the shore,Waiting to take you away.Climb in the back with your head in the clouds,And you’re gone.Lucy in the sky with diamonds,Picture yourself on a train in a station,With plasticine porters with looking glass ties,Suddenly someone is there at the turnstyle,The girl with the kaleidoscope eyes.
  21. 21. There is controversy concerning Lucy in theSky with Diamonds. When it was released, itwas believed, and there are those that stillbelieve that because hidden in the title of thesong are the initials "LSD", that it was acomposition inspired while under the influenceof that drug.However, John Lennon has offered anexplanation that was contrary to this belief,he said this song was inspired by a drawing ofhis young son Julian.......
  22. 22. Psychedelic cover of The Beatles Revolver album.There was little doubt with the release of this album that the musicwas inspired by LSD. The most controversial part of the album,however, Tomorrow Never Knows. The beginning of the song, "turn offyour mind, relax, and float downstream..." was taken from theintroduction of the book, The Psychedelic Experience: A Manual basedon the Tibetan Book of the Dead, by Timothy Leary
  23. 23. LSDLysergic acid diethylamide
  24. 24. Lysergic acid diethylamideIt is a chemical that changes a users mood,thoughts or perceptions. For this reason, LSDis grouped into a class of drugs known ashallucinogens or psychedelics.
  25. 25. Lysergic acid diethylamideLSD was first synthesized from a fungus thatgrows on rye and other grains. In 1938,Albert Hofmann working in the Swisspharmaceutical company called Sandoz,produced LSD for the first time. He washoping that this new drug could be used tostimulate circulation and respiration.
  26. 26. Lysergic acid diethylamideHowever, the tests he conducted were allfailures and he forgot about LSD for 5 years.In 1943, Hofmann accidentally ingested (orsomehow absorbed) a bit of LSD andexperienced some of the psychedelic effectsof this chemical: dizziness, visual distortionsand restlessness. A few days later heprepared 0.25 mg of LSD in water and drankit. He again experienced the mood andthought altering effects of LSD.
  27. 27. Lysergic acid diethylamideUntil 1966, LSD was provided by SandozLaboratories free of charge to interestedscientists. The use of these compounds bypsychiatrists to gain a better subjectiveunderstanding of the schizophrenicexperience was an accepted practice. Manyclinical trials were conducted on thepotential use of LSD in psychedelicpsychotherapy, generally with very positiveresults.
  28. 28. Lysergic acid diethylamideLSD first became popular recreationallyamong a small group of mental healthprofessionals such as psychiatrists andpsychologists during the 1950s.Cold War era intelligence services werekeenly interested in the possibilities of usingLSD for interrogation and mind control, andalso for large-scale social engineering.The CIA conducted extensive research on LSD,which was mostly destroyed.
  29. 29. Lysergic acid diethylamideSeveral mental health professionals involvedin LSD research, most notably Harvardpsychology professors Drs. Timothy Leary andRichard Alpert (later known as Ram Dass),became convinced of LSDs potential as a toolfor spiritual growth. Their research becamemore esoteric and controversial, alleginglinks between the LSD experience and thestate of enlightenment sought after in manymystical traditions.
  30. 30. Lysergic acid diethylamideThey were dismissed from the traditionalacademic psychology community, and as suchcut off from legal scientific acquisition of thedrug.Dr. Leary was then (allegedly unbeknownstto himself) approached by agents of the CIA,who supplied him with such quantity ofpurified LSD-25 that he and Dr. Alpert/RamDass made available to a much wider portionof the public.
  31. 31. Timothy Laery
  32. 32. Timothy Francis Leary(October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996)American writer,psychologist, campaignerfor psychedelic drugresearch and use, 60scounterculture icon andcomputer softwaredesigner. He is most famousas a proponent of thetherapeutic and spiritualbenefits of LSD. During the1960s, he coined andpopularized the catchphrase "Turn on, tune in,drop out."
  33. 33. Turn on, tune in, drop out"Turn on, tune in, drop out" is acounterculture phrase coined by TimothyLeary in the 1960s. It is an excerpt from aprepared speech he delivered at the openingof a press conference in New York City in1966. This phrase urged hippies to initiatecultural changes through the use ofpsychedelics and by removing themselvesfrom the existing society
  34. 34. Turn on, tune in, drop outLeary later explained:Turn on meant activating your neural andgenetic equipment.Tune in meant interacting harmoniously withthe world around you.Drop out meant a voluntary detachment frominvoluntary commitments like school, themilitary, and corporate employment.
  35. 35. Ken Kesey
  36. 36. Ken Kesey(September 17, 1935 – November 10, 2001)American author, cultural iconwho some consider a linkbetween the "beatgeneration" of the 1950s andthe "hippies" of the 1960s.Born in La Junta, Colorado, heattended the University ofOregon, where he received adegree in speech andcommunication. In 1958; hemoved to California to enrollin the creative writingprogram at StanfordUniversity.
  37. 37. Ken KeseyHe is probably best known forhis novel One Flew Over theCuckoos Nest.At Stanford in 1959, hevolunteered to take part in astudy at the Menlo Hospital onthe effects of psychoactivedrugs such as LSD, sponsored bythe CIA. Kesey wrote manydetailed accounts of hisexperiences. His role as amedical guinea pig inspiredKesey to write One Flew Overthe Cuckoos Nest.
  38. 38. Acid TestWith the commercial success of his first novelin 1962, Kesey moved to La Honda, in themountains outside of San Francisco. Hefrequently entertained friends with partieshe called "Acid Tests" involving music (such asKeseys favorite band, The Warlocks, laterknown as the Grateful Dead), black lights,fluorescent paint, strobes, and other"psychedelic" effects, and of course LSD(often slipped surreptitiously into a punch).
  39. 39. FurthurWhen the publication of his second novel in1964 required his presence in New York,Kesey, Cassady, and others in a group offriends they called the "Merry Pranksters"took a cross-country trip in a school busnicknamed Furthur. This trip, was the groupsattempt at making art out of everyday life.In New York, Cassady introduced Kesey toKerouac and to Allen Ginsberg, who in turnintroduced them to Timothy Leary.
  40. 40. FurthurThe bus was stripped down and remodeled insideand out for a psychedelic excursion across thecountry with Kesey and his Merry Pranksters onboard
  41. 41. Allen Ginsberg
  42. 42. Irwin Allen Guinsberg(June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997)American Beat poet born inPaterson, New Jersey. Heformed a bridge between theBeat movement of the 1950sand the hippies of the 1960s,befriending, among others,Jack Kerouac, Neal Cassady,William S. Burroughs, TimothyLeary, Gregory Corso, BobKaufman, Herbert Huncke, RodMcKuen, and Bob Dylan.
  43. 43. Irwin Allen GuinsbergGinsbergs poetry was stronglyinfluenced by modernism,romanticism, the beat andcadence of jazz, and his KagyuBuddhist practice and Jewishbackground.Ginsbergs principal work,"Howl", is well-known to manyfor its opening line: "I saw thebest minds of my generationdestroyed by madness". It wasconsidered scandalous at thetime of publication.
  44. 44. Irwin Allen GuinsbergIt was banned for obscenity. Theban became a cause célèbreamong defenders of the FirstAmendment, and was later liftedafter judge Clayton W. Horn,declared the poem to possessredeeming social importance.Ginsbergs leftist and generallyanti-establishment politicsattracted the attention of theFBI, who regarded Ginsberg as amajor security threat.
  45. 45. Irwin Allen GuinsbergIt was banned for obscenity. Theban became a cause célèbreamong defenders of the FirstAmendment, and was later liftedafter judge Clayton W. Horn,declared the poem to possessredeeming social importance.Ginsbergs leftist and generallyanti-establishment politicsattracted the attention of theFBI, who regarded Ginsberg as amajor security threat.
  46. 46. Abbie Hoffman
  47. 47. Abbie Hoffman(November 30, 1936 – April 12, 1989)Social and political activist inthe United States, co-founderof the Youth InternationalParty ("Yippies") and, later, afugitive from the law who livedunder an alias following aconviction for allegedly dealingcocaine.He came to prominence in the1960s, but practiced most of hisactivism in the 1970s and hasremained a symbol of the youthrebellion of that decade.
  48. 48. Abbie HoffmanDuring the Vietnam War, he wasan anti-war activist who useddeliberately comical andtheatrical tactics, such as amass demonstration in whichover 50,000 peopleunsuccessfully attempted tolevitate The Pentagon usingpsychic energy.Hoffman was also successful atturning many flower childreninto political activists.
  49. 49. Abbie HoffmanAbbie Hoffman is the author ofSteal This Book, a commerciallysuccessful guide to livingoutside of the establishedsystem. Other titles includeFuck the System, Revolution forthe Hell of It, WoodstockNation, his 1980 autobiography,and his last book, publishedtwo years before his death,Steal This Urine Test. His lifewas dramatized in the film StealThis Movie.
  50. 50. Summer of Love
  51. 51. Summer of LoveThe Summer of Love was a phrase given tothe summer of 1967 to try to describe(personify) the feeling of being in SanFrancisco that summer, when the so-called"hippie movement" came to full fruition. (It istaken as an article of faith by some hippiesthat the word hippie itself was invented to"cash in" on the movement.)
  52. 52. Summer of LoveThe actual beginning of this "Summer" can beattributed to the Human Be-In that tookplace in Golden Gate Park on January 14 ofthat year. Timothy Leary, Allen Ginsberg, andthe Jefferson Airplane all participated in theevent, a celebration of hippie culture andvalues.
  53. 53. Summer of LoveThe Human Be-In was a happening in SanFranciscos Golden Gate Park, the afternoonand evening of January 14, 1967. It was aprelude to San Franciscos Summer of Love,which made the Haight-Ashbury district ahousehold word as the center of an Americancounterculture and introduced the wordpsychedelic to suburbia.
  54. 54. Summer of LoveThe Human Be-In focused the key ideas ofthe 1960s counterculture: personalempowerment, cultural and politicaldecentralization, communal living, ecologicalawareness, consciousness expansion.
  55. 55. Haight-AshburyThe Haight-Ashbury is a district of SanFrancisco, California, named after theintersection of Haight Street and AshburyStreet. It gained a reputation as a center ofillegal drug culture, especially with the useof marijuana. Also many participant of KenKesey Acid test move to Haight-Ashbury.
  56. 56. Haight-AshburyThe area was thus sometimes known as TheHashbury, but, ca. 1967, its fame chieflyrested on the fact that it became theneighborhood of choice for a number ofimportant psychedelic rock performers andgroups of the mid-1960s. Acts like theJefferson Airplane, The Grateful Dead andJanis Joplin, who all lived a short distancefrom the famous intersection
  57. 57. Woman Liberation
  58. 58. Woman LiberationIn the 1960s and 1970s, feminism and feminist theorylargely represented, and was concerned with,problems faced by Western, white, middle-classwomen while at the same time claiming to representall women.Since that time, many feminist theorists havechallenged the assumption that "women" constitute ahomogenous group of individuals with identicalinterests. Feminist activists emerged from withindiverse communities, and feminist theorists began tofocus on the intersection between gender andsexuality with other social identities, such as raceand class.
  59. 59. Psychedelic ArtThe Psychedelic Era (1965–1975), associated with theuse of psychedelic drugs, also produced psychedelicart which may enjoyed by both those who have, andwho have not, had a personal psychedelicexperience.For decades, many users of psychedelic drugs reportthat they perceive a fractalization of the things theyare looking at and a kaleidoscopic patterning. Recentscientific examination of the visual cortex suggeststhat a fractal structure based on hexagons may behow the receptive fields are organized.
  60. 60. Psychedelic ArtIn the 60s, the creativity was bubbling in every fieldsof Art.Painting, Graphic, Cartoon, Literature, Music...
  61. 61. Painting
  62. 62. Santana cover of their album Abraxas in 1970
  63. 63. Abdul Mati KlarweinThe most famous unknown artistBehind the world-famous paintingAnnunciation, used by Santana for the coverof their album Abraxas in 1970, hides theincredibly rich, but little known, universe ofMati Klarwein.  Although Mati produced someof the most iconic images of the 60s and 70s,his name, and much of his work, remainsunknown to many. 
  64. 64. Aleph Sanctuary : The original Aleph Sanctuary was aportable 3 x 3 x 3 metre cubic temple made out of various metalsand wood and panelled with 68 original paintings of various sizes.  Itwas built between 1963 and 1970
  65. 65. Opt ArtInspired by the the psychedelic movement, in 1966,for a few months, it was possible, to walk up anddown Madison Avenue and see in every boutiquewindow a pulsating, psychedelic painting, or print, ofdots by Victor Vasarely, king of the next greatmovement, Op Art.OP Art: Optical illusion style of art.  Many artist triedthis style in various mediums.  Geometric patterns thatfool the eye with an illusion of three dimensions.  Thisstyle reached a peak of popularity during the hippieera. Artists who specialized in this type of workinclud M.C.Escher, Victor Vasarely and Bridget Riley.
  66. 66. Comics
  67. 67. Robert Crumb was born in Philadelphia in 1943. As akid, he started drawing homemade comic books,together with his brother Charles, for the amusement ofhimself and his family. One of the characters heinvented then was Fred the Cat, after the familys pet.Fred eventually became Fritz the Cat, one of Crumbsbest-known characters.
  68. 68. Crumb hated the film so much that he killed offFritz once and for all in a strip in The PeoplesComics.
  69. 69. Music
  70. 70. The Grateful Dead (a name chosen at random from adictionary) was an American psychedelia-influencedrock band, formed in 1965 in San Francisco from theremnants of another band, "Mother McCrees UptownJug Champions." The Grateful Dead were known fortheir unique and eclectic songwriting style—whichfused elements of rock, folk music, bluegrass, blues,country, and jazz—and for live performances of longmodal jams. The bands numerous fans, often referredto the band simply as The Dead.Many bands from this area went on to national fame,such as Jefferson Airplane and Big Brother & theHolding Company, giving San Francisco an image as acenter for the hippie counterculture of the era.
  71. 71. JeffersonAirplane
  72. 72. Jefferson Airplane was an American rock band fromSan Francisco, a pioneer of the LSD-influencedpsychedelic rock movement. Various successorincarnations of the band have performed underdifferent names, reflecting changing times andperformer lineups, known as Jefferson Starship, andlater simply Starship.The term Jefferson airplane is also slang for a usedmatch bent to hold a marijuana cigarette that hasbeen smoked too short to hold without burning thehands. An urban legend claims this was the origin forthe bands name
  73. 73. Janis Joplin
  74. 74. Janis Lyn Joplin (January 19, 1943 – October 4, 1970)was an American blues-influenced rock singer andoccasional songwriter with a distinctive voice. Joplinreleased four albums as the frontwoman for severalbands from 1967 to a posthumous release in 1971.Cultivating a rebellious manner that could be viewedas "liberated" – the womens liberation movement wasstill in its infancy at this time – Joplin styled herself inpart after her female blues heroines, and in part afterthe beat poets. She left Texas for San Francisco in1963, lived in North Beach and in Haight-Ashbury
  75. 75. Pink Floyd
  76. 76. Pink Floyd (formed in 1965 in Cambridge, England) areperhaps the most influential British progressive rockband, famous for what many fans view as theircerebral lyrics.Pink Floyd enjoyed moderate success in the late-1960sas a psychedelic band led by Syd Barrett.In August 1967, the bands debut albumThe Piper atthe Gates of Dawn is considered to be a prime exampleof English psychedelic music.Pink Floyd were recruited by director MichelangeloAntonioni to produce a soundtrack for his film,Zabriskie point, which premiered in 1970.
  77. 77. Woodstock
  78. 78. The Woodstock Music and Art Festival was the mostfamous rock festival of its era. It was held at MaxYasgurs 600 acre (2.4 km²) dairy farm in Bethel, NewYork, on 15, 16, and 17 August, 1969.The Woodstock Festival represented the culmination ofthe counterculture of the 1960s and the ultimateclimax of the "hippie era". Many of the best-knownmusicians of the times appeared during the rain-plagued weekend, much of which was captured in asuccessful 1970 movie, Woodstock.
  79. 79. Feel-Like-Im-Fixin-To-Die Rag is a popular protestsong from the band Country Joe and the Fish.The song begins with the "fish" cheer which was acheerleader-style call-and-response with the audiencewhere Country Joe spells out "fish" ("Give me an F!").The song itself is a black comedy novelty song aboutthe Vietnam War, whose familiar chorus ("One, two,three, what are we fighting for?") is well known tothe Woodstock generation and Vietnam Vets of the1960s and 1970s. It is the bands most successful andpopular songs peaking in the top 40 spot on thecharts.
  80. 80. In one of the most memorable performances at thelegendary Woodstock Festival, Country Joe, performsthe song solo.He altered the fish cheer to say "fuck" intsead and allhalf a million attendees sang along. At one point, mostof the audience members stood up to sing along withhim.The performance garnered international attention andhas since been seen as the epitome of the anti-warmovement of the 1960s.
  81. 81. Jimmy Hendrix
  82. 82. Jimi Hendrix(27 November 1942 – 18 September , 1970)American guitarist, singer,and songwriter. He iswidely considered the mostimportant electric guitaristin the history of popularmusic.Hendrix extended thetradition of rock guitar: byusing feedback, distortionand other effects as sonictools, He was able to usesuch techniques as anintegral part of hiscompositions.
  83. 83. Jimmy Hendrix in Woodstock Jimi Hendrixs performance of "Star SpangledBanner" at Woodstock was a turning point inthe history of the counter-culture movement.As a summing up of one of the most volatileeras in the nations history, his adaptation ofthe American national anthem has enteredinto our cultural lexicon as perhaps the mostpowerful musical touchstone of the era, azeitgeist of expressiveness.
  84. 84. Jimmy Hendrix in WoodstockThe sounds Hendrix drew from his FenderStrat were literally an aural recreation ofwar. In between the machine-gun fire, bombsdropping, smoke billowing from napalmblazes, and a wrenching undercurrent thatevoked the agonizing polarity which tore ourcountry apart and destroyed Vietnam. Asmuch a statement about his feelings aboutwar, "Star Spangled Banner" was a perfectvehicle for Hendrixs complex vision ofincorporating stunning technical work withcompletely new ideas in feedback.
  85. 85. Social & political ImpactAs the sixties progressed, the Vietnam war became anincreasingly high-profile object of criticism, and thesense of the younger generation as a class whowished to create a different society gainedmomentum. One manifestation of this was the generalstrike that took place in Paris in May 1968, nearlytoppling the French government.
  86. 86. Social & political ImpactAs criticism of the established social order becamemore widespread among the newly emergent youthclass, new theories about culture and personalidentity began to spread, and traditional non-Westernideas – particularly with regard to religion, socialorganization and spiritual enlightenment – were alsoembraced.
  87. 87. Social & political ImpactThis introduces one way of looking at the particularcountercultural development of the mid 1960s to mid1970s – simply an upwelling of youth. A quip fromWinston Churchill is often paraphrased these days; itgoes: "If you are not a liberal at 20, you have noheart, and if you are not a conservative at 40 youhave no brain."
  88. 88. Social & political ImpactMany segments of the youth of this period were welleducated, by comparison with earlier periods, leadingto an interest in political philosophies. So, in the"youth culture" view of the phenomenon, every sortof outlook and political philosophy (and form ofpolitical apathy) except social conservatism might beexpected to flourish. Given the eras capacity for bothdirect and media communication, it would be naturaltoo that some members of the older generation wouldcontribute to, and be influenced by, this social currentwithin society.
  89. 89. What RemainsIn any case, as members of the hippiemovement grew older, the 1960scounterculture was absorbed by themainstream, leaving a lasting impact onmorality, lifestyle and fashion. Jay Walljasper,the editor of Utne Reader, has written, "Fromthe great gyrations of the counterculturewould come a movement dedicated to thegreening of America.
  90. 90. What RemainsIn his essay From Satori to Silicon Valley(published 1986), cultural historian TheodoreRoszak made the point that the AppleComputer emerged from within the West Coastcounterculture.Roszak gives a bit of background on thedevelopment of the prototype models of theseoriginal home computers and on the twoSteves (Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, thecomputers developers) evolution toward beingbusinessmen.
  91. 91. What RemainsIn fact, a considerable number of earlycomputing and networking pioneers – afterdiscovering LSD and roaming the campuses ofUC Berkeley, Stanford, and MIT in the late 60sand early 70s – would emerge from this casteof social "misfits" to shape the modern world.
  92. 92. We are here to make a better world.No amount of rationalization or blaming can preempt the momentof choice each of us brings to our situation here on this planet.The lesson of the 60s is that people who cared enough to doright could change history.We didnt end racism but we ended legal segregation.We ended the idea that you could send half-a-million soldiersaround the world to fight a war that people do not support.We ended the idea that women are second-class citizens.We made the environment an issue that couldnt be avoided.The big battles that we won cannot be reversed. We were young,self-righteous, reckless, hypocritical, brave, silly, headstrong andscared half to death.And we were right.Abbie Hoffman