Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Dersen zimanê kurdi

566 views

Published on

Dersen Zimane Kurdi

Published in: Education
  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD THAT BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book that can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer that is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story That Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths that Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD THAT BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book that can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer that is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story That Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths that Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Schöne Präsentation!
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

Dersen zimanê kurdi

  1. 1. .ÕUWÀH'LO'HUVOHUL '(56Ç1=0$1Ç.85'Ì %DUDQ.HPDO%XUND
  2. 2. ;ZHQGHYDQÃQGHODOø (Y'HUVÃQ=PDQÃ.XUGÇHNMLEHUKHPÃQ.HPDO%XUNDH %HUÇVDODOLZHODWKDWLEÔKD]LUNLLUQÔFDUDSÃæÇQOLGHU ZHODWGLVDODGDGHVWSÃNLUÔGL'HQJà .20.$5GD ÔELQDYÃ%DUDQPHKELPHKKDWZHæDQGLQ3LæWUDGLVDOD GDGLQDYZHæDQÃQ5RMD1ÔGDZHNNLWÃEÀHSEÔ 3LæWÇZÃMÇOLkVWDPEROÃGLQDY:HæDQÃQ'HQJGDGHUNHW HOHTHHNPH]LQGÇWÔJLKDÀDSDÀDUHPÇQ 1XKDHPYDQGHUVDQGLUÔSHOD[ZHDÇQWHUQHWÃGDELFÇ GLNLQGDNX.XUGÃQOLÀDUNRæHÃGLQDÃELNDULELQMà IHGHELVWÇQLQ *XODQ 6HYJLOLRNXUODU %XUDGDVXQGXèXPX].ÕUWÀH'LO'HUVOHUL.HPDO%XUNDCÛQ ÕUÕQOHULQGHQELULGLUYHGDKDÛOÛ ÏQFHVLXUWLÀLQGH KD]ÛUODQGÛ,ONNH]XUWGÛùÛQGDÛOÛQGDQEDùODDUDN 'HQJÃ.20.$5GDGL]LKDOLQGHYH%DUDQDGÛOD DÛQODQGÛÛOÛQGDLVH5RMD1ÔDÛQODUÛ DUDVÛQGD NLWDSKDOLQGHEDVÛOGÛ 'DKDVRQUDLVH,VWDQEXOGD'HQJDÛQODUÛ DUDVÛQGDHQL EDVNÛODUÛ DSÛOGÛ %XGHUVOHULRNXUODUÛPL]ÛQDUDUODQPDVÛ LÀLQLQWHUQHW VDIDPÛ]DGDNRGXN2QODUÛQ.ÕUWÀHLÏèUHQPHNYH JHOLùWLUPHNLVWHHQOHUHDUDUO Û RODFDèÛQÛ XPDUÛ]
  3. 3. 0DÛV 3£å*27,1 ;ZHQGHYDQÃQGHODO åHUÃÀDQGÇMÇSDUÀHNMLæHUÃD]DGÇÃH'LMPLQHNPH]LQMÇ QH]DQÇH+HNHGLMPLQILUVHQGQHGDHGLELVWDQÃQPH KHELQGLYÃHPZDQEL[ZHÀÃNLQ0HULYNXEL[ZD]H GLNDUHGL]vQGDQDQGDMvKvQEH%HUvKHUWLùWvGLONLULQHFHKG HTÇUHWH 'LHPUÃPHULYDQGDERKÇQEÔQÃGHPHN[ZHVHU[XVÔVÇ
  4. 4. WXQH]DURELQ[RUWELQDQNDOELQ MLQELQDQPÃUELQ VLVWÇÃQHNLQÔKÇQELQ+ÇQEÔQURQDKÇHNPH]LQHZHML WDUÇÃ[LODVGLNHGLQÃHNQXÔGHODOOLEHUZHYHGLNH +ÇQEÔQGLUÇDD]DGÇÔUL]JDUÇÃGDZH[ZHGÇÀHNGLNH%R PLOHWHNÇML]DQÇQÃPH]LQWLUGHZOHPHQGÇWXQH ;ZÇæNÔEUDQR %RQD KÇQEÔQD]PDQÃPHÀLOD]LPHEÃNLULQ%LEÇUÔ EDZHUvDPHHYWLùWOD ]LPLQ (PELWHNWHQÃELQMÇGHVWSÃELNLQÔ[ZHQGLQÔ QLYÇVDQGLQD.XUGÇKÇQELQ LPDHPFHKGGLNLQ]PDQÃ EÇDQÇDQKÇQGLELQÔER]LPDQÃ[ZHYÃFHKGÃQÇæDQ QDGLQ 'LYÃHPMLYÃNÃPDVÇÃIHGÇELNLQ+ÇQEÔQD]PDQÃPHML Ã[HONÃKÃVDQWLUH 'LYÃHPDOÇNDUÇDKHYDOÃQ[ZHPHULYÃQ[ZHQDVÔ GRVWÃQ[ZHELNLQÃNXSLÀHNÇGL]DQLQGLYÃ]DQÇQD[ZH KÇQÇKHYDOÔKRJLUÃQ[ZHMÇELNLQ=DQLQDNXGLFÇÃ[ZHGD GLPÇQHÀLUDGLEH(ZPÇQD]ÃUÃ ZLQGDÇHGLELQD[ÃGD (YNLWÃEERQDYÃDUPDQFÃKDWÇHKD]LUNLULQ(YER KÇQEÔQD]PDQÃ.XUGÇHELDOÇNDUÇD7LUNÇ .XUGÃQNX[ZHQGLQÔQLYÇVDQGLQD]PDQÃ[ZHTHWQL]DQLQ OÃEL7LUNÇGL]DQLQGLNDULQELDOÇNDUÇDYÃNLWÃEÃKÃGÇKÃGÇ KÇQELQ-LEHUNXHYNLWÃEELDOÇNDUÇD7LUNÇIÃUÇZHGLNHÔGL KHUGHUVHNÇGDMLEREÃMHÃQJRWLQSLUV
  5. 5. QXIHUKHQJRN KHH ÃQNX.XUGÇKLQGLNGL]DQLQMÇGLNDULQSÃæYDELELQ+LQNHV GLNDULQEL.XUGÇEL[ZÇQLQÔSLÀHNÇELQLYÇVÇQLQMÇ/ÃHZMLZDQ UDQHEHVH(ZGLYÇNDUÇGDJHOHN[HOHWÇMÇGLNLQ%RQDYÃ HNÃGLYÃHZMÇEL[HELWLQNX[ZHQGLQQLYÇVDQGLQÔ SHÇYDQGLQD]PDQÃ[ZHELSÃæYDELELQ ;HONÃEÇDQÇMÇÃQNXEL7LUNÇGL]DQLQGLNDULQELFHKGD[ZH ÔELDOÇNDUÇDYDQGHUVDQ SLÀHNMÇELDOÇNDUÇDKHYDOÃQ [ZHÃQ.XUG ]PDQÃ.XUGÇKÇQELQ 'LGHUVDQGDKHUNXGLÀHSDUD7LUNÇNÃPGLEHÔSLUVÔ SUREOHPÃQ]PÃQEL.XUGÇWÃQHHæNHUHNLULQ(YMLWLæWHNLUDVW
  6. 6. H;ZHQGHYDQNXSLÀHNKD]LUÇD[ZHNLUæÔQGDKHNHGL GHUVDQGD.XUGÇELNDUEÇQHGLNDUH]PÃQÀÃWLUKÇQEHÔ SÃæYHELEH 7ÇUPHK %$5$1 ¯16¯= 'HèHUOLRNXUODU .ÕOWÕUNDYJDPÛ]GDÏ]JÕUOÕNNDYJDPÛ]ÛQELUSDUÀDVÛGÛU %DæOÛFDGÕæPDQODUÛPÛ]GDQELULGHELOJLVL]OLNWLU(èHU RNXOODUÛPÛ]ÛQROPDVÛQDIÛUVDWYHULOPHPLæVHRQODUÛEL] NHQGLPL]ROXæWXUPDOÛÛ]kQVDQGLOHUVH]LQGDQODUGDELOH ÏèUHQLU+HUæHLQEDæÛLVWHNÀDEDJÏVWHUPHNYHNDUDUOÛ GDYUDQPDNWÛU kQVDQDæDPÛQGDÏèUHQPHNLÀLQÏ]HOELUGÏQHPRNWXU ÀRFXNJHQÀDGDDæOÛROXQNDGÛQDGDHUNHNROXQ WHPEHOOLNHWPHLQÏèUHQLQ¯èUHQPHNEÕÕNELUÛæÛNWÛU NLæLLNDUDQOÛNWDQNXUWDUÛUÏQÕQHHQLYHJÕ]HOELUGÕQD DÀDU%LOJLVL]HÏ]JÕUOÕNNDYJDVÛQGDJÕÀOÕVLODKODUYHULU%LU KDONLÀLQELOJLGHQGDKDEÕÕN]HQJLQOLNRODPD] 'LOLPL]LÏèUHQPHNYHJHOLæWLUPHNLÀLQQHDSPDOÛ .DQÛPFDLONHOGHæXQODUJHUHNOL %LULQFLVLWHNEDæÛPÛ]DROVDNGDGLOLPL]LÏèUHQPHNLÀLQ KHPHQEDæODPDOÛÛ]%DæNDGLOOHULÏèUHQPHNLÀLQELUKDOL oDEDKDUFDUNHQNHQGLGLOLPL]HJHOLQFHQHGHQJHYùHN GDYUDQDOÛP%XJHYæHNOLNXWDQÀYHULFLROPD]PÛ.HQGL GLOLPL]LRNXXSD]PDVÛQÛJÕ]HONRQXæPDVÛQÛÏèUHQPHN KHPÀRNJHUHNOLKHPGHGLèHUGLOOHUHJÏUHGDKD NRODGÛU kNLQFLVLEXNRQXGDNHQGLDUNDGDæODUÛPÛ]DDNÛQODUÛPÛ]D GRVWYHWDQÛGÛNODUÛPÛ]DDUGÛPFÛROPDOÛÛ]'LOLELUÏOÀÕGH ELOHQOHUEDæNDODUÛQDGDÏèUHWPHNLÀLQÀDEDJÏVWHUPHOL .HQGLHULQGHGXUDQELOJLQHHDUDU%ÏOHVLELOJLWRSUDN DOWÛQGDLWLNDOWÛQODUJLELGLU %XNLWDSLæWHEXDPDÀODKD]ÛUODQGÛ27ÕUNÀHQLQ DUGÛPÛOD.ÕUWÀHLÏèUHQPHNLÀLQGLU .ÕUWÀHRNXPDD]PDÛKLÀELOPHHQOHUHèHU7ÕUNÀH ELOLRUODUVDEXGHUVOHULQDUGÛPÛOD ÏèUHQHELOLUOHU ÕQNÕ NLWDS7ÕUNÀHQLQDUGÛPÛODÏèUHWPHNWHYHKHUGHUVWH HQLNHOLPHOHULÀLQELUGHNÕÀÕNVÏ]OÕNEXOXQPDNWDGÛU .ÕUWÀHLD]ELOHQOHUGHEXGHUVOHULQDUGÛPÛOD JHOLæWLUHELOLUOHU%D]ÛODUÛELUÏOÀÕGH.ÕUWÀHRNXXS D]PDVÛQÛGDELOLRU$PDEXHWPLRURQODUELUÀRNKDWD GDDSÛRUODU2QODUGD.ÕUWÀHNRQXæPDÛYHRNXPD D]PDÛJHOLæWLUPHNLÀLQÀDEDJÏVWHPHOL7ÕUNÀHELOHQ
  7. 7. DEDQFÛODUGDEXGHUVOHULQDUGÛPÛYHNHQGLÀDEDODUÛOD DQÛ]DPDQGD.ÕUWÀHELOHQDUNDGDæODUÛQÛQGHVWHèLOH .ÕUWÀHLÏèUHQHELOLUOHU 'HUVOHULOHUOHGLNÀHDÀÛNODPDODUGD7ÕUNÀHQLQSDÛJLGHUHN D]DOÛRUEXLæLÀLQGH.ÕUWÀHNXOODQÛOÛRU%XGDGRèDO%HOOL ELUKD]ÛUOÛNWDQVRQUDNLæLQLQÏèUHQLPVÕUHFLQGHWÕPGHQ .ÕUWÀHLNXOODQPDVÛRQXQGLOLÏèUHQPHVLYHJHOLæWLUPHVL LÀLQDUDOÛGÛU 7HPPX] %$5$1 .µ57 ($/)$%( *ÕQÕPÕ]GH.ÕUWÀHQLQD]ÛOÛæÛQGDÕÀWÕUDOIDEH NXOODQÛOPDNWDGÛU/DWLQ.LULOYH$UDSDOIDEHVL6RYHWOHU %LUOLèLQGHDæDDQ.ÕUWOHU.LULODOIDEHVLQLkUDQYH,UDN .ÕUWOHUL$UDSDOIDEHVLQL6XULH.ÕUWOHULKHP$UDSKHP/DWLQ DOIDEHVLQL7ÕUNLH.ÕUWOHULLVHDOQÛ]FD/DWLQDOIDEHVLQL NXOODQPDNWDODU'LèHUDQGDQ.LULOYH$UDSDOIDEHOHULQL NXOODQDQNHVLPOHUGHGHDGÛQODUJHQHOOLNOH/DWLQDOIDEHVLQL ELOPHNWHYH/DWLQFHD]ÛOPÛæPHWLQOHULDQODPDNWDGÛUODU%X QHGHQOH.ÕUWÀHDOIDEHQLQJHOHFHNWHHVDVRODUDN/DWLQFH RODFDèÛVÏOHQHELOLU%XUDGDNXOODQGÛèÛPÛ]DODIDEHGH ODWLQFHRODQGÛU .ÕUWÀHDODIEHGHKDUIYDUGÛU DEFÀ GHÃIJKLÇMNOPQRSTUVæWXÔ YZ[] %XKDUIOHUGHQLVHVOLGLèHUOHULVHVVL]GLU 6HVOLKDUIOHUæXQODUGÛU DHÃLÇRXÔ +DUIOHULQRNXQXùX D 7ÕUNÀHGHNLDJLELRNXQXU E 7ÕUNÀHGHNLEJLELRNXQXU F7ÕUNÀHGHNLFJLELRNXQXU À%XKDUILQELUL7ÕUNÀHGHNLÀVHVLYXUJXVX]GLèHULYXUJXOX ROPDNÕ]HUHLNLWRQXYDUGÛU¯UQHN YXUJXVX]ÀHQG NDÀ
  8. 8. NHÀÛN NÛ]
  9. 9. 9XUJXOXÀÃOHN LQHN
  10. 10. ÀDO ÀXNXU
  11. 11. 9XUJXOXRODQÛQGDGLOXFXGDPDèDEDVWÛUÛOÛU
  12. 12. G 7ÕUNÀHGHNLGJLELRNXQXU H 7ÕUNÀHGHNLHJLELRNXQXU$QFDNYXUJXOXELUWRQXGDKD YDUGÛUNLHLOHDDUDVÛQGDELUVHVYHULU(OL NHOLPHVLQGH $OLQLQ.ÕUWÀHVÏOHQLæL
  13. 13. ROGXèXJLEL6HVJHQL]GHQJHOLU Ã %XVHV7ÕUÀHGHRNWXUDQFDNDEDQFÛGLOOHULQHWNLVLOH ED]ÛVÏ]FÕNOHUGHUDVWODQDELOLU(ODEDQFÛ
  14. 14. HORèOX NHOLPHOHULQGHNLHJLEL'XGDNODUÀRNKDILIDUDOÛNWÛUYHÕVW GLùOHUDOWGLæOHULNVPHQNDSDWÛU¯UQHN ÀÃ LL
  15. 15. EÃU NÕUHN
  16. 16. NÃUEÛÀDN
  17. 17. I 7ÕUNÀHGHNLIJLELRNXQXU J 7ÕUNÀHGHNLJJLELRNXQXU K7ÕUNÀHGHNLKELELRNXQXU L 7ÕUNÀHGHNLÛJLELRNXQXU Ç 7ÕUNÀHGHNLLJLELRNXQXU M 7ÕUNÀHGHNLMJLELRNXQXU$VOÛQGD7ÕUNÀHGHEXVHVRWXU EXGLOHGÛæDUGDQJLUHQED]ÛNHOLPHOHUGHNXODQÛOPDNWDGÛU
  18. 18. N %XVHVLQELUL7ÕUNÀHGHNLNGLèHULLVHJHQL]GHQJHOHQ YXUJXOXELÀLPLROPDNÕ]HUHLNLWRQXYDUGÛU ¯UQHN 9XUJXVX]NHU HùHN
  19. 19. NDU Lù
  20. 20. 9XUJXOXNHU VDèÛU
  21. 21. NDU RèODN
  22. 22. O 7ÕUNÀHGHNLO JLELRNXQXU P 7ÕUNÀHGHNLPJLELRNXQXU Q 7ÕUNÀHGHNLQJLELRNXQXU R 7ÕUNÀHGHNLRJLELRNXQXU S %XKDUILQYXUJXOXYHYXUJXVX]ROPDNÕ]HUHLNLWRQX YDUGÛU9XUJXOXRODQÛQGDGXGDNODUNXYYHWOHEDVWÛUÛOÛU ¯UQHN 9XUJXVX]SÛUÀRN
  23. 23. üHUSH]H SHULùDQ
  24. 24. 9XUJXOXSDQL WRSXN
  25. 25. VÛSÛQJ HPOLNRWX
  26. 26. T %XKDUI7ÕUNÀHDOIDEHGHRNWXU*HQL]GHQJHOHQN VHVLQHDNÛQELUVHVYHULU ¯UQHN 7HTLQ SDWODPD
  27. 27. EHT NXUEDèD
  28. 28. U %XVHVLQELULYXUJXOXGLèHULYXUJXVX]ROPDNÕ]HUHVHUWYH XPXùDN LNLELÀLPLYDUGÛU ¯UQHN 9XUJXVX]+XQDU QDU
  29. 29. %ÃUÇYDQ LVLP VÕWVD]DQNÛ]
  30. 30. 9XUJXOX3LU ÀRN
  31. 31. NLUÇQVDWÛQDOPDN
  32. 32. V 7ÕUNÀHGHNLVJLELRNXQXU
  33. 33. ü 7UNoHGHNLùJLELRNXQXU W %XKDUILQELULYXUJXOXGLèHULYXUJXVX]ROPDNÕ]HUHLNLWRQX YDUGÛU9XUJXVX]RODQÛ7ÕUNÀHGHNLWVHVLQLYHULU9XUJXOX RODQÛQGDGLOXFXÕVWYHDOWGLæOHUDUDVÛQGDÏQHGRèUX X]DWÛOÛUYHWHODIIX]HGLOLUNHQGLæOHUWDUDIÛQGDQGLOHEDVWÛUÛOÛU ¯UQHN 9XUJXVX]6ÇWLOND]DQ
  34. 34. NXUW NÛVD
  35. 35. 9XUJXOX7HQLN LQFH
  36. 36. WÔ GXW
  37. 37. WDKO DFÛ
  38. 38. X %XVHV7ÕUNÀGHRNWXU7XUNÀHGHNLXLOHÛKDUIOHULQLQ RNXQXæXDUDVÛQGDELUVHVYHULU ¯UQHN *XO JÕO
  39. 39. 4XOÛQJ WXUQD
  40. 40. *XU NXUW
  41. 41. Ô 7ÕUNÀHGHNLXJLELRNXQXU Y µVWGLæOHUDOWGXGDèÛQÕVWÕQHEDVWÛUÛODUDNÀÛNDUÛODQELUVHV $OPDQFDGDNLYKDUILQHDNÛQELURNXQXæXYDUGÛU ¯UQHN 1DY DG
  42. 42. HYÇQ VHYJL
  43. 43. YHüDUWvVDNOÛ
  44. 44. Z 7ÕUNÀHGHNLYVHVLQLYHULU [ %XKDUILQGHLNLWRQXYDUGÛU%LUL7ÕUNÀHGHNLèXPXæDNJ
  45. 45. VHVLQLYHULU'LèHUVHVGDKDVHUWWLUYH7ÕUNÀHGHRNWXU ¯UQHN XPXæDNJè
  46. 46. JLELRNXQDQD[D EÕÕNWRSUDNVDKLEL DèD
  47. 47. [H]DO JHLN
  48. 48. 6HUWRNXQDQ[1D[LUVÛèÛUVÕUÕVÕ
  49. 49. [RUW GHOLNDQOÛ
  50. 50. [XUW JÕÀOÕ
  51. 51. 7ÕUNÀHGHNLVHVLQLYHULU ] 7ÕUNÀHGHNL]VHVLQLYHULU %D]ÛKDUIOHULQGHèLæLNWRQODUÛQÛQEXOXQXæXYHEXQODUÛQÏ]HO LùDUHWOHUOHJ|VWHULOPHLùL EDæODQJÛÀWDRNXXFXDJÕÀ JÏUÕQHELOLU$QFDNRNXXFX.ÕUWÀHPHWLQOHULRNXXS D]PDNWDEHOOLELUGHQHND]DQGÛNWDQVRQUDNHOLPHOHULQ FÕPOHLÀLQGHNLHUOHULQHJÏUHELULQLGLèHULQGHQNRODFD DÛUDELOPHNWHGLU6RYHW.ÕUWHOHULQLQNXOODQGÛèÛ.LULO DOIDEHVLQGHEXWUo LIWWRQOXVHVOHULo LQ|]HOLùD UHWOHU NXOODQÛOPDNWDGÛU .UWoHGHLNLKDUIWHQROXùDQDPDWHNELUVHVYHUHQELU GLIWRQJ GDYDUGÛU[Z ¯UQHN ;ZHNHQGL
  52. 52. [ZÇQ NDQ
  53. 53. [ZDULQHPHN
  54. 54. ,, (Y%XEXQODU (Z2RQODU 4HOHP.DOHP 3LUWÔN.LWDS (]%HQ 7X6HQ 1DYLVLP 0LQ%HQ  L1H .Ç.LP  DZD1DVÛO  DZDÇ1DVÛOVÛQ %DùLL 6SDV7HüHNNU 6SDVGLNLP7HüHNNUHGHULP 6ÃY(OPD 'DU$èDÀ  LYÇN.Xü ;ZHQGHNDU¯èUHQFL (]+HVHQLP 7X(ORÇ 1DYÃWHÀLH 1DYÃPLQ+HVHQH 7XNÇÇ (]+HVHQLP  DZDÇ %DùLPWXo DZDv (]MvEDùLPVSDVGLNLP 7XNÇÇ (](ORPH (YÀLH (YTHOHPH (YÀLQH (ZVÃYLQ .ÕUWÀHGHLNLJXUSæDKÛV]DPLULYDUGÛU *583 (]%HQ 7X6HQ (Z2 (P%L] +ÔQ6L] (Z2QODU
  55. 55. .ÕUWÀHGHEÔQ ROPDN
  56. 56. ILLOLQLQæLPGLNL]DPDQÛ æDKÛVODUDJÏUHæÏOHEHOLUOHQLU (]LP%HQLP 7XÇ6HQVLQ (ZH2GXU (PLQ%L]L] +ÔQLQ6L]VLQL] (ZLQ2QODUGÛU %ÔQ ILLOLQLQROXPVX]OXNELÀLPLLNLWÕUOÕDSÛOÛU
  57. 57. kVPLQYHDVÛIDWÛQEDæÛQDQH
  58. 58. HGDWÛJHWLULOHUHN ¯UQHN(]QH +HVHQLP
  59. 59. )LLOLQEDæÛQDQLQ
  60. 60. ROXPVX]OXNÏQHNLJHWLULOHUHN ¯UQHN(]+HVHQQLQLP  L YHNÇVRUX]DPLUOHULQLQNXOODQÛOÛæÛQGDEÔQ
  61. 61. ILLOL WHNLOOHUGHH
  62. 62. ÀRèXOODUGDQH
  63. 63. ELÀLPLQLDOÛU (YÀLH (ZÀLQH (ZNÇH (ZNÇQH %ÔQILLOLQLQELULQFLWHNLOæDKÛVODNXOODQÛOGÛèÛQGDVHVOL KDUIOHELWPHVLKDOLQHPH
  64. 64. ELÀLPLQLDOÛæÛQDGLNNDW HGHOLP 7XNÇÇ (]+HVHQLP 7XNÇÇ (](ORPH 7XNÇÇ (](üDQLP 7XNÇÇ (]=HUÃPH $OÛæWÛUPD $æDèÛGDNLÀÕPOHOHUGHERæHUOHULGROGXUXQ (]+HVHQWX=HUÃH](ORHP[ZHQGHYDQWXNÇHYÀL HZÀLKÔQNÇHYHHZLQHPLQWXÇH]PHHZ QHKÔQQH=HUÃPH+HVHQÇVÃYLQ[ZHQGHYDQLQ GDUHQDYÃWHQDYÃ+HVHQ
  65. 65. ,,, 5RM *QJQHü øHY *HFH 5RMEDù *ÕQDGÛQ øHYEDù ø LJHFHOHU 0DPRVWH ¯èUHWPHQ 5HQJ 5HQN 6RU .ÛUPÛ]Û =HU 6DUÛ .D[L] .DèÛW 6LSÇ %HD]DN 5Hù .DUD .XUGÇ .ÕUWÀH 7ÛUNÇ 7ÕUNÀH .à .LPLQ ´ 9H 0DO (Y =PDQ 'LO ;ZvùN .Û]NDUGHü %LUD (UNHNNDUGHü ;ZDULQ HPHNILLO
  66. 66. 5RMEDù+HVHQ 5RMEDù0DPRVWH  DZDÇ %DùLPVSDVGLNLP 1DYÃWHÀLH 1DYÃPLQ=HUÃH (ZÀLQH (ZVÃYLQ 6ÃYÀLUHQJLQ (ZVRU Ô]HULQ (ZÀLH (ZND[L]H .D[L]ÀLUHQJH .D[L]VLSÇH 4HOHPÀLUHQJH 4HOHPUHùH 1DYÃWHÀLH 1DYÃPLQ7HURH =PDQÃWHÀLH =PDQÃPLQ.XUGÇH ,NLQFLJUXSVDKÛV]DPLUL
  67. 67. 0LQ %HQ %HQLP 7H 6HQ 6HQLQ :LHULO
  68. 68. :ÃGLùLO
  69. 69. 2 2QXQ 0H %L] %L]LP :H 6L] 6L]LQ :DQ 2QODU 2QODUÛQ )LLOWÕUOHULQHYH]DPDQODUÛQDJ|UHELULQFLYHDLNLQFLJUXSùD KÛV]DPLUOHULNXOODQÛOÛU .ÕUWÀHGHPDOLNLHWVÛIDWODUÛ LNLQFLJUXS]DPLUOHUOHDQÛGÛU 0LQVÃY[ZDU (OPDHGLP 6ÃYDPLQVRUH (OPDPNÛUPÛ]ÛGÛU 0LQ ELULQFLFPOHGHùD KÛV]DPLULEHQ
  70. 70. LNLQFLFÕPOHGHPDOLNLHWVÛIDWÛ EHQLP
  71. 71. QLWHOLèLQGHGLU LQVHGDWÛ LQVHGDWÛ HULOLÀLQÃ
  72. 72. GLùLOLo LQ D
  73. 73. GÛU+HULNLFLQVLQÀRèXOXLÀLQÃQ
  74. 74. GÛU ;ZvùN ;ZvüNDPLQ %LUD %LUDÃ WH ;ZvùNÃQ PLQELUDÃQWH ,VLPELUD
  75. 75. ÏUQHèLQGHROGXèXJLELVHVOLKDUIOHELWHUVHDUDD
  76. 76. LODYHHGLOLU .UWoHGHWPLVLPOHUHULOYHDGLùLORODUDNFLQVHGDW Û DOÛUODU¯UQHèLQVÃYHOPD
  77. 77. GLùLO]PDQGLO
  78. 78. HULOGLU 6ÃYDPLQ =PDQÃ WH $OÛüWÛUPD 0LQVÃY[ZDU 0HVÃY[ZDU 7HVÃY[ZDU :HVÃY[ZDU :ÇVÃY[ZDU :DQVÃY[ZDU :ÃVÃY[ZDU 6ÃYDPLQVRUH 4HOHPDWHUHùH 3LUWÔNDZÇ]HUH 1DYÃZÃÀLH 1DYÃZÃ(æDQH 0DODZHÀLUHQJH 0DODPHVLSÇH =PDQÃZDQÀLH =PDQÃZDQ7LUNÇH 6ÃYÃQZHÀLUHQJLQ 6ÃYÃQPHVRUÔ]HULQ
  79. 79. 1DYÃ[ZÇæNDWHÀLH 1DYÃZÃ(æDQH 1DYÃELUDÃQWHÀLQH 1DYÃQZDQ(KPHGÔ(OÇH (ZÀLH (ZSLUWÔNH (ZSLUWÔNDNÃH (ZSLUWÔND(OÇH 3LUWÔND(OÇÀLUHQJH (ZVRUH (ZÀLQH (ZGDULQ (ZGDUÃQNÃQH (ZGDUÃQPHQH $æDèÛGDNLVRUXODUÛ FHYDSODQGÛUÛQ 1DYÃWHÀLH 7XNÇÇ (YÀLH 6ÃYÀLUHQJH (ZNÇH (KPHGELUDÃNÃH (ZTHOHPDNÃH 4HOHPDWHÀLUHQJH ,üDUHW6ÛIDWODUÛ (Y %XEXQODU (Z 2RQODU  HNLPKDOLQGH 9ÃVÃYÃ %XHOPDÛ 9ÇVHÇ %XNÏSHèL 9DQSLUWÔNDQ %XNLWDSODUÛ :ÃVÃYÃ 2HOPDÛ :ÇVHÇ 2NÏSHèL :DQSLUWÔNDQ 2NLWDSODUÛ 9ÃZÃGLùLOLo LQ YÇZÇHULOLÀLQYDQZDQÀRèXOLÀLQNXOODQÛOÛU ,9 /L HUELULUHQHGDW -ÃU $æDèÛ -RU XNDUÛ
  80. 80. %HU ¯Q 3Ãæ ¯Q 3Dù $UND 6HU µVW %LQ $OW 'HU 'ÛüDUÛ +XQGLU ø ÀHUL 'HUL .DSÛ .X 1HUH -Ç 'HGDGDKLO
  81. 81. ;DOÇÀH +DOÛ 2GH 2GD .HÀLN .Û] /DZLN 2èODQ .HVN HüLO .ÔÀLN .ÏSHN *HZU *UL øvQ 0DYL 'ÇZDU 'XYDU DQ DGD 4HOHPOLNXH 4HOHPOLVHUPDVÃH 3LUWÔNOLNXH (ZMÇOLVHUPDVÃH ;DOÇÀHOLNXH ;DOÇÀHOLELQPDVÃH .XUVÇOLNXH .XUVÇOLEHUPDVÃH 3HQÀLUHOLNXH (ZOLSDæPDVÃH /DPEHOLNXH (ZOLMRUH 0DVHOLNXH (ZOLKXQGLURGÃOLEHUGÇZÃUH .HÀLNÔODZLNOLNXQH (ZOLKXQGLURGÃOLVHUNXUVÇDQLQ (YPDODNÃH (YPDODPHH 'ÇZDUÀLUHQJH'ÇZDUVLSÇH ;DOÇÀHÀLUHQJH ;DOÇÀHNHVNH .ÔÀLNÀLUHQJH .ÔÀLNJHZUH 3LUWÔNÀLUHQJH 3LUWÔNæÇQH (OÇODZLNH=HUÃNHÀLNH
  82. 82. $OÛüWÛUPD 0DVH /LVHUPDVà ;DOÇÀH /LVHU[DOÇÀà 'ÇZDU /LEHUGÇZÃU 'HUÇ /LEHUGÃUÇ +HNHGLNÇWÃSDæÇQGDGHQJGÃUÃQH
  83. 83. ÔD
  84. 84. KHELQHZGLELQÃ
  85. 85. 6RQKHFHGHH
  86. 86. YHD
  87. 87. VHVOLOHULYDUVDEXQODUÃ
  88. 88. ELÀLPLQLDOÛUODU $OÛüWÛUPD
  89. 89. $æDèÛGDNLERùHUOHULGROGXUXQX] 0DVHOLRGÃGÇZÃUH 4HOHPOLPDVÃ .XUVÇPDVÃH /DPSHH 3HQÀLUHOLH 3HQÀLUHPDVÃ .ÔÀLNNX OLGÃUÇH 'ÇZDUVLSÇHNÔÀLNHSLUWÔNH
  90. 90. $æDèÛGDNL VRUXODUÛ FHYDSODQGÛUÛQ ;DOÇÀHOLNXH 4HOHPOLNXH /DPSHOLNXH 1DYÃWHÀLH (OÇODZLNHDQNHÀLNH .ÔÀLNÀLUHQJH .ÔÀLNOLNXH .HÀLNÔODZLNOLNXQH 0DVHOLNXH .ÕUWÀHGHVRUXFÕPOHVL
  91. 91. POHQLQEDùÛQDPDND JLELVÏ]ÕNOHUJHWLULOHUHNDSÛOÛU (ZPDODZHH 0DHZPDODZHH .DWHGLJRWH]WÃP
  92. 92. ÕPOHGHVHVGÕ]HQLROXOD6RUXFÕPOHVLQGHVRQKHFHGHQÏQFHNLELUYHD LNLQFLKHFHGHVHVWL]OHùLU (ZPDODZHH (ZPDODZHH 4HOHPOLVHUPDVÃH 4HOHPOLVHUPDVÃH
  93. 93. .Ç ÀLÀDZD JLELVRUX]DPLUOHULYHDVÛIDWODUÛEDVLWYHELUOHùLN]D UIODU]D V ÛWDVÛOD (ZNÇH (ZÀLH 7XÀDZDÇ 4HOHPOLNXH 9 'LGD HUELOGLUHQHGDW %HOÃ (YHW (UÃ (YHW 1D +DÛU 'Ã $QQH %DY %DED /DZ 2èODQ .XU 2èODQ .HÀ .Û] +HYDO $UNDGDü  HQG .DÀ 6DO ÛO 6DOLQÇ DüÛQGD +HH 9DU 7XQH RN  LPD 1HGHQ )HTÇU RNVXO 'HZOHPHQG =HQJLQ 'HUV[DQH 6ÛQÛI 'LELVWDQ 2NXO 0H]LQ %ÕÕN 3LÀÔN .ÕÀÕN HN %LU 'X ø NL 6Ã ÕÀ  DU 'ÏUW 3ÃQF %Hü øHù $OWÛ +HIW HGL +HùW 6HNL] 1HK 'RNX] 'HK 2Q DQ]GHK 2QELU 'DQ]GHK 2QLNL 6Ã]GHK 2QÕÀ  DUGHK 2QGÏUW
  94. 94. 3DQ]GHK 2QEHü øDQ]GHK 2QDOWÛ +HIWGHK 2QHGL +HùWGHK 2QVHNL] 1R]GHK 2QGRNX] %ÇVW LUPL 6Ç 2WX]  LO .ÛUN 3ÃQFÇ (OOL åÃVW $OWPÛü +HIWà HWPLü +HæWà 6HNVHQ 1RG 'RNVDQ 6HG Õ] %ÇVWÔHN LUPLELU 6LÔÀDU 2WX]GÏUW 7X+HVHQÇ %HOÃH]+HVHQLP 7XÀHQGVDOLQÇÇ (]KHùWVD OLQvPH 1DYÃEDYÃWHÀLH 1DYÃZÇ(ORH %DYÃWHÀHQGVDOLQÇH (ZÀLOÔSÃQFVDOLQÇH ;ZvùNDWHKHH %HOÃKHH ;ZÇæNDWHSLÀÔNHDQPH]LQH ;ZvùNDPLQPH]LQHSDQ]GHKVD OLQvH %DUDQNÇH %DUDQKHYDOÃPLQH +ÔQOLNXQH (POLGLELVWDQÃQH (ùDQNvH (ùDQKHYDODPLQH (ùDQODZLNHDQNHo LNH (ùDQNHo LNH 7XMÇNHÀLNÇ 1DH]ODZLNLP 3LUWÔNDWHKHH 1DWXQH  LPD (PIHTÇULQ %HNRMÇIHTÇUH 1DHZGHZOHPHQGH  HQGEUDÃWHKHQH 'XEUDÃPLQKHQH 1DYÃZDQÀLH
  95. 95. 1DYÃZDQ6HUGDUÔ*XUJÇQH 6HUGDUÀHQGVDOLQÇH (ZSLÀÔNHÀDUVDOLQÇH 'ÇDWHOLNXH 'ÇDPLQOLPDOH 6DÛODU %ÇVWÔHN %ÇVWÔGX 6ÇÔÀDU  LOÔSÃQF 3ÃQFÇÔKHæW 6HGÔKHIWGHK 6ÃVHGÔæÃVWÔÀDU 'XKH]DUÔQHKVHGÔEÇVWÔKHæW $OÛüWÛUPD
  96. 96. $æDèÛGDNLVDÛODUÛ RNXXQX]
  97. 97. $æDèÛGDNLVRUXODUÛ FHYDSODQGÛUÛQ 7XNÇÇ 7XÀHQGVDOLQÇÇ 1DYÃEDYÃWHÀLH 'ÇDWHÀHQGVDOLQÇH  HQG[ZÇæNÃQWHKHQH %UDÃWHWXQH (ùDQNHo LNHDQODZLNH 'LGHUV[DQÃGDÀHQG[ZHQGHNDUKHQH  HQGNHÀLNLQÀHQGODZLNLQ 'LGHUV[DQÃGDÀHQGSHQÀLUHKHQH 'LPDODZHGDÀHQGRGHKHQH 7XIHTÇUÇDQGHZOHPHQGÇ %DUDQKHYDOÃWHH (OÇI[ZvùNDWHH 1DYÃEDYÃWH+HVHQH
  98. 98. 'L HUYH]DPDQELOGLUHQELUHGDWWÛUGD ]DUIÛODELUOLNWHNXOODQÛOÛU 'LGHUV[DQÃGD 6ÛQÛIWD 'LPDOGD (YGH 'LVDOÃFDUÃGD ÛOGDELUNH] 'LPHKDJXODQÃGD 0DÛVDÛQGD /LDGHWÛ -ÃU-RU3Ãæ1DY YEHU]DUIODUÛODELUOLNWHDGDWHNEDùÛQDNXOODQÛOÛU
  99. 99. /LQDYJXQG OLJXQG OLPDO /LSÃæPDOà 9, ',%,67$1 *XQGÃPH*RODQH'LJXQGÃPHGDæÃVWPDOKHQH'LJXQGGDGLELVWDQMÇ KHH'LELVWDQDPHOLQDYJXQGH'XGHUV[DQÃQZÃKHQH'RUDGLELVWDQÃGDU ÔEHULQ(]GLVLQLIDHZOÇQGDPH(æDQMÇGLVLQLIDPHGDH(æDQNHÀLNHNMÇUH (PSDQ]GHKNHÀLNÔEÇVWODZLNLQ 6HUGDUGLPDOGDHHZSLÀÔNH 1DYÃGHUVGDUÃPH%HQJÇQH%HQJÇQPHULYHNEDæH 'LEDMDUDQGDGLELVWDQSLULQ%DMDUPH]LQLQJXQGSLÀÔNLQ 'LVDOHNÇGDPHKKHQH'LPHKHNLGDURMKHQH5RMEÇVWÔÀDUVDHWLQ *XQG .Ï %DMDU ûHKLU -LQ .DGÛQ 1DY ø ÀLQGH 3LU  RN 0ÃU (UNHN 'HUV[DQH 6ÛQÛI 'HTTH 'DNLND 'DUÔEHU $èDÀOÛN -ÇU  DOÛüNDQ 6DO ÛO %HU[ .X]X 6LQLI 6ÛQÛI 0HK $ (ZOÇQ %LULQFL 6DHW 6DDW 'RU  HYUH ;RUW 'HOLNDQOÛ 0HULY .LüL .HÀ .Û] $OÛüWÛUPD
  100. 100. DæDèÛGDNLVRUXODUÛFHYDSODQGÛUÛQ 1DYÃJXQGÃZHÀLH *XQGÃZHÀHQGPDOH /LJXQGÃZHGLELVWDQKHH +ÔQGLGHUV[DQHNÃGDÀHQGNHVLQ  HQG[RUWLQÀHQGNHÀLQ
  101. 101. 'HUVGDUÃZHNÇH 'HUVGDUPHULYHNÀDZDH (ùDQNHo LNHNoDZDH /LGRUDGLELVWDQDZHÀLKHQH 'LJXQGÃZHGDGDUÔEHUSLULQ 6HUGDUOLGLELVWDQÃÃ  LPD6HUGDUOLPDOH 'LVDOHNÇGDÀHQGPHKKHQH 'LVDOHNÇGDÀHQGURMKHQH 'LVDHWHNÇGDÀHQGHGHTTHKHQH .ÕÀÕOÕPHNL .ÕUWÀHGHNÕÀÕOÕPHNLLN
  102. 102. WÛU .HÀNHÀLN ODZODZLN MLQMLQLN EHU[EHU[LN 0ÃUPÃULN GDUGDULN NDUNDULN $QFDNÀRèXNH]NÏNNHOLPHLOHNÕÀÕOWÕOPÕæÕDUDVÛQGDDQODPIDUNÛ RUWDGDQ NDONPÛùWÛU.HÀLNVÏ]FÕèÕNÕÀÕNNÛ]DQODPÛQDGHèLOGHGRèUXGDQNÛ] DQODPÛQDNXOODQÛOÛU %HOLUVL]7DQÛP+DUIL .ÕUWÀHGHEHOLUVL]WDQÛPKDUILHN
  103. 103. WLU 6DO ÛO 6DOHN%LUÛOEHOLUVL]ELUÛO
  104. 104. 5RM *ÕQ 5RMHN%LUJÕQEHUOLUVL]ELUJÕQ
  105. 105. 0HULY $GDP 0HULYHN%LUDGDPKHUKDQJLELUDGDP
  106. 106.  RèXOXDQ
  107. 107. GÛU 6DODQURMDQPHULYDQ %HOOLÏUHOHUGHÀRèXOWDNÛVÛ ÇQ
  108. 108. GLU +HVS+HVSÇQÀÇD ÇDÇQ +DZDUCGDGDEÏOHNXOODQÛOPÛùWÛU 9,, ',%,67$1 6LEHH5RMHNHJHUPÔ[ZHæH(]GLÀLPGLELVWDQÃ'LELVWDQMLPLQUDQÃ]ÇNH ;HOÇOMÇWÃGLELVWDQÃ(ZMLJXQGHNÇGLQWÃ'LJXQGÃZDQGDGLELVWDQWXQH
  109. 109. 'LELVWDQMLZÇUDGÔUH+HUVLEÃWÃÔKHUÃYDUÃGLÀH%RZÇÀÔQÔKDWLQJHOHNEL ]HKPHWH (PMLVLEÃKHDÃYDUÃGLGLELVWDQÃGDKÇQÇ [ZHQGLQÔQÇYÇVDQGLQÃGLELQ+ÇQEÔQ Ô]DQÇQÀLTDVWLæWHNÇEDæH0HULYÃQH]DQGLQDYWDUÇÃGDHGHUÔGRUD[ZH QDEÇQH=DQÇQZHNURQDKÇH *HUP 6ÛFDN ;ZHù +RüJ]HO  ÔQÀXÇQ
  110. 110. *LWPHN 1Ã]LN DNÛQ 'ÔU 8]DN +DWLQ *HOPHN £YDU $NüDP +ÇQEÔQ ¯èUHQPHN ;ZHQGLQ 2NXPD 1LYÇVDQGLQ D]PD 'LQ 'LèHUEDæND 6LEH 6DEDK +HU +HU *HOHN 2OGXNÀDÀRN =DQÇQ %LOJLELOPHN 7LùW ûH 1H]DQ %LOPH]FDKÇO 7DUÇ .DUDQOLN 'HUÔGRU  HYUH 'ÇWLQ *ÏUPHN 1D +DÛUROXPVX]OXNÏQHNL 5RQDKÇ $GÛQOÛNÛüÛN ;ZH .HQGL $QÇQ *HWÇUPHN %R ,ÀLQ
  111. 111. -LMLUD /LYH GLHGDWODUÛ GXUXPEHOLUWWLNOHULKDOGHEXHGDWQHVQHGHQEDùODDQELU KDUHNHWLEHOLUOHU /LPDO (YGH 'LPDOGD (YGH -LPDO (YGHQ ¯UQHN +HVHQMLPDOWÃ+HVHQHYGHQJHOLRU
  112. 112. -LUD QHVQHLOHELULOLùNLLEHOLUOHU -LPLQUDQÃ]LNH %DQDDNÛQGÛU -LZÇUDGÔUH 2QDX]DNWÛU - LWHUDEDùH 6HQLQLÀLQLLGLU -LPLQUDWÇQH %DQDJHWLULRU (ORMLPLQUDVÃYHNDQÇ (ORERQDELUHOPDJHWLUGL
  113. 113. .ÕUWÀHGH7ÕUNÀHGHQIDUNOÛ RODUDNQLWHOHPHVÛIDWÛ LVLPGHQVRQUDJHOLU 5RMDJHUP 6ÛFDNJÕQ 5RMHNHJHUP6ÛFDNELUJÕQ *XQGÃGLQ 'LèHUNÏ *XQGHNÇGLQ'LèHUELUNÏ
  114. 114.  ÔQ JLWPHN
  115. 115. ILLOLQLQùLPGLNL]DPDQ Û (]GLÀLP (PGLÀLQ 7XGLÀÇ +ÔQGLÀLQ (ZGLÀH (ZGLÀLQ 2OXPVX]X (]QDÀLP (PQDÀLQ 7XQDÀÇ +ÔQQDÀLQ (ZQDÀH (ZQDÀLQ +DWLQ JHOPHN
  116. 116. ILLOLQLQùLPGLNL]DPDQ Û (]WÃP (PWÃQ 7XWÃ +ÔQWÃQ (ZWÃ (ZWÃQ 2OXPVX]X (]QDÃP (PQDÃQ 7XQDÃ +ÔQQDÃQ (ZQDÃ (ZQDÃQ  ÔQÔKDWLQ*LGLüJHOLü 'ÇWLQ JÏUPHN
  117. 117. ILLOLQLQùLPGLNL]DPDQ Û (]GLEÇQLP (PGLEÇQLQ 7XGLEÇQÇ +ÔQGLEÇQLQ
  118. 118. (ZGLEÇQH (ZGLEÇQLQ 2OXPVX]OXNELÀLPLGL
  119. 119. ILLOÏQHNLHULQHQD
  120. 120. ROXPVX]XNRQXODUDNDSÛOÛU ¯UQHN(]QDEÇQLPWXQDEÇQÇ åLPGLNL]DPDQÛQROXPVX]OXNÏQHNLQD
  121. 121. GÛU ,VWLVQDODU(]QL]DQLPH]QLNDULP %LELUD %XHGDWELUOLNWHLOH]DQODPÛQÛYHULU %L]HKPHW =DKPHWOL %LGDUÔEHU$èDÀOÛNHüLOOLN %L(OLIÃUD (OLICOHELUOLNWH =DQLQILLOLQLQùLPGLNL]DPDQ Û (]GL]DQLP (PGL]DQLQ 7XGL]DQÇ +ÔQGL]DQLQ (ZGL]DQH (ZGL]DQLQ 2OXPVX]GDGLÏQHNLQLQHULQLQÛDOÛU (]QL]DQLPWXQL]DQÇHPQL]DQLQ ;ZHQGLQ 1LYÇVDQGLQ (][ZHQGLQÔQLYÇVDQGLQÃGL]DQLP (PGLGLELVWDQÃGDKÇQÇ [ZHQGLQÔQLYÇVDGLQÃGLELQ ;ZHQGLQWLùWHNvEDùH ;ZHQGLQ ILLOLQLQJHQLùYHùL PGLNL
  122. 122. ]DPDQÛ (]GL[ZÇQLP(PGL[ZÇQLQ 7XGL[ZÇQÇ +ÔQGL[ZÇQLQ (ZGL[ZÇQH (ZGL[ZÇQLQ 2OXPVX]X(]QD[ZÇQLPWXQD[ZÇQÇHZQD[ZÇQHHPQD[ZÇQLQ 1LYÇVDQGLQ ILLOLQLQJHQLùYHùLPGLNL
  123. 123. ]DPDQ Û
  124. 124. (]GLQLYÇVÇQLP (PGLQLYÇVÇQLQ 7XGLQLYÇVÇQÇ +ÔQGLQLYÇVÇQLQ (Z'LQLYÇVÇQH (ZGLQLYÇVÇQLQ 2OXPVX](]QDQLYÇVÇQLPWXQDQLYÇVÇQÇ
  125. 125. ¯GHY;ZHQGLQQLYÇVDQGLQ]DQÇQGÇWLQÀÔÇQKDWLQILLOOHULQGHQFÕPOHOHUDSÛQ 9,,, 0$/$(/2 0DODPHOLJXQGH%DYÃPLQFRWNDUÇGLNH1DYÃEDYÃPLQ+HVHQHGÇDPLQ (æDQH6ÃELUDÃQPLQÔGX[ZÇæNÃQPLQKHQH(UGÃPHWXQH(PIHTÇULQ %DYÃPLQÔELUDÃQPLQÃQPH]LQGL]HYÇÔUH]ÃQD[ÃGDGL[HELWLQ$[D GHZOHPHQGH4RQD[HNZÇDPH]LQKHH4RQD[GXTDWHELOLQGHSHQÀLUÃQ ZÃILUHKLQ4RQD[GLQDYED[ÀHNÇPH]LQGDH DUPHGRUÃEÃ[ÀHGÇZDUHN ELOLQGH =DURÃQD[ÃGLYÇED[ÀHÇGDGLOÇ]LQVÃYDQÔKÃUÔJÔWLUÇGL[ZLQ 0DODPHSLÀÔNHPÇQDSÇQDPLUÇæNDQH(PGLQDYGDWHYÇNHUÔJROLNÃQ[ZH GLPÇQLQ 6ÃYÔKÃUÔJÃQPHWXQLQ .DU ,ü RW  LIW RWNDU  LIWÀL RWNDUÇ  LIWÀLOLN (UG 7RSUDN =HYÇ 7DUOD 5H] %Dè ;HEDW  DOÛüPD 4RQD[ .RQDN 4DW .DW %LOLQG ÕNVHN 1L]P $OÀDN )LUHK *HQLü 7HQJ 'DU 7LUÇ µ]ÕP  DUPHGRU 'ÏUWDQÀHSHÀHYUH /ÇVWLQ 2QDPDN +ÃUÔJ (ULN ;XUHN HPHN LVLP
  126. 126. 3ÇQ .ÕPHVNXOÕEH 0LUvùN 7DYXN .HU (üHN *ROLN 'DQD 0DÇQ .DOPDN .LULQ DSPDN
  127. 127.  ÇD 'Dè ;ZHQGHNDU¯èUHQFL .LULQ ILLOLQLQùLPGLNL]DPDQ Û (]GLNLP (PGLNLQ 7XGLNÇ +ÔQGLNLQ (ZGLNH (ZGLNLQ 2OXPVX]X (]QDNLPWXQDNÇHZQDNHHPQDNLQ ;HELWÇQ ILLOLQLQùLPGLNL]DPDQ Û (]GL[HELWLP (PGL[HELWLQ 7XGL[HELWÇ +ÔQGL[HELWLQ (ZGL[HELWH (ZGL[HELWLQ 2OXPVX]X (]QD[HELWLPWXQD[HELWÇ $OÛüWÛUPD 7XÀLNDUÇGLNÇ (][ZHQGHNDULP %DYÃWHÀLNDUÇGLNH (ZFRWNDUH FRWNDU FRWNDUÇ 'HUVGDUÀLNDUÇGLNà GHUVGDU GHUVGDUÇ (ZGHUVGDUÇGLNH .DUÃD[ÃÀLH D[D D[DWÇ (ZD[DWÇGLNHQD[HELWH %LUDÃPLQ .DUGHüLP %LUDÃPLQÃPH]LQ %NNDUGHüLP %LUDÃQPLQ .DUGHüOHULP %LUDÃQPLQÃQPH]LQ%NNDUGHüOHULP ;ZvùNDPLQ .Û]NDUGHüLP ;ZÇæNDPLQDSLÀÔN .ÕÀÕNNÛ]NDUGHüLP ;ZÇæNÃQPLQ .Û]NDUGHüOHULP ;ZÇæNÃQPLQÃQSLÀÔN.ÕÀÕNNÛ]NDUGHüOHULP ¯UQHNOHU +HYDOÃPLQÃGHODO 4HOHPDPLQDUHù
  128. 128. 0DODPHDSLÀÔN 4RQD[DD[ÃDPH]LQ 6ÃYÃQPHÃQVRU %D[ÀHÃZDQÃILUHK 'DUÃQZDQÃQELOLQG .RQXùPDGLOLQGHJHQHOOLNOHNÛVDOWPDOÛ ELÀLPOHUNXOODQÛOÛU +HYDOÃPLQÃGHODO 4HOHPDPLQDUHù 'DUÃQZDQÃQELOLQG /ÇVWLQOHÇVWLQ
  129. 129. ILLOLQLQÀLPGLNL]DPDQÛ (]GLOÇ]LP (PGLOÇ]LQ 7XGLOÇ]Ç +ÔQGLOÇ]LQ (ZGLOÇ]H (ZGLOÇ]LQ 2OXPVX]X (]QDOÇ]LPWXQDOÇ]ÇHZQDOÇ]HHPQDOÇ]LQ ;ZDULQ (]GL[ZLP (PGL[ZLQ 7XGL[ZÇ +ÔQGL[ZLQ (ZGL[ZH (ZGL[ZLQ 2OXPVX]X (]QD[ZLPWXQD[ZÇHZQD[ZHHPQD[ZLQ 0DÇQ (]GLPÇQLP (PGLPÇQLQ 7XGLPÇQÇ +ÔQGLPÇQLQ (ZGLPÇQH (ZGLPÇQÇQ 2OXPVX]X (]QDPÇQLPWXQDPÇQÇ $æDèÛGDNLVRUXODUÛ FHYDSODQGÛUÛQ  HQGELUDÔÀHQG[ZÇæNÃQ(ORKHQH 0DOD(OROLNXH
  130. 130. %DYÃ(ORÀLNDUÇGLNH (ZIHTÇULQDQGHZOHPHQGLQ $[DÀLPDGHZOHPHQGLQ 4RQD[D(ORKHH 0DODZDQÀDZDH 'ÃÔEDYÃ(OROLNXGL[HELWLQ 4RQD[DD[ÃGLQDYÀLGDH 'LEÃ[ÀHGDÀLGDUKHQH  DUPHGRUÃEÃ[ÀHÀLH 0DOD(ORWHYÇÀLGLPÇQLQ 6ÃYÔKÃUXJÃQPDOD(ORKHQH 0DODZHOLJXQGHDQEDMÃUH 0DODZHSLÀÔNHDQPH]LQH  ÇDELOLQGLQDQQL]PLQ .ÇVÃYÔKÃUÔJDQGL[ZLQ $æDèÛGDNLFÕPOHOHULVRUXFÕPOHVLKDOLQHJHLWLQ ¯UQHN 1DYÃEDYÃ(OR+HVHQH 1DYÃEDYÃ(ORÀLH 6ÃELUDÃQ(ORKHQH %DYÃ(ORFRWNDUÇGLNH (ZGL]HYÇÔUH]ÃD[ÃGDGL[HELWLQ 4RQD[DD[ÃPH]LQHSLÀÔNQLQH 0DODPHOLEDMÃUH %DMDUPH]LQH  DUPHGRUÃJXQGUH]H 'RUDTRQD[ÃED[ÀHH 3HQÀLUÃQPDODPHILUHKLQ 0DOD(ORWHQJHQHILUHKH (OÇIWLUÇGL[ZH ¯GHY .LULQ[HELWÇQOÇVWLQ[ZDULQPDÇQILLOOHULQGHQÕÀHUFÕPOHNXUXQ ,; 0$/$(/2  ÃOHNHNPHÀDUPÇKÔVÃEL]LQÃPHKHQH'DLNZDQGLGRæHÔæÇUÃZDQGLNH PDVW-LPDVWUÔQÔSHQÇUÀÃGLNH
  131. 131. (P]DURWÃUÇ[ZHæÇUÔPDVWUÔQÔSHQÇUQD[ZLQ-LEHUNXEDYRZDQGLEHOL EDMÃUGLIURæHMLPHUDWLæWPLùWGLNLUH .HUHNPHMÇKHH%R]Ã(PJHQLPÔFHKOÃEDUGLNLQÔGLELQÃæ$æOLMÃUÇJXQGH Dæà DYÃH ;ZDULQDPHSLUDQÇQDQÔGHZQDQÔVDZDUH3ÇYD]ÃQPHMÇNÃPQDELQ HQG PLUÇæNÃQPHMÇKHQHHZKÃNDQGLNLQ/ÃEDYRSLUFDUDQZDQMÇGLEHGLIURæH (]MLJRæWSLUKH]GLNLPOÃHPVDOÃFDUÃDQGXFDUDQJRæWGL[ZLQNÇQJÃSH]à FvUDQHNvQH[ZHùGLEH *D ¯NÕ]  ÃOHN ,QHN 0ÇK .RXQ %L]LQ .HÀL 'RWLQ 6DèPDN øvU 6ÕW 0DVW RèXUW 5ÔQ Dè 3HQÇU 3HQLU .LULQ DSPDN 7ÃU 7RN 7ÃUÇ[ZH 'RXQFD 1DQ (NPHN 'HZ $UDQ -LEHUNX  ÕQNÕ .ÃP (NVLN %LULQ *ÏWÕUPHN )URWLQ 6DWPDN *HQLP %XèGD HK $USD 9H[ZDULQ ø ÀPHN %DU ÕN %DUNLULQ ÕNOHPHN $ù 'HèLUPHQ 3LUDQÇ  XèXQOXN  ÃNLULQ 0HGDQDJHWLUPHNDSPDN 6DZDU %XOJXU +ÃN XPXUWD $UG 8Q 7LFDU 7ÕFFDU 3LUFDUDQ  RèXNH] *RùW (W +H]NLULQ 6HYPHN 3H] .RXQNHÀL %HU ¯QÕUÕQ $Y 6X ÇUDQ .RPüX 1H[ZHù +DVWD $QÇQ *HWLUPHN
  132. 132. 7LùW (üDüH 7LùW PLùW %LUüHOHU +RVWH 8VWD §UR %XJÕQ 3ÇYD] 6RèDQ 'RWLQ ILLOLQLQJHQLùYHùLP GLNL
  133. 133. ]DPDQÛ (]GLGRùLP (PGLGRùLQ 7XGLGRùv +ÔQGLGRæLQ (ZGLGRùH (ZGLGRùLQ (OÇIPDQJÃGLGRæH 'DÇNEL]LQÃGLGRæH (PGLÀLQSÃ]GLGRæLQ 2OXPVX]X (]QDGRùLPWXQDGRùvHZQDGRùHHPQDGRùLQ .LULQ DSPDN
  134. 134. ILLOLQLQJHQLùYHùLPGLNL
  135. 135. ]DPDQ Û (]GLNLP (PGLNLQ 7XGLNÇ +ÔQGLNLQ (ZGLNH (ZGLNLQ 0LUÇæNKÃNGLNLQ 'DvNùvUGLNHPDVW $ùJHQLPGLNHDUG 2OXPVX]X (]QDNLPWXQDNÇHZQDNHHPQDNLQ  ÃNLULQ DSPDNPDGDQDJHWLUPHNRQDUPDN
  136. 136. ILLOLQLQJHQLùYHùLPGLNL
  137. 137. ]DPDQÛ (]ÀÃGLNLP (PÀÃGLNLQ 7XÀÃGLNÇ +ÔQÀÃGLNLQ (ZÀÃGLNH (ZÀÃGLNLQ 'DÇNMLÀÇUUÔQÔSHQÇUÀÃGLNH (PMLKÃNDQ[ZDULQÃÀÃGLNLQ +RVWHGLZÃUÀÃGLNH 2OXPVX]X
  138. 138. (]ÀÃQDNLP (PÀÃQDNLQ 7XÀÃQDNÇ +ÔQÀÃQDNLQ (ZÀÃQDNH (ZÀÃQDNLQ %LULQ J|WUPHN
  139. 139. ILLOLQLQJHQLùYHùLPGLNL
  140. 140. ]DPDQ Û (]GLELP (PGLELQ 7XGLEÇ +ÔQGLELQ (ZGLEH (ZGLELQ %DYRUÔQÔSHQÇUGLEHEDMÃU (]SÃ]GLELPÀÇD (ZJHQLPÔFÃKGLELQÃæ 2OXPVX] (]QDELPWXQDEÇHZQDEHHPQDELQ )URWLQ VDWPDN
  141. 141. ILLOLQLQJHQLùYHùLPGLNL
  142. 142. ]DPDQÛ (]GLIURùLP (PGLIURùLQ 7XGLIURùv +ÔQGLIURæLQ (ZGLIURùH (ZGLIURùLQ %DYRUÔQSHQÇUÔKÃNDQGLIURæH $[DJHQLPGLIURùH 7LFDUVRODQÔFÃZGLIURæLQ 2OXPVX]X (]QDIURùLPWXQDIURùv .LUÇQ VDWLQDOPDN
  143. 143. ILLOLQLQJHQLùYHùLPGLNL
  144. 144. ]DPDQÛ (]GLNLULP (PGLNLULQ 7XGLNLUÇ +ÔQGLNLULQ (ZGLNLUH (ZGLNLULQ 2OXPVX]X (]QDNLULPWXQDNLUÇ (PæÃNLUÔÀDÃGLNLULQ %DMDUÇDYÃGLNLULQ (ORTHOHPÔGHIWHUÃQ[ZHGLNLUH 3HUÃPLQWXQHH]JRæWQDNLULP ;ZDULQÔ YH[ZDULQ
  145. 145. .ÇQJÃH]ELUÀÇGLELPQDQGL[ZLPNÇQJÃWÇGLELPDYÃYHGL[ZLP0HULYWLPGL[ZH ÔYHGL[ZH 1DQKÃNJRæWWLUÇUÔQÔSHQÇUWÃQ[ZDULQ$YæÇUGHZæHUDYÀDÔTHKZHWÃQ YH[ZDULQL[DUHWÃNLæDQGLQ%DYÃPLQFL[DUÃGLNLæÇQH(]SLÀÔNLPFL[DUà QDNLùvQLP ;ZDULQDIHTÇUDQQDQÔGHZH;ZDULQDGHZHOHPHQGDQWRUHWRUHH3HUÃZDQ SLUHHZWÃUÇ[ZHUÔQÔKXQJLYJRæWIÃNÇÔæÇUDQÇGL[ZLQ %LUÀÇ $À 7Ç 6XVX] L[DUH 6LJDUD .LùDQGLQ  HNPHN 4DKZH .DKYH %DU ÕN 0ÃYDQ 0LVDILU øHUDY ûDUDS 7RUHWRUH dHüvWoHüvW +XQJLY %DO øvUDQv 7DWOÛ 0DNÇQH 0DNÇQD *XQGÇ .ÏOÕ 7LUù (NüL %DUNLULQ (PNHUD[ZHEDUGLNLQGLELQÃæ ÇUDQÃPHIÃNÇÃQ[ZHOLPDNÇQÃEDUGLNLQGLELQEDMÃU 'HZOHPHQGEDUÃ[ZHOLIHTÇUDQEDUGLNLQ +H]NLULQ (]ML[ZHQGLQÃKH]GLNLP 'HUVGDUÃPHMLPLQJHOHNKH]GLNHMLEHUNXH][ZHæGL[HELWLP 7XMLJRùWSLUKH]GLNv *XQGÇMLD[ÃKH]QDNLQHZQHPHULYHNEDæH .XUGMLSÇYD]ÃJHOHNKH]GLNLQ 1H ROXPVX]XELUVÛIDWWDQÏQFHJHOLUVHRQXROXPVX]DSDU (ZPHULYHNEDùH (ZPHULYHNQHEDùH 7LUvùvUvQHQHWLUùH 'HZQHùvUvQHWLUùH
  146. 146. 2OXPVX]ODPDQLQH LOHGHDSÛOÛU 'HZùvUvQQLQH ¯GHY
  147. 147. 'RWLQÀÃNLULQELULQIURWLQNLULQEDUNLULQKH]NLULQILLOOHULQGHQÕÀHUFÕPOH NXUXQX]
  148. 148. %LOLQGQL]PILUHKWHQJMÃUMRUæÇUÇQWLUæVÏ]FÕNOHULOHROXPOXYHROXPVX] FÕPOHOHUNXUXQ 9H[ZDULQ (]WÇPHDYÃYHGL[ZLP =D URo LPDùvUYHQD[ZH 7XGÃZYHGL[ZÇ 0ÃYDQÀDÔTHKZÃYHGL[ZLQ .LüDQGLQ .HUEDUÃ[ZHGLNLæÇQHGLEHÃæ 7XFL[DUÃGLNLæÇQÇ 1D[ÃUH] FL[DUÃQDNLæÇQLP ¯GHY 9H[ZDULQ[ZDULQYHNLùDQGLQILLOOHULQLQJHQLù]DPDQoHNLPLQLDS ÛQYHFÕPOH LÀLQGHNXOODQÛQ %ÔQ ROPDN
  149. 149. ILLOLQLQùLPGLNLYHJHQLù
  150. 150. ]DPDQ Û (]GLELP (PGLELQ 7XGLEÇ +ÔQGLELQ (ZGLEH (ZGLELQ 2OXPVX]X (]QDELPWXQDEÇHZQDEHHPQDELQ 1RW
  151. 151. %ÔQ ROPDN
  152. 152. ILLOLQLQùLPGLNLYHJHQLù
  153. 153. ]DPDQ ÛELULQ ILLOLQLQùLPGLNLYHJHQLù ]DPDQÛODDQÛGÛU
  154. 154. %ÔQ ILLOLQL7ÕUNÀHGHGÛULGLOHUWDNÛODUÛQÛQLùOHYLQLJ|UHQ.UWoHGHNLGDKD ÏQFHJÏUGÕèÕPÕ]EÔQILLOLOHNDUÛùWÛUPDDOÛP ¯UQHN %ÔQILLOLQHÏUQHN 3H]QH[ZHùGLEH.RXQKDVWDROXU 3ÇYD]NÃPQDEH6RèDQHNVLNROPD]
  155. 155. %ÔQILLOLQHÏUQHN (]LP %HQLP (]EÔP %HQLGLP (ZSÇYD]H 2VRèDQGÛU (ZSÇYD]EÔ26RèDQGÛ ; '(0£16$/£ 'HPÃQVDOà ÀDULQ%LKDUKDYÇQSDÇ]Ô]LYLVWDQ %LKDU[ZHæH5RMHUGÃJHUPGLNH'DUÔEHUKÃæÇQGLELQ/LED[ÀDQÀRODQÔ ÀÇDQNXOÇONÃQUHQJÇQYHGLELQ0ÇKÔEL]LQNDUÔEHU[KHVSÔNHUOLVHUPÃUJÃQ NHVNGLÀÃULQ-LKHUGHUÃGHQJÃÀLYÇNDQWÃELKÇVWLQRWNDU FRWÃELKDUÃGDMRQ NRÀHUEHUELÀÇDQGLÀLQ +DYÇQJHUPHHKÔJHQLPOL]HYÇDQ]HUGLELQ)ÃNÇOLGDUDQGLJÃKLQRWNDUÔ NDUNHUOL]HYÇDQÔED[ÀDQGL[HELWLQZDQNRPGLNLQ+DYÇQELEÇKQÔEHUHNHWH 3DÇ]NXWÃJHUPDURMÃKHUGLÀHNÃPGLEH%DUDQGHVWSÃGLNH3HOÃQGDUDQ ]HUGLELQÔGHZHæLQ/LPÃUJDQJÇDWÃÀLQÇQ.RÀHUEHUELGHæWDQYHGLJHULQ *XQGÇVDZDUÔDUGÃ[ZHGLNLQFÇJÇDÔÃ]LQJÃQ[ZHNRPGLNLQGLNLQORG 'LELVWDQYHGLELQÔ]DURGLÀLQGLELVWDQà =LYLVWDQVDUH%HUIGLEDUHÔHUGÃGLSÃÀH$YTHùDGL JLUH3H]GLNHYHKXQGLU'L PDODQGDVRZHGLæHZLWLQ/LGHUEDÃVDUGLNHYÇ]HYÇ]OLGHUÇÔSHQÀLUDQGL[H/L VHUEHUIÃJXUURYÇÔNHZURæNOL[ZDULQÃGLJHULQ=DUROLEHUGHUÇDQJRÃEHUIà GLOÇ]LQ .XELKDUKDWVHUPDGLoHEHUIGLKHOHHUGKLùDUGLEHÔGLQÃMLQXKYDæÃQGLEH 'HPÃQVDOÃKHPÔMÇ[ZHæLQ 'HPÃQVDOÃ0HYVLPOHU 'HP 'ÏQHPVÕUH %LKDU %DKDU +DYÇQ D] 3DÇ] 6RQEDKDU =LYLVWDQ .Ûü  RO .ÛU .XOÇON  LÀHN .DU 2èODN %HU[ .X]X +HVS $W 0ÃUJ  DÛU  ÃUÇQ 2WODPDN  LYÇN .Xü
  156. 156. 'HQJ 6HV %LKÇVWLQ 'XPDN $MRWLQ  LIWVÕUPHNHNPHN
  157. 157. .RÀHU *ÏÀHEH .RPNLULQ 7RSODPDN 1X HQL *LKDQ HWLüPH2OJXQODüPD %ÇKQ .RNX %HUHNHW %HUHNHW +HUGLÀH *LWWLNÀH %DUDQ DèPXU 4HùD %X] *LUWLQ $OPDN .HWLQ 'üPHN 6RZH 6RED /Ã[LVWLQ 9XUPDNÀDUSPDN 'HVWSÃNLULQ%DüODPDN 3HO DSUDN :HùvQ 'ÏNÕOPHN  LQÇQ %LÀPHN 'HùW 2YD +HOÇQ (ULPHN +LæDUEÔQ 8DQÛü +ÃæÇQEÔQ HüHUPHN 9HJHUÇQ 'ÏQPHN %LFÇNLULQ HUOHüWLUPHN *ÇD 2W £]LQJ 2GXQ /RG ÛèÛQ 9HEÔQ $ÀÛOPDN 6DU 6RèXNVÛIDW
  158. 158. 6HUPD 6RèXNLVLP
  159. 159. åÃQEÔQ ûHQOHQPHN %HUI .DU %DUÇQ DèPDN 3ÃÀDQGLQ 6DUPDN SÃÀÇQ
  160. 160. øHZLWvQ DQPDN øHZLWDQGLQDNPDN %D 5Õ]JDU *XU .XUW 5RYÇ 7LONL .HZURùN 7DYüDQ *HUÇQ 'RODüPDN /ÃJHUÇQ $UDPDN *R 7RS 'LQÃ 'ÕQD +HPÔ +HSVL
  161. 161. 7PEDVLWILLOOHULQHPLUKDOLEDùD EL HNOHQHUHNDSÛOÛU  ÔQ %LÀH ;ZHQGLQ %L[ZÇQH 1LYÇVDQGLQ %LQLYÇVH =DQÇQ %L]DQH ;HELWÇQ %L[HELWH /ÇVWLQ %LOÇ]H ;ZDULQ %L[ZH .LULQ %LNH 0DÇQ %LPÇQH 'RWLQ %LGRüH 3ÃÀDQ %LSÃÀH *LUWLQ %LJLUH øHZLWvQ %LüHZLWH %LULQ %LEH )URWLQ %LIURüH .LUÇQ %LNLUH .LùDQGLQ %LNLüvQH %ÔQ %LEH  ÃUDQ %LÀÃUH %LKÇVWLQ %LELKÇVH :HùvQ %LZHüH  LQÇQ %LÀLQH %DUÇQ %LEDUH .HWLQ %LNHYH *HUÇQ %LJHUH (èHUPDVWDUVHVOLKDUIOHEDæOÛRUVD $MRWLQ %DMR $QÇQ %ÇQH %LOHüLNILLOOHU .UWoHGHLNLJUXSELOHùLNILLOYD UGÛU %LULQFLJUXSELOHùLNILLOHUEDVLWILLOOHULQEDù ÛQD|QHNOHUNRQDUDNROXùWXUXOXU .RPNLULQÀÃNLULQYH[ZDULQYHJHUÇQYHEÔQ ,NLQFLJUXSELOHùLNILLOOHUELULVLPDGD VÛID WLOHELUEDVLWILLOGHQROXùXUOD U $YDNLULQLQùDHWPHNLPDUHWPHN
  162. 162. 5DVWNLULQGÕ]HOWPHNNXUPDN
  163. 163. +ÇQEÔQ +LæDUEÔQ åÃQEÔQ
  164. 164. (GDWODUÛQDUGÛPÛODDSÛODQILOOHU /Ã[LVWLQOLZÃ[LVWLQ
  165. 165. /ÃJHUÇQOLZÃJHUÇQ
  166. 166. /ÃEDUNLULQ -ÃKH]NLULQ %DVLWILLOOHUGHùLPGLNLYHJHQLù]DPDQ
  167. 167. oHNLPL 0DVWDU (PLU ûLPGLNL]DPDQ 7DNÛODU  ÔQ %LÀH (]GLÀLP GLLP ÀÔÇQ
  168. 168. 7XGLÀÇ GLÇ (ZGLÀH GLH (PGLÀLQ GLLQ +ÔQGLÀLQ GLLQ (ZGLÀLQ GLLQ %XNXUDOÛQED]Û LVWLVQDODUÛ GDYDUGÛU ¯UQHN 0DVWDU (PLU ûLPGLNL]DPDQ 7DNÛODU $QÇQ %ÇQH (]WÇQLP WÇLP 7XWÇQÇ WÇÇ (ZWÇQH WÇH (PWÇQLQ WÇLQ +ÔQWÇQLQ WÇLQ (ZWÇQLQ WÇLQ +DWLQ :HUH (]WÃP 7XWÃ (ZWÃ (P WÃQ +ÔQWÃQ (ZWÃQ 2OXPVX]X (]WÇQLP(]QDÇQLP (]WÃP(]QDÃP 0DVWDU (PLU ûLPGLNL=DPDQ .RPNLULQ .RPELNH (]NRPGLNLP 7XNRPGLNÇ (ZNRPGLNH
  169. 169. (PNRPGLNLQ +ÔQNRPGLNLQ (ZNRPGLNLQ -à KH]NLULQ -ÃKH]ELNH (]MÃKH]GLNLP 7XMÃKH]GLNÇ (ZMÃKH]GLNH (PMÃKH]GLNLQ +ÔQMÃKH]GLNLQ (ZMÃKH]GLNLQ (WNLQ HGLOJHQILLO 0HULYURMÃQELKDUÃGHQJÃÀLYÇNDQGLELKÇVH5RMÃQELKDUÃGHQJÃÀLYÇNDQWà ELKÇVWLQ +HVHQQÇQGL[ZH 1DQWÃ[ZDULQ (GLOJHQFÕPOHKDWLQ DUGLPFLILLOLOHDSÛOÛU 1DQ Wà ;ZDULQ 1HVQH DUGLPFLILLO PDVWDU $OÛüWÛUPD $æDèÛGDNLFÕPOHOHULHGLOJHQDSÛQ RWNDUFRWÃELKDUÃGDMRQ *XQGÇOLPÃUJDQJÇÃGLÀLQLQ =DURIÃNÇDQNRPGLNLQ 3DÇ]DQJXQGÇÃ]LQJÔJÇDORGGLNLQ =LYLVWDQDQ]DURJRÃEHUIÃGLOÇ]LQ 0HULYDYÃÔGHZYHGL[ZHFL[DUÃGLNLæÇQH .XSHUÃPHULYDQSLUEHPHULYWÃUÇ[ZHUÔQÔSHQÇUæÇUÔJRæWæÇUDQÇÔIÃNÇDQ GL[ZH %HUELHGRèUX =DURNEHUELPDOGLÀH %LKDUÇNRÀHUEHUELÀÇDQGLÀLQ 3DÇ]ÇNRÀHUEHUELGHùWDQYHGLJHULQ 'HVWSÃNLULQ
  170. 170. %DUDQÃGÇVDGHVWSÃNLU .ÇQJÃGLELVWDQYHGLEH]DURGHVWEL[ZHQGLQÃGLNLQ %HUEL]LYLVWDQÃVHUPDGHVWSÃGLNH +HVHQ§URGLQD[ZHæHGHVWEL[HEDWÃELNH $OÛOÛüWÛUPD $æDèÛGDNLVRUXODUÛ FHYDSODQGÛUÛQ
  171. 171. 'HPÃQVDOÃÀHQGLQ
  172. 172. %LKDUÀDZDH
  173. 173. %LKDUÇURMÀÇGLNH
  174. 174. %LKDUÇGDUÔEHUÀLGLELQ
  175. 175. .XOÇONOLNXYHGLELQ
  176. 176. 7XGHQJÃÀLYÇNDQGLELKÇVÇ
  177. 177. 0ÃUJÀLUHQJLQ
  178. 178. %LKDUÇFHKÔJHQLQÀLUHQJLQ
  179. 179. HKÔJHQLPKDYÇQÇGLELQÀLUHQJ
  180. 180. RWNDUKDYÇQÇÀLGLNLQ
  181. 181. +DYÇQÀDZDH
  182. 182. 3DÇ]ÇJHUPDURMÃÀLGLEH
  183. 183. %DUDQNÇQJÃGHVWSÃGLNH
  184. 184. 6HUPDNÇQJÃGHVWSÃGLNH
  185. 185. %HUINÇQJÃGLEDUH
  186. 186. $YNÇQJÃTHæDGLJLUH
  187. 187. +DYvQvDYTHùDGLJLUH
  188. 188. 3DÇ]ÇSHOÃQGDUDQÀLGLELQ
  189. 189. *XQGÇVDZDUÔDUGÃQ[ZHÀLGLNLQ
  190. 190. *XQGÇÃ]LQJÔJÇÃÀLGLNLQ
  191. 191. .XGLELVWDQYHEÔ]DURÀLGLNLQ
  192. 192. =DURMLEHUIÃÀLÀÃGLNLQ
  193. 193. =LYLVWDQÇPDOÀDZDJHUPGLELQ
  194. 194. 'LPDODZHGDVRZHKHH
  195. 195. %HUIHUGÃÀLGLNH
  196. 196. =LYLVWDQÇSH]OLÀÇDQHDQOLJXQGDQH
  197. 197. =LYLVWDQÇJXUURYÇÔNHZURæNÀLGLNLQ
  198. 198. *XUJRùWGL[ZLQ
  199. 199. +HVSJRùWGL[ZLQ
  200. 200. .XGÇVDELKDUKDWÀLGLEH %LKDUELKDUÇOLELKDUÃ
  201. 201. 3DÇ]SDÇ]ÇOLSDÇ]Ã
  202. 202. =LYLVWDQ]LYLVWDQÇOL]LYLVWDQÃ
  203. 203. %LKDUDQ %DKDUODUÛ =LYLVWDQDQ .ÛùODUÛ ;, ;(/§/´$=$' 5RMEDù;HOvO 5RMEDù$]DG 0DODZHOLEDMÃUH 1DHPOLJXQGUÔGLQLQ %DYÃWHÀLNDUÇGLNH %DYÃPLQFRWNDUH 7XML[ZHQGLQÃKH]GLNÇ %HOÃ]HKIKH]GLNLP ;ZvùNDWHMvKHH %HOÃKHH 1DYÃZÃÀLH *XOÇ]DUH (ZMÇGLÀHGLELVWDQÃ 1DHZQHÀH  LPD %DYRGLEÃMHWXEL[ZÇQHEHVH (UGÃZHKHH 1DHPHUGÃD[ÃGDGL[HELWLQ +ÔQSÃ][ZHGÇGLNLQ %HOÃOÃSH]ÃPHNÃPH  LPD 0ÃUJÔ]HYÇKHPÔÃD[ÃQH *XQGÃZHOLGHæWÃHDQOLÀÇÃH LÃJXQGÃPHGHæWHOÃÀÇDMÇQÃ]LNLQ =LYLVWDQÇEHUIGLEDUH %HOÃ]HKIGLEDUH5ÃKHPÔWÃQHJLUWLQ 7XPDODPHQDVGLNÇ %HOÃQDVGLNLP 6LEÃNHUHPNHZHUHPDODPH(PELKHYUDGHUVD[ZHGL[ZÇQLQ %DYÃWHWLæWHNÇQDEÃMH
  204. 204.  LPD%DYÃPLQMLKHYDOÃPLQKH]GLNH %DYÃWHÀLNDUÇGLNH .DUNHUHGLSDYOÇNÃGDGL[HELWH 3DYOÇNHPH]LQH %HOÃWÃGDSÃQFVHGNDUNHUGL[HELWLQ 3DYOÇNHDZDQH 'HKDDHNÇGHZOHPHQGH/LJXQGD[DOLYLUMÇSDWURQDQJRVHUPÇDQGDU KHQH'H;HOÇOÃGÇGHUHQJHH]GLÀLP6LEÃZHUHKD %HOÃWÃP 1LKD[DWLUÃWH 6HUÀDYDQ 5ÔQLæWLQ 2WXUPDNLNDPHWHWPHN =HKI  RN *RWLQ 6ÏOHPH %HV HWHU ;ZHGÇNLULQ %HVOHPHN 5Ã RO *LUWLQ 7XWPDN 1DVNLULQ 7DQÛPDN .HUHPNH %XXU +HYUD %LUOLNWH 'HKD 1HUHGH 6HUPÇDQGDU %XUMXYD +HUGX ,NLVL +HYDO $UNDGDü 3DYOÇNH )DEUÇND 3DWURQ 3DWURQ 'HUHQJ *HÀ =Ô (UNHQ £GÇ $UWÛN 6LEH DUÛQ ;DWLUÃWH +RüoDNDO 1LKD ûLPGv 6HUÀDYDQ *ÕOHJÕOH  DY *Ï] .XUVÇ .ÕUVÕ6DQGDOH +HEÔQ PDOLNROPDN
  205. 205. ILLOLQLQùLPGLNLYHJHQLù
  206. 206. ]DPDQ Û 0LQKHH 7HKHH :ÇZÃKHH 0HKHH :HKHH :DQKHH  RèXO0LQWHZÇZÃPHZHZDQKHQH
  207. 207. 2OXPVX]XWXQHWXQLQ ;ZvùNDPLQKHH 0DODZDQKHH 'DUÃQZHKHQH .XOÇONÃQZÃKHQH *ÏUÕOGÕèÕJLELKHEÔQILLOLJUXS]DPLUOHUOHNXOODQÛOÛU 5ÔQLæWLQ
  208. 208. .HUHPNHUÔQH (ZOLVHUNXUVÇUÔGLQH
  209. 209. +ÔQOLNXUÔGLQLQ0DODZHOLNXH
  210. 210. (POL'LDUEHNUÃUÔGLQLQ .XUDODXJXQILLOOHUYHNXUDODXPDDQILLOOHU .ÕUWÀHGHEÕWÕQILLOOHUPD]L]DPDQODUÛQGDNXUDODXJXQGXUODU %D]Û ILLOOHUHPLUùLPGLNL]DPDQYHJHOHFHN]DPDQNLSOHULQGHNXUDODXJXQOXN JÏVWHUPH]OHU%XQODUDNXUDODXPDDQILLOOHUGHQLU
  211. 211. .XUDODXJXQILLOOHU 0DVWDU .ÏN (PLU ûLPGLNL]DPDQ  LQÇQ  LQÇ %LÀLQH 'LÀLQLP *HUÇQ *HUÇ %LJHUH 'LJHULP .LUÇQ .LUÇ %LNLUH 'LNLULP 1LYÇVÇQ 1LYÇVÇ %LQLYÇVH 'LQLYÇVLP 3ÃÀDQ 3ÃÀD %LSÃÀH 'LSÃÀLP *LKDQ *LKD %LJLKÃ 'LJLKÃP  ÔQ  Ô %LÀH 'LÀLP =DQÇQ =DQÇ %L]DQH 'L]DQLP *UXS *LUWLQ *LUW %LJLUH 'LJLULP %LMDUWLQ %LMDUW %LELMÃUH 'LELMÃULP +HMPDUWLQ +HMPDUW %LKÃMPÃUH 'LKHMPÃULP *LYDùWLQ *LYDùW %LJLYÃæH 'LJLYÃæLP 3DUDVWLQ 3DUDVW %LSDUÃ]H 'LSDUÃ]LP %LMDUWLQ 6HÀPH +HMPDUWLQ 6DPDN *UXS
  212. 212.  ÃUDQGLQ  ÃUDQG %LÀÃUÇQH 'LÀÃUÇQLP +HODQGLQ +HODQG %LKHOÇQH 'LKHOÇQLP .LùDQGLQ .LùDQG %LNLùvQH 'LNLùvQLP 1LYÇVDQGLQ 1LYÇVDQG %LQLYÇVÇQH 'LQLYÇVÇQLP 7LUVDQGLQ 7LUVDQG %LWLUVÇQH 'LWLUVÇQLP .XUDODXPDDQILLOOHU *UXS %XJUXSILLOOHULQHPLUKDOLQLQROXùXPXEHOOLELUNXUDODXPD]DPD ùLPGLNLYHJHOHN]DPDQNLSOHULQLQo LNLPL NXUDODXDU ¯UQHN 0DVWDU .ÏN (PLU ûLPGLNL]DPDQ 'RWLQ 'RW %LGRùH 'LGRùLP -ÇQ -Ç %LMÇ 'LMÇP $MRWLQ $MRW %DMR 'DMRP *RWLQ *RW %LEÃMH 'LEÃMLP .LULQ .LU %LNH 'LNLP %LULQ %LU %LEH 'LELP ;ZDULQ ;ZDU %L[ZH 'L[ZLP *UXS %XJUXSILLOOHUGHHPLUKDOLDùLPGLNL]DPDQDGDKHPùLPGLNL KHPGHJHOHFHN]DPDQNLSOHULQLQÀHNLPLQL VDèODPD] ¯UQHN 0DVWDU .ÏN (PLU ûLPGLNL]DPDQ $QÇQ $QÇ %ÇQH 7ÇQLP +DWLQ +DW :HUH 7ÃP %LOHùLNILLOOHULQoHNLPLEXELOHùNHGHNLILLOOHUHJ|UHROXU ¯UQHN 0DVWDU .ÏN (PLU ûLPGLNL]DPDQ *HUÇQ *HUÇ %LJHUH 'LJHULP 9HJHUÇQ 9HJHUH 9HGLJHULP .LULQ .LU %LNH 'LNLP  ÃNLULQ  ÃELNH  ÃGLNLP ;ZDULQ ;ZDU %L[ZH 'L[ZLP 9H[ZDULQ 9H[ZH 9HGL[ZLP
  213. 213. *RWLQ ILLOLQLQùLPGLNLYHJHQLù
  214. 214. ]DPDQ Û (]GLEÃMLP (PGLEÃMLQ 7XGLEÃMÇ +ÔQGLEÃMLQ (ZGLEÃMH (ZGLEÃMLQ 2OXPVX]X(]QDEÃMLPWXQDEÃMÇ $OÛüWÛUPD $æDèÛGDNLVRUXODUÛ FHYDSODQGÛUÛQ 0DOD;HOÇOOLEDMÃUH %DYÃ;HOÇOÀLNDUÇGLNH 1DYÃ[ZvùND;HOvOoLH *XOÇ]DUGLÀHGLELVWDQÃ 0DOD;HOÇOÀLPDSH]NÃP[ZHGÇGLNLQ 7XOLJXQGUÔGLQÇDQOLEDMÃU $JLUvo vDHDQGHùWH /LZHODWÃZHEHUIGLEDUH =LYLVWDQVDUHDQJHUPH 1DYÃKHYDOÃWHÀLH 7XMLKHYDOÃ[ZHKH]GLNÇ %DYÃ$]DGÀLNDUÇGLNH /LYÇEDMDUÇSDYOLNHKHQH .DUNHUÀLGLNLQ RWNDUÀLGLNLQ ;HOÇOKHYDOÃNÃH (ZKHUGXKHYDOELKHYUDÀLGLNLQ ;,, å(9´52- 'HPDEHUEDQJÃH5RMKLODWVRUGLNH'LQÃKÃGÇKÃGÇURQDNGLEHÔURM GHUGLNHYH+ÇYÔVWÃUZLQGDGLELQ *XQGÇÔEDMDUÇML[HZÃUDGLELQ'LJXQGDQGDMLSL[ÃUÇJDQGÔELOLQGGLEH .HZDQÇWDæWÃÀÃGLNLQåLYDQSH]EHUELÀRODQÔ]R]DQDQGLELQRWNDUGLÀLQ ELVWDQÔ]HYÇDQ 'LEDMDUDQGDMÇKHPÔ[HEDWNDUMLPDOGHUGLNHYLQGLÀLQVHUNDUÃ[ZH +HZDKHUGLÀHJHUPGLEH:H[WDQÇYUR[HONQDYURD[ZHGLNH£YDUÃ[HEDW GLTHGHÔ[HONYHGLJHUHPDOD[ZH5RMGLÀHDYDQ'LQÃWDUÇGLEH/LÃ]PÇQEL
  215. 215. KH]DUDQVWÃU[XDGLNLQÔGLELULTLQ+LQæHYDQKÇYGLEHÔGLQÃURQDNGLNH/à JHUPLDKÇYÃWXQHÔURQDKÇDZÃPÇQDURMÃQH[XUWH 3LæWÇæÇYÃJXQGÇ]ÔUDGL]ÃQ-LEHUNXHZVLEÃ]ÔUDGLELQ%DMDUÇæHYDQGHUHQJ UDGL]ÃQÔGHUHQJ[HZGDGLÀLQ 5RMEÇVWÔÀDUVDHWLQQÇYÇURMHQÇYÇæHYH+DYÇQÇURMGLUÃMLQæHYNXUWLQ]LYLVWDQÇ URMNXUWLQæHYGLUÃMLQ6DOÃGXFDUDQGLCÃ$GDUÃÔCçORQÃGDæHYÔURM TDVÇKHYLQKHUHNVDHWLQ %HUEDQJ ûDIDN 5RMKLODW 'RèX 5RM *QJQG]JQHü 5RQDN $GÛQOÛN 'HUNHWLQ  ÛNPDN +ÇY $ 6WÃU ÛOGÛ] ;HZ 8NX 5DEÔQ .DONPDN 3L[ÃULJ %DFD 'Ô 'XPDQ .HZDQÇ (ZNDGÛQÛ 7D ùWv .DKYDOWÛ øLYDQ  REDQ =R]DQ DOD %LVWDQ %RVWDQ ;HEDNDU (PHNÀL +HZD +DYD ;XDNLULQ *ÏUÕQPHN :H[W =DPDQ 1ÇYUR ¯èOHQ ;HON +DON 1DYUR ¯èOHHPHèL 4HGDQGLQ %LWLUPHN 5RMDYD %DWÛ +ÇQ +HQÕ] :LQGDEÔQ.DEROPDN :LQGD .DÛS 1ÃUÇQ %DNPDN *D]ÇNLULQ 6HVOHQPHN 1ÇVDQ 1LVDQ *XODQ 0DÛV 3HOJ DSUDN 7DUÇ .DUDQOÛN (]PDQ *ÏNÕ]Õ +H]DU %LQ +HPD +HPHQ %LULTÇQ 3DUODPDN ;XUW *ÕÀOÕ 3LùWv 6RQUD
  216. 216. øvY $NæDPHPHèL 5D]DQ 8XPDN -LEHUNX  ÕQNÕ ;HZGDÀÔQ8XPDN -L[HZUDEÔQ8DQPDNNDONPDN +LæDUEÔQ 8DQPDN 1ÇY DUÛP 'LUÃM 8]XQ .XUW .ÛVD $GDU 0DUW §ORQ (OÕO 4DVÇ .DGDU 4DVÇKHY %LUELULNDGDU +HUHN +HUELUL +LQ %D]Û 3DùvY DWVÛ VÛUDVÛQGDHQHQHPHN 5RMKLODW 5RMDYD 'HPDVLEÃURMOLNXH /LURMKLODWÃH 'HPDÃYDUÃURMOLNXH /LURMDYDH 'HPDEHUEDQJÃURMKLODWVRUGLNHOÃURMDYDKÇQWDUÇH 5RMKLODWLQ 5RMÀÔQDYDQ 6LEHHURMKLOWÃURMGHUGLNHYH
  217. 217. £YDUHURMGLÀHDYDQ 1DYURNLULQüvYNLULQWDüWvNLULQ *HUP 6ÛFDN %LOLQG ÕNVHN *HUPÇ 6ÛFDNOÛN %LOLQGÇ ÕNVHNOLN øvUvQ 7DWOÛ øLYDQ  REDQ øvUvQv 7DWOÛ üHOHU øLYDQv  REDQOÛN .ÕUWÀHGHVÛIDWYHLVLPOHUHHNOHQHQÇ
  218. 218. KDUILOHHQLLVLPOHUWÕUHWLOLU ¯UQHN RWNDU RWNDUÇ 1Ã]ÇN 1Ã]ÇNÇ )LUHK )LUHKÇ +ÃæÇQ +ÃæÇQÇ .XUW .XUWÇ 'HUHQJ 'HUHQJÇ .DUNHU .DUNHUÇ 'LUÃM 'LUÃMÇ )HTÇU )HTÇUÇ 5D]DQ 5DEÔQ ;HZGDÀÔQ -L[HZUDEÔQ ;HOÇOÃYDUÃ]ÔUDGL]ÃÔ[HZGDGLÀH
  219. 219. $]DGGHUHQJUDGL]Ã ;HZDWHWÃ 1D[HZDPLQQDÃ 7XNÇQJÃUDGL]Ã (]KHUæHYVDHWCDQGDUDGL]ÃP/ÃWX (]WLPVDHWCDQGDUDGL]ÃPÔKHPD[HZGDGLÀLP .LQJÃUDGLEÇ 7LPGLVDHWCDQGDML[HZUDGLELP 'ÇDWHNÇQJÃUDGLEH (Z]ÔKLæDUGLEH (ORVLEÃML[HZUDGLEHGHQÃUHNX[ZÇæNDZÇ%HVKÇQ[HZÃ GDH'ÇD[ZHUD GLEÃMH 'DÃ%HVÃKLæDUELNHGHUHQJH:H[WDGLELVWDQÃWÃ %DæHH]QLKDZÃKLæDUGLNLP´JD]Ç%HVÃGLNH%HVÃ5DEHÃGÇGHUHQJH 1LYÇVDQGÇQDZH[W %ÇVWÔHN %ÇVWÔHNÃ$GDUÃ CÃ$GDUÃ 3DQ]GHK 3DQ]GHKÃ*XODQÃ CÃ*XODQÃ +HIWÃ1ÇVDQÃVDODCÃ1ÇVDQÃVDOD 4DVÇ 4DVÇKHY ;HOÇOÔ$]DGTDVÇKHYLQKHUGXMÇVDOÇQH 'HIWHUDPLQTDVÇGHIWHUDWHHKHUGXMÇSHOJLQ+HUHNSHOJLQ
  220. 220. ¯GHY$æDèÛGDNLVRUXODUÛ FHYDSODQGLULQ 'HPDEHUEDQJÃUHQJÃURMKLODWÃÀDZDH 6LEÃGLQÃÀDZDURQDNGLEH .XURMGHUGLNHYHKÇYÔVWÃUÀLGLELQ åHYDQVWÃUOLNXGLELULTLQ 0HULYNÇQJÃML[HZÃUDGLEHVLEÃDQÃYDUà :H[WDVLEÃMLSL[ÃUÇJDQÀLELOLQGGLEH .HZDQÇÀLNDUÇGLNLQ åLYDQGHPDVLEÃSH]EHUELNXGLELQ 'LEDMDUDQGD[HEDWNDUZH[WDVLEÃÀLGLNLQ 1DYURNLQJÃWÃ[ZDULQ åÇYNLQJÃWÃ[ZDULQ ;HONWDæWÃNLQJÃGLNH ;HONQDYURNLQJÃGLNH *XQGÇSLæWÇæÇYÃSDæÇYMÇGL[ZLQ%DMDUÇMÇSDùvYGL[ZLQ 5RMNÇQJÃGLÀHDYDQ
  221. 221. 5RMNXGLÀHDYDQÀLGLEH +ÇYMÇPÇQDURMÃGLQÃJHUPGLNH 5RQDKÇDKÇYÃ[XUWHDQDURMà *XQGÇ]ÔUDGL]ÃQDQEDMDUÇ LPD *XQGÇNÇQJÃUDGL]ÃQ 5RMÀHQGVDHWLQ 3LUWÔNDWHÀHQGSHOJH +DYÇQÇURMGLUÃMLQDQæHY .ÇQJÃæHYGLUÃMLQ .ÇQJÃæHYÔURMTDVÇKHYLQ 6ÇSDQTDVÇ$JLUÇELOLQGH ¯GHY .XUDODXJXQùXILLOOHULQùLPGLNL]DPDQoHNLPLQLDS ÛQÛ] *LUWLQ]DQvQNLUvQELMDUWLQNLùDQGLQQLYvVDQGLQ .ÏN (PLU 'HUNHWLQ 'HUNHW 'HUNHYH (]GHUGLNHYLP 7XGHUGLNHYÇ (ZGHUGLNHYH (PGHUGLNHYLQ +ÔQGHUGLNHYLQ (ZGHUGLNHYLQ 4HGDQGLQ 4HGDQG %LTHGÇQH (]GLTHGÇQLP 1ÃUÇQ 1ÃUÇ %LQÃUH (]GLQÃULP 1LKÃUWLQ 1LKÃUW %LQKÃUH (]GLQLKÃULP %LULTÇQ %LULTÇ %LELULTH (ZGLELULTH 5D]DQ 5D]D 5D]à (]UDGL]ÃP 7XUDGL]à (ZUDGL]à (PUDGL]ÃQ +ÔQUDGL]ÃQ (ZUDGL]ÃQ 5DEÔQ 5DEÔ 5DEH (]UDGLELP 7XUDGLEÇ (ZUDGLEH (PUDGLELQ +ÔQUDGLELQ (ZUDGLELQ 0HKÃQVDOà  LOHÃ3DæÇQ6LEDW$GDU1ÇVDQ*XODQ+L]ÃUDQ7LUPHK 7HED[ §ORQ LUÇD3ÃæÇQ ÇUÇD3DæÇQ LOHÃ3ÃæÇQ
  222. 222. ;,,, /,6´.£ 5RMDæHPÇÃEÔ;H]DOÃMLNXUÃ[ZH$]DGUDJRW (]GLÀLPVÔNÃWXMÇELPLQUDZHUH$OÇNDUÇDPLQELNH :ÇÔGÇD[ZH]HPEÇOÔWÔUJLUWLQÔÀÔQ6ÔNMLPDODZDQQHGÔUEÔ%HUÃÀÔQ GLNDQHNÃNXWÃGDVRODQGLIURæLQ;H]DOÃOLVRODQQÃUÇÔELFRWHNTRQGLUHTDÇO EÔ-LGLNDQGDUSLUVÇ %XKDÃYDQÀLH +H]DUÔGXVHGSDQJQRW 8II*HOHNEXKDH .XGL[ZD]ÇÃHU]DQMÇKHQH.DELQÃUHJRWÔFRWHNTRQGLUÃGLQQÇæDQGD (ZELÀLQH 1HKVHGSDQJQRWLQ %LKHIWVHGÇQDEH 1DEH-LKHæWVHGÔSÃQFÇNÃPWLUQDIURæLP ;H]DOÃHZMÇQHNLUÇÔMLGLNDQÃGHUNHWLQ'LNDQGDUELGÔZDQGHVWÃ[ZHKHMDQG ÔJRW /LVÔNÃELJHULQGLEHNXKÔQÃHU]DQWLUGLEÇQLQ (ZOLKLQGLNDQÃQGLQMÇJHUÇQOÃZHNÇJRWLQDGLNDQGDUÃSÃæÇQEÔ6ROOLKHUGHUà EXKDEÔQ3DæÃGHYMLVRONLUÇQÃEHUGDQ /ÃWHQÃVROEXKDEÔQ+HUWLæWXVDEÔ6ÔNELPÃOWLMHEÔ+HUWH[OÇWWLùWGLKDW IURWLQLOÃPÃUDQFLOÃMLQDQWLæWÃQ[ZDULQÃOÇVWRNÔKHWDWUDPSÃODQ/ÃWX ZHUHELNLUH(ZJRUÇIHTÇUDQQHEÔQ  DYÃ$]DGGLNLUDVÔSDQWROHNÇGDPD3DæÃGÃMÃUDNLUDVHNÇHU]DQÔFRWHN JRUHNLUÇ (PERWLæWÃQ[ZDULQÃKDWLQÔNHWLQPHVUHIÃ*RWGÇDZÇ 3DæÃÀÔQGLNDQHNHNXOLZLUWLæWÃQ[ZDULQÃWÃQIURWLQ;H]DOÃSHQÇUÃ5XKDà QÇæDQGDÔSLUVÇ (ZSHQÇUELÀLH SDQJQRW (ZDMRUÇQ SDQJQRW -ÃNÇORNÇELGH+ÃNELÀLQH øHùSDQJQRW 3ÃQFKHZMÇKÃNGLZD]LP ;H]DOÃÔ$]DGOLZLUNÇORNMÇ]HWÔQGXNÇORæHNLUNÇORNWLUÇÀDUKHZMÇQDQJLUWLQÔ HZNLULQ]HPEÇOÃÔWÔUYHJHUÇQKDWLQPDO 6ÔN dDUüÛSD]DU
  223. 223. øHPv XPDUWHVL .XU 2èXO $OÇNDU DUGÛPFÛ 7ÔU 7RUED 'LNDQ 'ÕNNDQ 'LNDQGDU 'ÕNNDQFÛ %HUà ¯QFH 4DÇOEÔQ %HèHQPHN 3LUVÇQ 6RUPDN %XKD )LDWSDKD 3DQJQRW /LUD $OÇNDUÇNLULQ DUGÛPHWPHN =HPEÇO 6HSHW -ÃUÇQ $æDèÛGDNL 'Ô $UNDJHUÇ 'HVW (O +HMDQGLQ 6DOODPDN 'ÇWLQ *ÏUPHN 3ÃæÇQ ¯QFHNLLON 'HY $èÛ] %HUGDQ %ÛUDNPDN 8VD ¯OH 0DO 0DO 7LMÇ 'ROX LO.LQF
  224. 224. (OELVH 6RO $DNNDEÛ RW  LIW 0ÃU (UNHN -LQ .DGLQ /ÇVWRN 2XQFDN +HWDKHD
  225. 225. HNDGDU 7UDPSÃO 2WRPRELO /ÃYHJHUDQGLQHYDSYHUPHN -RUÇQ XNDUGDNL *RU *ÏUH .LUDV *ÏPOHN 3DQWRO 3DQWRODQ 7H[OÇW dHüvW  DNÃW HNHW ;ZHVWLQ ,VWHPHN (U]DQ 8FX] *RUH  RUDS .HWLQ 'üPHNJLUPHN 0HVUHI 0DVUDI 5XKD 8UID .ÇOR .LOR =HWÔQ =HWLQ øHNLU øHNHU
  226. 226. /Ã[LVWLQ 9XUPDN 'DQ 9HUPHN %LGH 9HU 'DQÛQHPLUKDOL
  227. 227. %HUVÇY HYDS +HZ 7DQH .ÛDVODPDVÛIDWÛ RPSHUDWLI
  228. 228. WÛU 0H]LQ %ÕÕN 0H]LQWLU 'DKD%ÕÕN (U]DQ 8FX] (U]DQWLU 'DKDXFX] .ÃP $] .ÃPWLU 'DKDD] %LOLQG ÕNVHN %LOLQGWLU 'DKDÕNVHN 7ÃGD 'LZÃGD 'LZÃGLNDQÃGDWLæWÃQ[ZDULQÃKHEÔQ 7ÃGDWLæWÃQ[ZDULQÃKHEÔQ -ÃUD -L ZÇUD ;H]DOÃMLZÇGLNDQGDUÇUDJRW ;H]DOÃMÃUDJRW %XQXQJLEL/LZÃ/à %LZÃ3à ¯UQHN 0LQOLZÇ]DUDRNÇQH[LVW 0LQOÃQH[LVW (]ELZÇUDÀÔPEDMÃU (]SÃUDÀÔPEDMÃU g]QHHG|QüO]DPLU ;ZH NHQGL
  229. 229. (]GHUVD[ZHGL[ZÇQLP 'HUVD[ZH'HUVLPL %LÀHKHYDOÃ[ZHELEÇQH +HYDOÃ[ZH$UNDGDüÛQÛ ;H]DOÃNXUÃ[ZH$]DGUDJRW .XUÃ[ZH$]DGUD2èOX$]DGCD
  230. 230. :ÇÔGÇD[ZH2YHDQQHVL %LQÃUH%DN .DELQÃUH%DNEDNDOÛPELUEDN 'HYMÃEHUGDQ 3HùvQvEÛUDNPDNYD]JHÀPHN 3DæÃGHYMLVRONLUÇQÃEHUGDQ -LZà -à  DYWÃGDPDQ 2QGDJÏ]ÕNDOPDNLPUHQPHN  DYÃ$]DGGLNLUDVHNÇGDPD GLZà GD PD Wà GD PD *HoLüOLJHÀLÀVL]ILOOHU *HoLùOLILLO|]QHVLQLQDSW ÛèÛ LæEDæNDELUæHLHWNLOHHQILLOGLU'LèHUELUGHLæOH QHVQHVLRODQILLOGLU ¯UQHN 0LQDYYH[[ZDU%HQVXLÀWLP %XUDGDÏ]QHEHQILOOLÀPHNQHVQHLVHVXGXU,ÀPHNILLLOLLOHVXQHVQH
  231. 231. HWLNLOHQPLùWLU *HoLùVL]ILLOLVHEDùNDV ÛQÛ HWNLOHPLHQGLèHUELUGHLæOHQHVQHVLROPDDQILLOGLU ¯UQHN  ÔNGLILUH.XüXoDU %XUDGD|]QHQLQNXù
  232. 232. DSWÛèÛ LùXoPDN
  233. 233. EDùNDVÛQÛ HWNLOHPLRU *HoLùOLILLOOHULQGLOLJHoPLù]DPDQ Û %DVLWJHoLüOLILLOOHU ¯UQHNNLULQ 0LQNLU 0HNLU 7HNLU :HNLU :ÇZÃNLU :DQNLU 2OXPVX]X0LQQHNLU 0D]L]DPDQODUÛQÛQROXPVX]OXNHGDWÛ QH
  234. 234. GLU 0LQ[ZDU 0H[ZDU 7H[ZDU :H[ZDU ;ZDULQ :LZÃ[ZDU :DQ[ZDU 2OXPVX]X0LQQH[ZDU
  235. 235. 0LQJRW 0HJRW 7HJRW :HJRW *RWLQ :LZÃJRW :DQJRW 2OXPVX]X0LQQHJRW *ÏUÕOGÕèÕJLELJHÀLæOLEDVLWILLOOHULQGLOLJHÀPLæ]DPDQÛQGDILLONÏNÕWDNÛ DOPD] %XQXQJLEL .LUÇQ 0LQNLUÇNÏNNLUÇ
  236. 236. WHNLUÇZDQNLUÇ )URWLQ 0LQIURWWHZÇZÃPHZHZDQIURW 1ÃUÇQ 0LQWHZÇZÃPHZHZDQQÃUÇ 3LUVÇQ SLUVÇ ;ZDVWLQ [ZDVW +HMDQGLQ KHMDQG %HUGDQ EHUGD 'DQ GD *LUWLQ JLUW %XJUXEDJLUHQGLèHUED]Û ILLOOHU $QÇQ $QL $YÃWLQ $YÃW .XùWLQ .XüW 4HGDQGLQ 4HGDQG  LQÇQ  LQÇ 3ÃÀDQ 3ÃÀD =DQÇQ =DQÇ 1LYÇVÇQ 1LYÇVÇ 3DUDVWLQ 3DUDVW 7LUVDQGLQ 7LUVDQG +HMPDUWLQ +HMPDUW %LMDUWLQ %LMDUW *LYDùWLQ *LYDüW  ÃUDQGLQ  ÃUDQG +HODQGLQ +HODQG .LùDQGLQ .LüDQG 1LYÇVDQGLQ 1LYÇVDQG 'RWLQ 'RW %LULQ %LU
  237. 237. %DVLWJHoLùOLILLOOHUOHDS ÛOD QELOHùLNILLOHUGHGHNXUDODQ ÛGÛU .LULQ .LU 9HNLULQ 9HNLU $QÇQ $QÇ 'HUDQÇQ 'HUDQÇ 'HVWSÃNLULQ 'HVWSÃNLU +H]NLULQ +H]NLU
  238. 238. *HoLüVL]ILLOOHUGHGLOLJHoPLü]DPDQ .ÏNÕQVRQKDUILVHVOLLVH .ÏNÕQVRQKDUILVHVL]LVH  ÔQ .ÏN Ô +DWLQ.ÏNKDW (]ÀÔP P (]KDWLP LP 7XÀÔÇ Ç 7XKDWÇ Ç (ZÀÔ (ZKDW (PÀÔQ Q (PKDWLQ LQ +ÔQÀÔQ Q +ÔQKDWLQ LQ (ZÀÔQ Q (ZKDWLQ LQ %DVLWJHoLùVL]ILLOOHUOHDS ÛOD QELOHùLNILOOHUGHNXUDODQ ÛGÛU ¯UQHN 'HUNHWLQ (]GHUNHWLP (PGHUNHWLQ 7XGHUNHWÇ +ÔQGHUNHWLQ (ZGHUNHW (ZGHUNHWLQ *HÀLæVL]EDVLWILLOOHUGHQGLèHUÏUQHNOHU 5D]DQ (]UD]DPWXUD]DÇHZUD]DHPUD]DQ 5DEÔQ (]UDEÔPWXUDEÔÇ %ÔQ (]EÔPWXEÔÇ .HWLQ (]NHWLPWXNHWÇ *ÏUÕOGÕèÕJLELJHÀLæVL]ILLOOHULQPD]L]DPDQODUÛQGDJUXS]DPLUOHUJHo LùOL ILLOOHULQPD]L]DPDQODUÛQGDLVHJUXS]DPLUOHUNXOODQÛOÛRU $OLNDUÇNLULQ $]DGDOÇNDUÇDGÇD[ZHNLU 7XDOÇNDUÇDKHYDOÃ[ZHELNH 3ÃTDÇOEÔQ 7XELYÇÀDNÃWÇTDÇOEÔÇ 1DHZWHQJH .DOLYÇELQÃUHHYJRUDWHH %HOÃH]SÃTDÇOEÔP (]ELYÇ TDÇOEÔP
  239. 239. (]SÃ TDÇOEÔP 3LUVEHUVÇYÔOÃYHJHUDQGLQ 'HUVGDUML(ORSLUVÇ +ÇYÔVWÃUOLNXQH (OREHUVÇYDZÇGD /LÃ]PÇQLQ ;H]DOÃMLGLNDQGDUSLUVÇ (YFRWÃTRQGLUÃELÀLQH 'LNDQGDUOÃYHJHUDQG +H]DUÔGXVHGSDQJQRWLQ -ÃUÇQ MRUÇQ -ÃU -ÃUÇQDæDèÛGDNL
  240. 240. -RU -RUÇQXNDUGDNL
  241. 241. =ÃUDOWÛQ
  242. 242. ]ÃUÇQDOWÛQGDQ
  243. 243. =vYJPù
  244. 244. =vYvQJPùWHQ
  245. 245. %HUVÇYDSLUVÃQMÃUÇQELGLQ
  246. 246. ;H]DOÔNXUÃ[ZHNÇQJÃNÇMDQURMÃ
  247. 247. ÀÔQVÔNÃ
  248. 248. (ZDQDMLPDOÀLJLUWLQÔÀÔQ
  249. 249.  LPD$]DGWHYÇGÇD[ZHÀÔ'ÇDZÇMÃUDÀLJRW
  250. 250. 6ÔNMLPDODZDQGÔUHDQQÃ]ÇNH
  251. 251. (ZEHUÃÀÔQNÇMDQGLNDQÃ
  252. 252. ;H]DOÃMLGLNDQGDUUDÀLJRW
  253. 253. 'LNDQGDUÀDZDOÃYHJHUDQG
  254. 254. (ZFRWÃTRQGLUÃHU]DQEÔDQEXKDEÔ
  255. 255. 0ÃUÃ;H]DOÃÀLNDUÇGLNH
  256. 256. %XKDÇERNDUNHUÔVHUPÇDQGDUDQHNH LPD
  257. 257. ;H]DOÃFRWÃTRQGLUÃNLUÇDQQHNLUÇ
  258. 258. 'LVÔNÃGDÀLWÃQIURWLQ
  259. 259. $]DGELÀLTDÇOEÔ
  260. 260. 'ÇDZÇMÃUDÀLNLUÇ
  261. 261. /LGLNDQD[ZDULQÃ;H]DOÃÀLNLUÇQ
  262. 262.  LPDSHQÇUÃ5XKDÃQHNLUÇ
  263. 263. +ÃNELÀLEÔQ
  264. 264. :DQÀHQGKHZKÃNNLUÇQ ;H]DOÃSHQÇUNLUÇ ;H]DOÃSÃQFKHZKÃNNLUÇQ $]DGVÃYHN[ZDU $]DGGXVÃY[ZDULQ
  265. 265. *ÏUÕOGÕèÕJLELQHVQHÀRèXOROXQFDÀRèXOHNLILLOHDQVÛU KÃNHNNLUÇ 6ÃYHN[ZDU SÃQFKÃNNLUÇQ GXVÃY[ZDULQ ;,9 7,å7£1/,;:(.,5,1£ 0HULYÃQGHPDæNHIWDQEÃFLOEÔQ(ZDQDEHUÃKHZDQÃNÔYÇNXæWLQJRæWà ZDQ[ZDULQÔSRVWÃZDQOL[ZHNLULQ3LæWÇKÃGÇKÃGÇVHKHVSNHUSLVÇQJÀÃOHN PÇKÔEL]LQNHGÇNLULQ/LKHVSDQVÇDUEÔQELJDÔKHVSDQHUGDMRWLQKLUÇDPÇK ÔEL]LQDQUÃVWLQ ÔSÃWLæWÃQOL[ZHNLULQÃÀÃNLULQ 0HULYÃQÇURÇQÇSLUWH[OÇWWLæWOL[ZHGLNLQ 0ÃUÀDNÃWSDQWROVDNRÃOHNOL[ZHGLNLQæHZTDGLGLQVHUÃ[ZH-LQIÇVWDQÔ PDQWROL[ZHGLNLQ/ÃOLGHZUDÇURÇQÇFLOÃQMLQÔPÃUDQQÃ]ÇKHYH-LQMÇZHN PÃUDQÀDNÃWÔ SDQWROOL[ZHGLNLQ/ÃGÇVDMÇFLOÃQPÃUDQÔÃQMLQDQMLKHY FXGDGLELQ 0HULYGLELQGDNLUDVÔGHUSÃOL[ZHGLNLQVROÔJRUHGLNLQSÃ.LUDVÔGHUSÃML FDZÃWHQLNLQ6DNRÔPDQWRMLTXPDæÃQVWÔULQPHULYDQJHUPGLNLQ 7LæWÃQOL[ZHNLULQÃSLUDQÇMLSHPEXKLUÇÔÇEULæLPÀÃGLELQ6ROMLÀHUPÃKHZDQDQ ÀÃGLEH LOÃ.XUGDQÃJHOÃUÇæDOÔæDSLNH(ZæDOÔæDSLNOL[ZHGLNLQNROR]GLGLQVHUà [ZHÔSLæWÃJLUÃGLGLQ-LQMÇNRIÇGLGLQVHUÃ[ZHÔZÃELSHUÃQ]ÃUÔ]ÇYÔEL GHVWPDOÃQUHQJÇQGL[HPLOÇQLQ /L[ZHNLULQ *LLQPHN øNHIW 0DJDUD 'HPDùNHIWDQ 0DèDUDÀDèÛ %ÃFLO (OELVHVL] 7D]Ç  LSODN .ÔYÇ DEDQvYDKüv +HZDQ +DYDQ .XùWLQ ¯OGÕUPHN 3RVW 'HUL 3LVÇQJ .HGÇ .HGÇ (KOL .HGÇNLULQ (KOLOHüWLUPH 6ÇDU %LQLFLDWOL 6ÇDUEÔQ %LQPHN *D ¯NÕ] +LUÇ ÕQ 5ÃVWLQ ¯UPHN
  266. 266.  DNÃW HNHW 6DNR 3DOWR £OHJ HOHN øHZTH ûDSND .RIÇ .ÕUWNDGÛQODUÛQÛQEDüOÛèÛ 'DQ 9HUPHN 'HVWPDO 0HQGLO 5HQJLQ 5HQNOL )ÇVWDQ (QWDUÇ 0DQWR 0DQWR XGD $UÛIDUNOÛ XGDEÔQ $UÛOPDNIDUNHWPHN 'HUSÃ 'RQ 3Ã $DN /LQJ $DNEDFDN 3ÃNLULQ *LPHNDDNDEÛ
  267. 267. ;HPLODQGLQ6ÕVOHPHN 6HU %Dü DZ %H] 7HQLN kQFH 6WÔU .DOÛQ 4XPDù .XPDü 3HPEX 3DPXN ËEULùLP kSHN  HUP 'HUL *HOÃUÇ 8ODVDO øDOÔæDSLN 3DQWRORQYHFHSNHQGHQROXüDQELU.UWXOXVDOJLVLVL 3LùW %HONXüDN *LUÃGDQ %DèODPDN 6HUTRW %DüDoÛN +HYRN ÕPOH 9DOD %Rü /ÃNHU )LLO 7LæWÃQOL[ZHNLULQà *LLOHFHNüHOHU 7LæWÃQ[ZDULQÃÔYH[ZDULQà LLOHFHN kÀLOHFHNüHOHU 7LæWÃQIURWLQà 6DWÛOÛNüHOHU /L[ZHNLULQ *LLQPHN  DNHWÃ[ZHOL[ZHELNH HNHWLQLJL 6DUHH]VDNRÃ[ZHOL[ZHGLNLP (OÇIÃGXPDQWRÃ[ZHOL[ZHNLU 0HULYÃQGHPDEHUÃSRVWÃKHZDQDQOL[ZHNLULQ LOOÃNLULQ *LGLUPHN :H[WDGLELVWDQÃKDWFLOÃODZLNOÃELNH
  268. 268. /ÃELNH OLZÇ ELNH OÃ ELNH $YOL[ZHNLULQ ÛNDQPDN .HÀLNDYÃOL[ZHGLNH 0LQGXDYOL[ZHNLU 'DQVHUÇ 0HULYæHZTHGLGLQVHUÃ[ZH (]æHZTHQDGLPVHUÃ[ZHVHUTRWGLJHULP (OLIÃNRIÇGDVHUÃ[ZH +HVHQ æHZTÃ[ZHELGHVHUÃ[ZH 3ÃNLULQ ;HOÇOVROÃ[ZHELNHSÃ 0HULYVROÔJRUHGLNLQSÃ (OLIÃTRQGLUHÃQQXQHNLUSÃMLEHUNXHZWHQJEÔQ 7HVROÃ[ZHSÃNLU %XILLOOHULQNÛVDOWÛOPÛùELo LPOHULQHGLNND WHGHOLP 6ROÃ[ZHELNHSÃ HULQH 6ROÃ[ZHSÃNH  DNÃWÃ[ZHOL[ZHELNHHULQH  DNÃWÃ[ZHOL[ZHNH åHZTÃ[ZHELGHVHUÃ[ZHHULQH åHZTÃ[ZVHUÃ[ZHGH LOÃODZLNOÃELNH HULQH LOÃODZLNOÃNH -L[ZHNLULQ GHU[LVWLQ WD]ÇEÔQ .ÕUWÀHGHHOELVHÀÛNDUPDHULQHNXOODQÛOÛUODU :ÇÀDNÃWH[ZHGHU[LVW *HUPHVDNRÃ[ZHGHU[H -L[ZHNLULQGDÀÛNDUPDNVRXQPDNDQODPÛQGDGÛUDQFDNHQGHUNXOODQÛOÛU  DNÃWÃ[ZHML[ZHELNH 'HUSÃML[ZHNLULQKDDVÛ]OÛèÛ HOHDOPDNDQODPÛQDJHOLU 7HÀLGHUSÃML[ZHNLUÇH 7D]ÇEÔQÀÛSODNROPDDQODPÛQGDGÛU +HPÔFLOÃQ[ZHGHU[HWD]ÇEH §URÇQÇ GXKLQÇ §URLQÇ %ÕJÕQNÕ 'XKLQÇ 'ÕQNÕ 'HZUDÇURÇQÇ DèÛPÛ]GDJÕQÕPÕ]GH 7X]DURÃGXKLQÇÇ6HQGÕQNÕÀRFXNVXQ
  269. 269. 6ÇDUEÔQ +HVSHNPHKHHOH]OÃVÇDUGLELP +HVHQOLWLUHQÃVÇDUEÔKDW(QTHUÃ+HVHQELWLUÃQÃKDW
  270. 270. 7XKHWD9DQÃELÀLÀÔÇ (]OLRWRER]ÃVÇDUEÔPÀÔP%LRWRER]ÃÀÔP
  271. 271. +$/(7£13§9$1£ +DOHWÃQSÇYDQÃERJUDQÇÃGLUÃMDKÇÃKÃMDÇÃÔKZGLQ0HULYGLVDDYDQ KDOHWDQGDWLùWDQGLSvYH 'L.XUGLVWDQÃGDERSÇYDQGLQDJLUDQÇÃZHTÇÔOÇWLUKHH+HæWYHTÇOÇWLUHNGLNH :HTÇHNGÇUKHPH 'L.XUGLVWDQÃGDERSÇYDQGLQDFHKÔJHQLPÔWLæWÃQZHNÇZDQÀDSQÇYÀDS NRGKHH 3HUHKÃMDÇÃGLSÇYH0HULYGLVDDSHUHGDKHUWLæWÇGLGHÔGLVWÇQH-LEHUNX .XUGLVWDQD]DGQÇQHSHUÃZÃÃJHOÃUÇWXQLQ/ÃGL.XUGÇGDMLEROÇUD SDQJQRWDQMÇND[LWWÃJRWLQ 0HULYGLUÃMDKÇÃELPÃWURGLSÇYH 'L.XUGLVWDQÃGDIÃNÇKÃNÔKZGELDOÇÃ]R ÔEHU MLWÃQSÇYDQGLQ:HNÇGX]R VÃ]RDQEHUHNGXEHUVÃEHU =RHNGXKHZHEHUHNVÇKHZH +DOHW $UDÀDOHW +HZFH *HUHNOÇ +HZFHEÔQ*HUHNOÇROPDN 3ÇYDQ ¯OÀPHN *UDQÇ $èÛUOÛN 'LUÃMDKÇ 8]XQOXN .D[LW /LUDNDèÛW 1ÇYÀDS  DSCÛQDUÛVÛ .RG  DSÛQGÏUWWHELUL %HURù %DNUDÀ 6WDQGLQ $OPDN 'DQÔ $OÛü9HULü 6WDQGLQ :HTÇ 2NNDJU
  272. 272.  DS 7HQHNHGHQNÕÀÕNELUKDFLPÏOÀÕVÕ /ÇWLU %DWPDQ =R  LIW +ZG %XQXQJLEL +HUZHNÇGLQ
  273. 273. $]DGÇ ¯]JÕUOÕN 3HUÃJHOÃU 8OXVDOSDUD  LOÃJHOÃU 8OXVDOJLVL 0ÃWUR 0HWUH %HU 2WX]OXNJUXS
  274. 274.  LWÃJRWLQ .XUGÇMLOÇUDUDSDQJQRWWÃJRWLQ 'L7LUNÇGDERKDOHWÃQSÇYDQÃÀLWÃJRWLQ 'L7LUNÇGDERKDOHWÃQSÇYDQà ÏOÀÕPDUDÀODUÛWÃJRWLQ DUGÛPFÛ ILLOOHU %ÔQKDWLQNLULQGDQILOOHULELUÀRNGXUXPGDDUGÛPFÛ ILLOOJÏUHYLDSDUODU ÕPOHLHGLOJHQDSPDNWDGDKDWÛQ ILLOLDUGÛPFÛ ILLORODUDNJÏUHYDSDU ¯UQHN .XUGMLOLUDUDSDQJQRWGLEÃMLQ 'LNXUGÇGDMLOLUDUDSDQJQRWWà JRWLQ%XUDGDWÃKDWLQILLOLQLQJHQLù]DPDQ ÛQÛQ oQFWHNLOùD KVDXJXQELo LPLGLU
  275. 275. 7ÃJRWLQ 'HQLU 7Ã[ZHQGLQ2NXQXU 7ÃQLYÇVDQGLQD]ÛOÛU %LOHùLNNLSOHULQDS ÛPÛQGDJÏUHYDODQEÔQ ILLOLLOHELOHùLNILLOOHULQDS ÛPÛQDNDWÛODQ EÔQKDWLQGDQNLULQILOOHULDUGÛPFÛ ILLOOHUGLU +ÇQNLULQ 'LKHYRNÃQMÃUÇQGDFÇÃQYDODWLMHELNLQ 5RMDæHPÇÃ;H]DOÔNXUÃ[ZHVÔNÃ ;H]DOÃMLGLNDQGDU%XKDÃYDQÀLH £YDUÇURMDYDQ 6LEÃGLQÃKÃGÇKÃGÇ URQDNÔURM =LYLVWDQÇEHUIÔHUGÃ .DUÔEHU[OLVHUPÃUJDQ 3DÇ]ÇSHOÃQGDUDQ (]MLKHYDOÃ[ZH 3HUÃ;H]DOÃWXQHEÔZÃML[ZHUDFRWHNVRO *XQGÇÃYDUÇ]Ô 0LQSDQJQRWÔZHTÇNUÔQ 'LGLNDQÃGDWLæWÃQ[ZDULQÃ 0HULYNLUDVÔGHUSHVROÔJRUH Ô ùHZTH 6ROMLÀHUPÃQKHZDQDQ -LQVHUÃ[ZHELSHUÃQ]ÃUÔ]ÇY 0HULYGLUÃMDKÇÃELPÃWUR 'XPLQEHURæHNUÔQELUOLFHPGLNDQGDUUÔQÃPLQÀDUÔQÇYZHTÇ
  276. 276. 1DQWÃDYWÃFL[DUHWà %HUVÇYDSLUVÃQMÃUÇQELGLQ 0HULYÃQGHPDæNHIWDQÀLOL[ZHGLNLULQ 0HULYÃQEHUÃKHZDQÃNÔYÇÀLGLNLULQ 0HULYÃQEHUÃKHZDQÃNÔYÇÀLGLNLULQ 0HULYDQNÇMDQKHZDQNHGÇNLULQ *XUNÔYÇHDQNHGÇH .HZURæNNÔYÇHDQNHGÇH 0HULYOLKHVSDQÀLGLNH 0HULYELJDQÀLGLNH 0HULYELÀÃOHNDQÀLGLNH 0HULYKLUÇDPÇKÔEL]LQDQÀLGLNH 0HULYæÇUÃNHUÃYHGL[ZLQ(ZELNHUÃÀLGLNLQ 0ÃUÀLOL[ZHGLNLQ 0ÃUIÇVWDQOL[ZHGLNLQ -LQÀLOL[ZHGLNLQ 0HULYÀLGLNLQSà 0ÃUÀLGLGLQVHUÃ[ZH 0HULYOLKHYÇQÃVDNROL[ZHGLNLQ LPD 0HULYGLELQGDÀLOL[ZHGLNLQ *XQGÇDQEHUÃFDZÀÃGLNLULQ1LKDMLÀÃGLNLQ 3HOJÃSLUWÔNÃWHQLNHDQVWÔUH 7LæWÃQOL[ZHNLULQÃMLÀLÀÃGLELQ 6ROMLÀLÀÃGLELQ LOÃ.XUGDQÃJHOÃUÇÀLH :HFDUDQSLæWJLUÃGD -LQÃ.XUGDQÀLGLGLQVHUÃ[ZHÔZÃÀDZDGL[HPLOÇQLQ +DOHWÃQSÇYDQÃÀLUDGLELQ 'L.XUGLVWDQÃGDERSÇYDQDJUDQÇÃÀLKDOHWKHQH /ÇWLUHNÀHQGZHTÇH 'L.XUGLVWDQÃGDFHKÔJHQLPELÀLWÃQSÇYDQGLQ 3HUHÀLGLSÇYH 'HZUDÇURÇQÇGDQÔVWDQGLQGLVDDÀLGDGLEH 3HUÃ.XUGLVWDQÃÃJHOÃUÇKHH LPD 6WUDQÃQ.XUGDQÃQJHOÃUÇKHQH 0HULYGLUÃMDKÇÃELÀLGLSÇYH 3ÃQF]RVÃYÀHQGKHZGLNH 'XEHUJÔ]ÀHQGKHZGLNH ;9 3$4k-§
  277. 277. 0DODøDKDQOL'LDUEHNUÃH%DYÃZÇGLGLELVWDQÃGDGHUVGDUH(ZGLNLUÃGD UÔGLQLQ0DODZDQSLÀÔNHGXRGHÔPLWED[HNZÃDSLÀÔNKHH0DOMLZDQ UDJHOHNWHQJHOÃÀÇELNLQNLUÃDPDOÃQILUHKSLUEXKDHHZSÃQLNDQLQ 0DODZDQSLÀÔNHOÃSDTLMH'ÇDåDKDQ=HODOJHOHNMÃKDWÇHMLSDTLMÇÃKH] GLNH0DOÃGLPDOHNLQFDQGLæRIHUHÔIRODQGLELULTÇQH 'ÇDåDKDQKHUVLEÃVDHWKHIWDQGDZÇKLæDUGLNHåDKDQMLQLYÇQÃUDGLEHÔ GHYÔUÔÃ[ZHELVDEÔQÃGLæRGLUDQÃ[ZHELILUÀÃSDTLMGLNHÔSRUÃ[ZHæH GLNH3LæWÇZÃFLOÃ[ZHOL[ZHGLNHÔWÃVLIUà ;ZDULQDZDQGLWDæWÃGDQDQÀDÔ]ÃWÔQDQMÇÀDÔSHQÇUH'ÇDZÇ FDUFDUDQMÇKÃNDQGLNHOÇQHåDKDQMLæÇUÔKXQJLYJHOHNKH]GLNHOÃEDYÃZÇ GLEÃMHHZEXKDQH øDKDQCDQGDMLPDOGHUGLNHYHGLoHGLELVWDQÃ1ÇYURNXGHUVÃQZDQ[LODVEÔ YHGLJHUHPDO;ZDULQD[ZHGL[ZHÔGHUVD[ZHGL[ZLQH+LQJÃGLDZÇGLKÃOHÔ HZGLÀHELKHYDOÃ[ZHUDGLOÇ]H £YDUÇNXYHJHUÇPDOVROÃ[ZHOLEHUGÃUÇGHUGL[HGHVWÔSÇÃ[ZHÔJRUHÃQ [ZHGLùR 5RMÃQæHPÇÃÔHNæHPÇÃQDÀLQHGLELVWDQÃ'LYDQURMDQGDåDKDQVLEà GHUHQJUDGLEH'ÇDZÇDYÃOÃGLNHÔNLQFÃQZÇGLJXKXUH %DYÃZÇWLPMÃUDGLEÃMH3DTLMEH-LTLUÃMÇÃQH[ZHæÇSÃNWÃQåDKDQMÇJXKOL GÃÔEDYÃ[ZHGLNH(ZJHGHHNSDTLMH .LUà .LUD 0LWED[ 0XWIDN .DQÇQ DSDELOPHN 3ÃNDQÇQ *ÕFÕHWPHN 3DTLM 7HPL] 3DTLMÇ 7HPL]OLN -ÃKDWÇ %HFHULNOL 0LùWLQ 6ÕSÕUPHN åÔæWLQ ÛNDPDN )HUH .DE )HUHÔIRO .DENDFDN %LULTDQGLQ 3DUODWPDN 1LYÇQ DWDN 5Ô Õ] 6DEÔQ 6DEXQ 'LUDQ 'Lü )LUÀH )ÛUÀD 3RU 6DÀ øH 7DUDN åÃNLULQ 7DUDPDN 6LIUH 6RIUD .HODQGLQ .DQDWPDN ;ZHGÇ 6DKLS  HN 6LODK *Ã]Ç 6ÕSÕUJH
  278. 278. +LùWLQ 0ÕVDDGHHWPHN HNùHPv 3D]DU 5DVWÇ 'RèUXOXN $YOÃNLULQ %DQRDSWÛUPDN .LQF dDPDüÛU 4LUÃM .LU 4LUÃMÇ .LUOLOLN +HIWLN +DIWD 3ÃNKDWLQ 0HGDQDJHWLUPHN 5HYÇQ .DÀPDN *XKOÃNLULQ'LQOHPHNGHGLèLQHXPDN *HGH 2èODQÀRFXèX 'DQNLUÃ .LUDODPDN .LUÃGDQ .LUDDYHUPHN ;DQÇ %LQD 4DW .DW 6DORQ 6DORQ 'ÇWLQ *ÏUPHN *XKDUWLQ 'HèLæWLUPHN ;LODVEÔQ %LWPHN .LUÃNLULQ %DYÃåDKDQPDOHNNLUÃNLUHZGLNLUÃGDUÔGLQLQ 7HPDOELÀLNLUÃNLU %LÀDUKH]DUÇ .LUÃDPDODQJHOHNEXKDH .LUÃGDQ +ÔQÀLTDVNLUÃGLGLQ  DUKH]DU 'DQNLUÃ 7XPDOD[ZHGLGÇNLUÃ 1DH]EL[ZHWÃGDUÔGLQLP 'LYÇ[DQÇGDPDOÃQNLUÃKHQH %HOÃGLTDWÃGXGRDQGDHNKHH  HQGRGHÃZÃKHQH 6ÃRGHÔVDORQHN[ZHKHH .LUÃDZÃÀLH (]SÃQL]DQLPML[ZHGÇELSLUVLQ .DQÇQ SÃNDQÇQ 5RYÇMLJXUGLUHYHSÃQLNDQH5RYÇELJXUQLNDQH
  279. 279. 7XGLNDQÇSDQJQRWNLUÃELGÇ 1DH]QLNDQLP .DQÇQ ILLOLNLPLEÏOJHOHUGHNDUÇQELÀLPLQGHWHODIIX]HGLOLU .DQLQILLOLELUÀRNGXUXPGDDUGÛPFÛ ILLOJÏUHYÇDSDU 'HYÔUÔæÔæWÛQ(OÕ]ÛNDPD 0HULYKHUVLEÃGHYÔUÔÃ[ZHGLæRQ .XURKHVHQGHYÃUÔÃ[ZHELæR 'HVWÔSÇæÔæWLQ (ODDNÛNDPD 3RUüHNLULQ 0HULYKHUVLEÃSRUÃ[ZHæHGLNH 'ÃSRUÃ]DURÃQ[ZHÃQSLÀÔNæHGLNLQ 0LüWLQ 0HULYELJÃ]ÇÃPDODQGLPDOLQ (OREHUIDVHU[ÃQÇELPDOH 0LQEHUGÃUÇPLæW 1DYÃURMDQ +HIWLNÇGDKHIWURMKHQHåHPÇHNæHPÇ'XæHPÇ6ÃæHPÇ DUæHPÇ3ÃæHPǧQL +HIWLNUDOLKLQFÇÃQ.XUGLVWDQÃKHæWLNWÃJRWLQ %LULTÇQ %LULTDQGLQSDUODPDN 3DUODWPDN
  280. 280. 5RMGLELULTHELULTÇQ
  281. 281. =HODOIHUHÔIRODQGLELULTÇQHELULTDQGLQ
  282. 282. +HOÇQ +HODQGLQ(ULPHN (ULWPHN
  283. 283. %HUIGLKHOH 5RMEHUIÃGLKHOÇQH .HOÇQ .HODQGLQNDQDPDN NDQDWPHN
  284. 284. $YGLNHOH 7XKÃNDQGLNHOÇQÇ +LüWLQ ILLOLQLQùL PGLNLYHJHQLù
  285. 285. ]DPDQÛ (]GLKÃOLP (PGLKÃOLQ 7XGLKÃOÇ +ÔQGLKÃOLQ (ZGLKÃOH (ZGLKÃOLQ (PLU%LKÃOH
  286. 286. 2OXPVX]X(]QDKÃOLP 'LOLJHoPLü=DPDQÛ 0LQKLùW 0HKLùW 7HKLùW :HKLùW :ÇZÃKLæW :DQKLùW åÔæWLQILLOLQLQùLPGLNLYHJHQLù
  287. 287. ]DP DQÛ (]GLùRP (PGLùRQ 7XGLùR +ÔQGLæRQ (ZGLùR (ZGLùRQ (PLU%LùR 'LOLJHoPLü=DPDQÛ 0LQWHZÇZÃPHZHZDQæÔæW $YOL[ZHNLULQ ÛNDQPHNEDQRDSPHN
  288. 288. $YOÃNLULQ ÛNDPDNEDüNDVÛQÛ
  289. 289. =HODOURMDHNæHPÇÃDYÃ OLûDKDQ GLNH /LZÇ OÃ $YGDQ6XODPDN (]VÃURMDQGDFDUÃGDUDQDYGLGLP ;HOÇOÇUREÃ[ÀH DYELGH DYGHNÛVDOPDOÛ
  290. 290. *XKOÃNLULQ *XKGDQ åDKDQJHGHHNEDæH(ZJXKOLGÃÔEDYÃ[ZHGLNH 7XJXKOLPLQELNHPHÀH6WHPEROÃ *XKOLZÇPHNHOR(ZWLùWHNÇQL]DQH OÃ *XKELGHKHYDOÃ[ZHHZUDVWÇÃGLEÃMH 0LQÀHQGFDUDQMÃUDJRWOÃJXKQDGHPLQ /ÃÀLELNLQ 1HSDVÛQODU 0DODZDQWHQJHMLZDQUDPDOHNILUHKKHZFHHOÃÀLELNLQSHUÃZDQNÃPH *XUEHU[LN[ZDU åLYDQOLNXEÔ øLYDQMÇGÇWOÃÀLELNHÀHNÃZÇWXQHEÔ 'ÇWLQ (]GLEÇQLPWXGLEÇQÇHZGLEÇQHHPGLEÇQLQ
  291. 291. 0LQGÇWWHGÇWZÇZÃPHZDQGÇW )(5(´)2/ 0HULYELDOÇNDUÇDIHUHÔIRODQ[ZDULQÃÀÃGLNHÔGL[ZH .HZDQÇDæÃPDOÃGLWHQFLNÔWHZÃGDGLSÃMLQ'LJXQGDQGDERQDQSHKWLQà VÃOKHH4Xæ[DQHWHQFLNDSLÀÔNH.HZDQÇELNÃUÃSÇYD]DQWHPHWÃ]DQ EDOFDQDQÇVRWDQÔKÃæÇQDÇÃQGLQKÔUGLNLQ$æÃQDYWHQFLNÔVÇWLODQELNHYÀÇÔ KHVLNÃWHYGLGLQ 'LPDODQGDJHOHNWDVWHVPÇÇVNDQÔIÇQFDQKHQH øRUEHGLWD VÃGDELNHYÀÇWÃ[ZDULQ0HULYÀDÃELÇVNDQDQTHKZÃELIÇQFDQDQ YHGL[ZH/LJXQGDQ[ZDULQÃOLVHUVÃQÇDQWÇQLQVLIUÃ0HULYGLVLIUÃGDELDOÇNDUÇD NHYÀÇÀHWHOÔNÃUÃGL[ZH  DGLÀDGDQÃGDTHKZHGLFH]ZÃGDWÃÀÃNLULQ $ù HPHN 7HQFLN 7HQFHUH 3HKWLQ 3LüLUPHN 7HZH 7DYD %LUÇQ .HVPHN +ÔUNLULQ 'RèUDPDN 6ÇWLO .D]DQ .HYÀÇ .DüLN 6ÃO 6DF 4Xù[DQH .ÕÀÕNWHQFHUH .ÃU %ÛÀDN 7HPHWÃ] 'RPDWHV  DGDQ  DQGDQOÛN H]ZH H]YH %DOFDQ 3DWOÛFDQ §VRW %LEHU +ÃæLQDÇ HüLOOLNVHE]H 3ÃÀÇEÃÀÇ
  292. 292. 3DUPDN +HVLN .HSÀH 7HYGDQ .DUÛüWÛUPDN 7DV 7DV 7HVPÇ 7HSVL §VNDQ  DEDUGDèÛ )ÇQFDQ )LQFDQ øRUEH  RUED *ÃUPÇ  RUED 6ÃQÇ 6LQL  HWHO  DWDO ;DZOÇ +DYOX 3HKWLQ
  293. 293. (]GLSÃMLPWXGLSÃMÇHZGLSÃMH (PGLSÃMLQKÔQGLSÃMLQHZGLSÃMLQ 0LQSHKWWHSHKWZÇZÃPHZHZDQSHKW 7HYGDQ (]WHYGLGLPWXWHYGLGÇHZWHYGLGH 0LQWHZÇZÃPHZHZDQWHYGD %LUÇQ .ÃUGLELUH .ÃUÃEÃÀÇDPLQELUÇ 0LQGDULNELUÇ +ÔUNLULQ (ZGDUDQKÔUGLNH.HZDQÇSÇYD]KÔUGLNLQ , +ÇQNLULQ /LKHYRNÃQMÃUÇQFÇÃQYDODWLMÇELNLQ 0LQHYPDOELVÃKH]DUÇ (PÀDUKH]DUÇ 'LYÇ[DQÇGDKHQH %LGÔVÃæHPÇÃWÃ %HUÇæHPÇÃWÃ 0LQML(ORUDJRWGHUVD[ZHEL[ZÇQHOÃZÇPLQQHNLU *XKEDYÃ[ZHPHÀH6WHPEROÃ 5RYÇELJXUGLNDQHHZ 5DEHÔ[ZH ELùR 3RUÃ[ZH =HODOELJÃ]ÇÃRGÃ =HODOKHIWÃGDFDUÃDYÃåDKDQ ,, -LQDYYDQNHOÇPDQÃQPLQDVLZELELMÃULQÔOLKHYRNÃQMÃUÇQFÇÃQYDODWLMÇELNLQ )ÇVWDQPLWED[KHVSSDYOÇNHVDEÔQJXUIHUHæDOÔæDSLNNLQFVROæHIÃNÇJD üHZTHVHGHVWPDO 0HULYGHYÔUÔÃ[ZHELGLæR ERæHNLULQÃH ERSÃNLULQÃH ERÀÃNLULQD[ZDULQÃH WÃQHæÔæWLQWÃQHELULTDQGLQWÃQH[ZDULQ
  294. 294. NÔYÇHNHGÇH 0ÃUGLGLQVHUÃ[ZHMLQOL[ZHGLNLQ 0HULYOLVÇDUGLEHELFRWGLNH .DUNHUGLGDGL[HELWLQ  LOÃ.XUGDQÃJHOÃUH :ÇGHVWÃ[ZHæÔæWÔEL]DNLU %HUVLYDSLUVÃQMÃUÇQELGLQ %DYÃåDKDQÀLNDUÇGLNH 0DODNXHZWÃGDUÔGLQLQVDORQD[ZHKHH 0DODNXHZWÃGDUÔGLQLQDZDQH  LPDHZPDOHNÇILUHKNLUÃQDNLQ 0DODZDQTLUHMHDQSDTLMH 'vDøDKDQNHZDQÇHNÀDZDH 'ÇDåDKDQNÇQJÃZÇKLæDUGLNH åDKDQNXML[HZÃUDEÔÀLGLNH (ZGLWDæWÃGDÀLGL[ZLQ  LPDEDYÃZÇæÇUÔKXQJLYQDNLUH (ZNÇQJÃMLGLELVWDQÃYHGLJHUH åDKDQNXMLGLELVWDQÃKDWÀLGLNH åDKDQELNÃUDGLOÇ]H åDKDQNXMLOÇVWLQÃYHJHUÇÀLGLNH 5RMDæHPÇÃåDKDQ]ÔDQGHUHQJUDGLEH LPD 'DLNDåDKDQNÇQJÃDYÃOLZÇGLNHÔNLQFÃZÇGLJXKXUH -LTLUÃMÇÃÀLSÃNWà åDKDQJXKOLGÃÔEDYÃ[ZHGLNH 5RYÇZH[WDNXJXUGLEÇQLQÀLGLNLQ 4HOHPDWHZLQGDEÔWHHZGÇW 7XMÇÃYDUÇOLQJÃ[ZHÔJRUHÃQ[ZHGLæRÇ +ÔQFDUDQDOÇNDUÇDGÇD[ZHGLNLQ 'LKHIWLNÇGDÀHQGURMKHQH1DYÃZDQÀLH %H[ÀÃZHKHH 7XFDUDQGDUDQDYGLGÇ 7XFDUDQNXOÇONDQDYGLGÇ 0HULY ELGHVWPDOÔ[DZOÇÃÀLGLNH ;9, %£5§9$1
  295. 295. %LQDYÃ%ÃUÇYDQ[ZHæNHNHåDKDQKHH%ÃUÇYDQKÇQÀDUVDOÇH(ZKHUWLæWÇSLU PHUHTGLNHÔGL[ZD]HKÇQELEH :ÃURMHNÇMLEDYÃ[ZHSLUVÇ 7XÀLPDHZTDVGLUÃMÇ %DYÃZÃNHQÇÔOÃYHJHUDQG (]PH]LQLP HQGVDODQæXQGDWXMÇGLUÃMGLEÇ  LPD0DPÃ(OÇTDVÇWHGLUÃMQLQH +HPÔNHVPH]LQGLELQOÃEHMQDZDQQHHNH(]EHMQGLUÃMLPHZQDYÀHEHMQ H  LPDSRUÃWHUHæHÃPLQNHMH 3RUÃGÇDWHMÇNHMH7XOLGÇD[ZHÀÔÇ /ÃÀDYÃZÃæÇQLQÃPLQ ÃWHUHæLQ  LPD %DYÃZÃVHNLQÇ +LLH]ÀLEÃMLP+HUWLæWHNQDEH/LEÃ[ÀHELQÃUH3LUWH[OÇWJÇDIÃNÇÔNXOÇON KHQH  LPDHPNXOÇONLQ 1DOÃHZMÇMÇQÇQHDQÃZDQMÇKHH DQÀLH %DYÃZÃGÇVDVHNLQÇOLGRUD[ZHQLKÃUÇMLVHUPDVÃIÇQFDQHNJLUWÔJRW %LQÃUHYDIÇQFDQDJLUGLEH 1D 'LPHùH 1DD -ÇQÇPH]LQGLELQZHNÇJÇDÔGDUDQ+LQGLPHæLQZHNÇKHZDQÔPHULYDQ´ URMHNWÃGLPLULQ 0LULQÀLH 0LULQ.DGDSÇUDWHWÃEÇUDWH3DUPLU %HOà 0HULYZHNÇ[HZGDGLÀHÔFDUGLQUDQDEH£GÇQDOLYHÔEÇKQQDJLUH %ÇKQJLUWLQÀLH 0HULYELSR]Ã[ZHGLJLUH:HNÇKD %ÇKQD[ZHJLUWÔGDJRWLQD[ZHDMRW /LDOÇÃGLQEÇKQDWLæWDQKHH%LQÃUHHYVÃYH DYÃ[ZHELJLUH7HJLUW %HOà %DYÃZÃVÃYGLUÃMÇOÃYÔSR]ÃZÃNLUÔSLUVÇ  DZDH %ÇKQDZÃ[ZHæH 7DPÀLH 0HULYEL]LPDQÃ[ZHWDPGLNH%LJUHYÃVÃYÃEL[ZHÔOLWDPDZÃELQÃUH+LQ WLæWæÇUÇQLQKLQWDKOLQåHNLUæÇUÇQHÇVRWWDKOÔWÔMLQOÃPRQWLUæH[ZÃæRUH/LDOÇà GLQPHULYELJXKÃ[ZHGHQJDQGLELKÇVHELGHVWÃ[ZHOLWLæWDQGLGHKLæNÇÔ QHUPÇDZDQJHUPÇDZDQKÇQGLEH0HULY $TOÃ%ÃUÇYDQÃGLWLæWHNÇGLQGDEÔZÃÃGÇJXKQHGLGDJRWLQÃQEDYÃ[ZH *RWLQDZÇELUÇ %DYRH]ùHNLUGL[ZD]LPùHNLU
  296. 296. .HQ *Oü .HQÇQ *ÕOPHN *ÇUÇ $èODPDN øXQGD 6RQUD 0DP $PFD %HMQ %RERV %HMQGLUÃM 8]XQEROX 1DYÀHEHMQ2UWDEROX /ÃÀÔQ %HQ]HPHN 6HNLQÇQ 'XUPDN .HM .XPUDO -ÇQÇ DQOÛ DQ DQ /ÃQLKÃUÇQ %DNPDNDUDüWÛUPDN )LNLUÇQ 'üQPHN 0HùvQ ÕUÕPHN 0LULQ ¯OPHN 7LUùLN 7XUüX $OÇ 7DUDIDQ /LDOÇÃGLQ 'LèHUDQGDQ +LùN 6HUW +LùNv 6HUWOLN 1HUP XPXüDN 1HUPL XPXüDNOÛN *HUPÇ 6ÛFDNOÛN .XUW .ÛVD 6HUKLùN 'LNNDIDOÛ 0ÃMR %HÇQ 'DSÇU %ÕÕNDQQH 3DU *HÀHQÛO ;HZGDÀÔQ 8XPDNVÏQPHN DUGLQ %LUNH]GDKD /LYÇQ .ÛPÛOGDPDN %ÇKQJLUWLQ 1HIHVDOPDNNRNXDOPDN %ÇKQ 1HIHVNRNX :HNÇKD %XQXQJLEL  DYJLUWLQ *Ï]NDSDPDN 'LUÃMNLULQ 8]DWPDN 3R] %XUXQ /ÃY 'XGDN 7DP 7DW 7DKO $FÛ 7DKOLN $FÛ HOPD 7ÔM $FÛVLYUL /ÃPRQ /LPRQ ;Zà 7X] øRU 7X]OX *XK .XODN
  297. 297. 'HVWOÃGDQ 'RNXQPDN $TLO $NÛO 0HUHT 0HUDN 0HUHTNLULQ 0HUDNHWPHN 7LUDO 7HPEHO %LQDYÃ%ÃUÇYDQ[ZÇæNHNHåDKDQKHH;ZÇæNHNHåDKDQKHHQDYÃZÃ%ÃUÇYDQ H ;HZ GDÀÔQ åDKDQKHUæHYGLVDHWCDQGDUDGL]ÃÔKHPDGL[HZGDGLÀH %DKDWÔODPEHGL[HZGDÀÔ 'HVWOÃGDQ =DURNGHVWOLVRZÃGDGHVWÃZÇæHZLWÇ %LQÃUGHVWOÃELGHÀLTDVQHUPH 0(5,9$7§ HPDOEDYÃåDKDQH(OÇPDPÃåDKDQHHPDOÔ(OÇELUDQHåDKDQELUD]ÇÃ (OÇH1DGLUNXUÃHOÇ1DGLUÃ(OÇ
  298. 298. SLVPDPÃåDKDQH*XONHÀD(OÇ*XOD(OÇ
  299. 299. GRWPDPDøDKDQH ;DWÔQMLQD(OÇHDPRMLQDåDKDQH =HODOÔ0LUFDQ[ZÇæNÃKHYLQ0LUFDQ[DOWÇDåDKDQH0HPNÔUÃ0LUFDQ SLV[DOWÇÃåDKDQH %DYÃHPDOEDSÇUÃåDKDQH%DYÃ=HODOÃMÇEDSÇUÃZÇH'ÇDHPDOÔGÇD =HODOÃKHUGXGDSÇUÃQZÇQHåDKDQQHZÇÃZDQH (YNHVKHPÔPHULYÃQKHYLQ'LQDYZDQGDPHULYDWÇKHH 0HULYDWÇ $NUDEDOÛN 0DP $PFD $PRMLQ $PFDNDUÛVÛ 3LVPDP $PFDRèOX 'RWPDP $PFDNÛ]Û %UD]Ç HèHQ(UNHNNDUGHæÀRFXèX
  300. 300. ;DO 'DL ;DORMLQ 'DÛ NDUÛVÛ ;DU]Ç HèHQNÛ]NDUGHæÀRFXèX
  301. 301. ;DOWÇ 7H]H 3LV[DOWÇ 7H]HRèOX %DSÇU 'HGH 1HZÇ 7RUXQ .HQÇQ%LNHQH øLPGLNL]DPDQ(]GLNHQLPWXGLNHQv
  302. 302. 'LOLJHoPLü]DPDQ (]NHQÇPWXNHQÇHZNHQÇHPNHQÇQKÔQNHQÇQ (]NHQÇDPWXNHQÇDÇHZNHQÇDHPNHQÇDQKÔQNHQÇDQ *ÇUÇQ%LJÇUH øLPGLNL]DPDQ(]GLJvULPWXGLJvUv 'LOLJHoPLü]DPDQ (]JÇUÇPWXJÇUÇHZJÇUÇHPJÇUÇQ (]JÇUÇDPWXJÇUÇDÇHZJÇUÇDHPJÇUÇDQKÔQJÇUÇDQHZJÇUÇDQ =DURGLEÃ[ÀHGDGLNHQLQÔGLOÇ]LQ HNÇMLPLQUDJRW.XUGÇQH]LPDQH(]NHQÇDP0LQMÃUDJRW0HMRÃWH æÔæWLQH åDKDQJRÃ[ZHZLQGDNLUÇHGLJÇUH%DYÃZÇMÃUDJRW0HJÇUH(]HNÇQXKMLWH UDWÇQLP %LKLVWLQNXEDYÃZDQOL6WHPEROÃPLUÇHKHPÔJÇUÇDQ /LYÇQ%LOLYH (]GLOLYLPWXGLOLYÇHZGLOLYH (]OLYÇPWXOLYÇHZOLYÇHPOLYÇQHZOLYÇQ (]OLYÇDPWXOLYÇDÇHZOLYÇDHPOLYÇDQ 3LVLQJMLFÇÃ[ZHQDOLYHKHUKDOPLUÇH %LOLYHOR(PGHUHQJPDQ 'DUOLYÇQÔKLUÀHNMÃGHUNHWKÃGÇKÃGÇPHæÇDÔÀÔ  ÔQ ILLOLQLQPLùOLJHoPLù]DPDQL (]ÀÔPH (PÀÔQH 7XÀÔÇ +ÔQÀÔQH (ZÀÔH (ZÀÔQH 2OXPVX]X (]QHÀÔPHWXQHÀÔÇHZQHÀÔHHPQHÀÔQH /ÃÀÔQ OLKHYÀÔQ 3RUÃWHMÇPÇQDGÇDWHNHMHWXOLGÇD[ZHÀÔÇ (YMÇSLUVHUKLæNHOLEDYÃ[ZHÀÔH
  303. 303. +HVHQÔ(KPHGELUDQHOÃ+HVHQPHULYHNMÇUH(KPHGWLUDOHHZOLKHYQH ÀÔQH /ÃÀÔQ %HQ]HPHN /LKHYÀÔQ %LUELULQHEHQ]HPHN +ÇQNLULQ %HUVLYDSLUVÃQMÃUÇQELGLQ 0HULYÃQGLUÃMUDÀLWÃJRWLQ (ZNHVÃQNXEHMQDZDQ]LUDYHMLZDQUDÀLWÃJRWLQ 3RUÃWHÀLUHQJH  DYÃWHÀLUHQJLQ  HQGÀDYÃPHULYDQKHH 0HULYELÀDYÃQ[ZHÀLGLNH 0HULYGLVDDJXKÃ[ZHGDÀLGLNH 0HULYGLVDDÀLGDEÇKQGLJLUH  HQGOÃYÃQPHULYDQKHQH 'LGHYÃQ PHULYDQGDÀLKHH  HQGGLUDQÃPHULYDQKHH 0HULYGLVDDÀLGDWLùWDQWDPGLNH /LQJÀLUDGLELQ 'HVWÀLUDGLELQ  DYÔJXKÃPHULYDQOLNXQH 3LùWD[ZHQvùDQGH 'LGHVWÃQWHGDÀHQGWLOÇKHQH .HYLUKLùNHDQQHUPH 7DPD[ZÃÀDZDH §VRWWÔMHDQWLUæH (ZVÃYæÇUÇQHDQWDKOLNH %DSÇUÃWH[ZHæHDQPLUÇH 0DPÃWHKHH1DYÃ[ZHÀLH 7XFDUDQ[DOWÇD[ZHGLELQÇ 1DYÃGRWPDPDåDKDQÀLH åDKDQÔ1DGLUSLVPDPÃKHYLQ 7XML[DOÃ[ZHKH]GLNÇ 7XOLNÃÀÔÇOLGÇD[ZHDQEDYÃ[ZH .HYLU ÀLPDQDOLYH 7XÀLGLILNLUÇPDOD[ZHPHUHTGLNÇ 7XSDUOLNXEÔÇ +ÔQELKHYDOÃ[ZHUDÀDYJLUWLNGLOÇ]LQ ;9,,
  304. 304. .85',67$1 .XUGLVWDQZHODWÃPHH%DYÔNDOÃPHELKH]DUVDODQOLVHUD[D.XUGLVWDQà MÇQH(ZDQDOLYLUFRWNLULQHSH]ÀÃUDQGLQHEDMDUÔJXQGDYDNLULQH /LEDNÔUML(U]XUXPÃÔ4HUVÃGHVWSÃNGLNHOLEDæÔUKHDQÃ]LNÇ%H[GDÃGLÀH/L URMKLODWML*ROD´UPÇÃGHVWSÃGLNHÔOLURMDYDGLJLKH6ÃYDVà .XUGLVWDQELGHæWÔ]R]DQELÀÇDÔEDQÇH ÇDÃQZÃELQDYÔGHQJLQ  ÇDÃQ7RURVÃMLDOÇÃ0HUDæÃKHD ROHPÃUJÃVHUELVHUGLD[D.XUGLVWDQÃGD GLUÃMGLELQGLJLKLQÀÇDÃQ=DJURV/LDOÇàROHPÃUJÃÔDOÇÃ'ÃUVLPÀÇDOLKHY GLTHOLELQUÃÔGLUEQDGLQZHNÇFHMQÃGLNLQ/LDOÇÃURMKLODWDEDNÔUGRUD:DQà 0ÔæÃ*LUÇGD[Ã4HUVÃÔ(U]XUXPÃGHæWÔ]R]DQILUHKGLELQ/LZDQGHUDQWÃU JLDKHH.XUGSLUSH]ÔGHZDU[ZHGÇGLNLQ$JLUÇÀÇDÃ.XUGLVWDQÃKHUÇELOLQG OLYÇDOÇH%LOLQGDKÇDZÇPÃWURH/LEHUJROD:DQÃÀÇDÃ6ÇSDQÃELOLQG GLEHELOLQGDKÇDZÇMÇPÃWURH/LVHUYDQKHUGXÀÇDQWLPEHUIÔTHæD KHHSLUFDUDQVHUÃZDQMLHZUDQ[XDQDNH *ROD:DQÃPÇQDEHKUHNÇILUHKH-L[ZH[HONÃGRUDZÃMÃUDGLEÃMHEHKU  HPÃQ'LFOHÔ)HUDWMÇÀÇDÃQ.XUGLVWDQÃGL]ÃQEHUELEDæÔUGLKHULNLQOLDOÇà 6XUÇÃMLD[D.XUGLVWDQÃGHUEDVGLELQÔOL%DVUÃGLJLKLQEHKUÃ%HUELEDæÔU 0H]RSRWDPÇD WÃJRWLQMLGHæWDQDYYDQKHUGXÀHPDQUD'L.XUGLVWDQÃGD JHOHÀHPÃQGLQMÇKHQHHZELDOÇÃDYÃJHOHNGHZOHPHQGH %HUELEDæÔUDURMDYDDOÇÃ'ÇDUEHNLU0ÃUGÇQ5XKDL]ÇUÔ(QWHEÃGHæWH ;HONÃYÃGRUÃKLPELÀDQGLQÇÃPLMÔOGLEHKLPMÇSH][ZHGÇ GLNH3LUFÇÃQ .XUGLVWDQÃELUH]ÔED[ÀDQ[HPLODQGÇH'LÀÇDÔGDULVWDQDQGDKHZDQÃQ NÔYÇZHNÇKLUÀJXUEHUD]SH]NÔYÇURYÇNHZURæNNÔ]HÔNHZSLULQ'LDYDQGD PDVÇÃQGHODOKHQH .XUGLVWDQELDOÇÃKHÇÃQELQHUGÃMÇJHOHNGHZOHPHQGH/LSLUFÇDQ[DVLPDOL GRUD.ÃUNÔNÔ0XVÔOÃGRUD.ÇUPDQæDKÔ'ÇDUEHNUÃWÃUQLIWGHUGLNHYH/LDOÇà ;DUSLWÃVLIDUÔNURPOLDOÇÃL]ÇUÔ(OEÇVWDQÃNRPLUOLDOÇÃ6ÃYDVÃKHVLQOLDOÇà 'ÃUVLPNURPNRPLUÔKZGGHUGLNHYH /ÃHZKHPÔKHÇÃQVHUHUGÃÔELQHUGÃÀLUDGLELQ 'LMPLQDQ.XUGLVWDQGLQDY[ZHGDSDUÀHSDUÀHNLULQHKHUHNÇSDUÀHNNLUÇHELQ OHSÃ[ZH(ZDQDEHQGNLULQHVWÔÃPHÔZHODWÃPHWDODQNLULQHKHUWLæWÃPH GL]ÇQHÔKÇQMÇGLGL]LQ6LIDUGLDOÇNÇGDGLÀHQLIWGLDOÇNÇGD HPÃQPHGLKHULNLQ Ô ELNÃUÇPHQDÃQ ÇDÃQPHVWÔ[DULQ =R]DQÃQPHWLMÇSH]LQGHæWÃQPHWÃUJHQLPELULQFÔSHPEXGLGLQOÃGÇVDMÇ HPELUÀÇÔWD]ÇQH5H]ÔED[ÀHÃQPHWÃUWLUÇWÃUVÃYÔPLæPLæGLGLQOÃHPZDQ WDPQDNLQ (PGL[HELWLQSÃNWÇQLQ]RUGHVWOLVHUÃPHGL[LQGLELQ%RQDYÃHNXZHODWÃPH DYDQDEH[HONÃPH[L]DQH.XD]DGÇQHEÔ[HEDWÀLUDGLEH %HUÇKHUWLæWÇHPKHZFHGDUÇD]DGÇÃQH :HODW µONHXUW .DO DæOÛGHGH $[ 7RSUDN 1DY $UD 'DULVWDQ 2UPDQ %HUD] 'RPX] 3H]NÔYÇ DEDQNHÀLVL
  305. 305. *ROLN 'DQD $YDNLULQ DSPDNLPDUHWPHN %DNÔU .X]H %DæÔU *ÕQH 4HUV .DUV %H[GD %DèGDW %DQÇ 7HSH %LQDYÔGHQJµQOÕ  ROHPÃUJ +DNNDUL 6HUELVHU %DüWDQEDüD *LKDQ .DYXüPDNHWLüPHN /LKHYTHOLEÇQ%LUELULQHNDUÛüPDN 5à RO 'LUE *HÀLW HMQ %DUDPIHVWLYDO 7ÃU %ROWRN 'HZDU 6ÛèÛU $JLUÇ $èUÛ GDèÛ 6ÇSDQ 6ÕSKDQGDèÛ (ZU %XOXW ;XDNLULQ *ÏUÕQPHN %HKU 'HQL] -L[ZH =DWHQ 'ÇFOH 'LFOH )HUDW )ÛUDW =DÇQ 'RèPHN +HULNÇQ $NPDN  HP  DÛUPDN ,PSHUDOÇVW (PSHUDOLVW .RORQDOÇVW 6ÏPÕUJHFL 6WÔ[DU %RQXEÕNÕN .RùNDU $DNNDEÛ WDPLUFLVL 0LMÔOEÔQ 8èUDæPDNPHæJXOROPDN .LùDQGLQ  HNPHN .Ô]H 6DQVDU .HZ .HNOLN 0DVÇ %DOÛN ;DVLPD ¯]HOOLNOH +HÇ 9DUOÛN %LQHUG HUDOWÛ 6HUHUG HUÕVWÕ +HVLQ 'HPLU +HVLQNHU 'HPLUFL 'LMPLQ 'üPDQ %HQGNLULQ %DèODPDN %HQG kSEDè 6WR %RXQ 7DODQ 7DODQ
  306. 306. 'L]ÇQ  DOPDN %LULQF 3LULQÀ %LUÀÇ $À 0LùPLù .DVÛ ;L]DQ RNVXO $]DGÇ ¯]JÕUOÕN +HZFDGDU 0XKWDÀ )LUVHQG )ÛUVDW .ÇQJÃ 1H]DPDQ +LQJÃ 2]DPDQ %HU µUÕQÏQ 7LWÔQ 7ÕWÕQ 1ÃÀÇU $Y 1LIW 3HWURO 6LIDU %DNÛU .URP .URP 3DUÀH 3DUÀD /HS (O /HSLN (OGLYDQ 3LU .ÏSUÕÀRN 'HUED]EÔQ*HÀPHN 6LQHW 6DQDW  DQGLQÇ =LUDDW 0LüOLJHoPLü]DPDQ

×