The Endocrine System.doc.doc


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The Endocrine System.doc.doc

  1. 1. The Endocrine System What Are the Functions of the Endocrine System Secretes hormones directly into the bloodstream to regulate the activity of specific cells or organs or both. CRIN/O means to secrete. Hormones A hormone is a chemical messenger with a specialized function. Steroid hormones help control.  Metabolism. Inflammation. Immune functions. Salt and water balance. Development of sexual characteristics. The ability to withstand illness and injury. Structures of the Endocrine System 1 pituitary gland 1 thyroid gland 4 parathyroid glands 2 adrenal glands 1 pancreas (islets of Langerhans) 1 thymus 1 pineal gland 2 gonads (ovaries or testes) Which Gland Is Known As the Master Gland? A. Adrenal B. Pineal C. Pituitary D. Thymus Medical Specialties R/t the Endocrine System Endocrinologist – specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and malfunctions of the endocrine glands. (ENDO means within & CRIN means to secrete) Endocrine System Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids – chemically related to male sex hormone testosterone. Sometimes used illegally to increase strength and muscle mass. Endocrine System Steroids Serious side effects of anabolic steroid use include: Liver tumors & damage Testicular shrinkage and breast development in males
  2. 2. Unpredictable mood swings & violence Use in teenagers stops long bone development Pathology of the Endocrine System Endocrinopathy – any disease of the endocrine system. Hypercrinism – a condition caused by excessive secretion of any gland. Hypocrinism – a condition caused by deficient secretions of any gland. ________regulates the rate of metabolism and influences physical and mental development. A. cortisol B. norepinephrine C. oxytocin D. thyroxine Endocrine System Diagnostic Procedures Nuclear med techniques. Urine test for presence of anabolic steroids. Urine test to measure endocrine hormone levels. The Pituitary Gland Pituitary gland (The Master Gland) Anterior lobe Posterior lobe Located at base of brain below the hypothalamus Controls function of other endocrine glands Acts in response to stimuli from the hypothalamus to maintain appropriate blood levels of each hormone Endocrine System Secretions of the Anterior Pituitary Gland Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin (THYRO means thyroid & TROPIN means stimulating) Stimulates the growth and secretions of the thyroid gland Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) – stimulates growth and secretions of the adrenal cortex Secretions of the Anterior Pituitary Gland Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the Secretion of estrogen (females) Growth of ova in the ovaries Production of sperm in the testes Secretions of the Anterior Pituitary Gland
  3. 3. Growth hormone (somatotropin) Accelerates body growth SOMAT/O means body Melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH) Increases pigmentation of the skin Secretions of the Anterior Pituitary Gland Lactogenic hormone (prolactin or luteotropin) Stimulates the secretion of milk Influences maternal behavior LACT/O means milk Secretions of the Anterior Pituitary Gland Luteinizing hormone (LH) – Stimulates ovulation Maintains pregnancy In the male it stimulates testosterone secretion LUTE/O means yellow Secretions of the Posterior Pituitary Gland Antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Maintains water balance by promoting reabsorption of water through the kidneys. When ADH is secreted less urine is produced. Oxytocin stimulates the uterine contractions during childbirth. Causes milk to flow from mammary glands. Pathology of the Pituitary Glands Alcohol consumption inhibits secretion of ADH resulting in increased urine output. This can disrupt the body’s fluid balance. Pathology of the Pituitary Glands Hyperpituitarism – excessive secretion of the pituitary gland. Gigantism – overgrowth of the body caused by excessive secretion of the growth hormone before puberty. Hypopituitarism – condition of reduced secretion due to partial or complete loss of function of the anterior lobe. Pathology of the Pituitary Glands Acromegaly – enlargement of the extremities caused by excessive secretion of the growth hormone after puberty. ACR/O means extremities. Pathology of the Pituitary Glands Diabetes insipidus – caused by insufficient production of antidiuritic hormone or by the inability of the kidneys to respond to ADH too much fluid is excreted. The patient will have extreme polydipsia and polyuria. What Causes Acromegaly? Excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty.
  4. 4. Procedures of the Pituitary Gland Hypophysectomy is the use of radiation or surgery to remove all or part of the pituitary gland ________is a condition caused by excessive secretion of any, especially an endocrine gland. A. endocrinopathy B. goiter C. hypercrinism D. hypocrinism The Thyroid Gland Butterfly shaped Lies on both sides of the larynx just below the thyroid cartilage Euthyroidism – normal thyroid function Thyroid’s output is regulated by the hypothalamus, which signals the pituitary to release TSH to increase thyroid production The Thyroid Gland Thyroid depends on uptake of iodine from food & water. Secretions. Triiodothyronine (T3) & thyroxine (T4). Regulate rate of metabolism. Influence physical and mental development. Calcitonin –works with parathyroid to regulate calcium levels in blood and tissue. Pathology of the Thyroid Gland Thyroiditis – inflammation of the thyroid gland. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis – autoimmune d/o in which the immune system mistakenly attacks thyroid tissue which progressively destroys it. Thyroid cancer -. Pathology of the Thyroid Gland Hypothyroidism – deficiency of thyroid secretion usually marked by.  Decreased metabolic rate. Lethargy. Increased sensitivity to cold. Pathology of the Thyroid Gland Myxedema – (nonpitting edema) – a result of hypothyroidism. Abnormal deposits of mucin in the skin and other tissue cause edema.
  5. 5. Cretinism – arrested physical and mental development due to congenital lack of thyroid secretion. Pathology of the Thyroid Gland Thyrotoxicosis – (thyroid storm) Life-threatening Excessive quantities of thyroid hormones in the blood Graves’ disease – autoimmune d/o with Hyperthyroidism Goiter exophthalmos Pathology of the Thyroid Gland Goiter – (thyromegaly) – abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland causing a swelling in anterior part of neck Exophthalmos – abnormal protrusion of the eyeballs Pathology of the Thyroid Gland Hyperthyroidism – excessive thyroid hormone Increased metabolic rate Goiter Disturbance in autonomic nervous system Sometimes exophalmos pathology of the thyroid gland Procedures of the Thyroid Gland Thyroid scan – measures thyroid function. Antithyroid drug – medication to slow thyroid production. Chemical thyroidectomy – (radioactive iodine) destroys thyroid cells. Used to TX grave’s disease. Thyroid stimulating hormone assay – diagnostic test to measure circulating blood levels of TSH. Parathyroid Glands 4 glands about the size of a grain of rice. Located within the thyroid glands. They regulate calcium levels needed for muscle and nerve function. Secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) - increases calcium levels by release of calcium from storage in bones and teeth. Pathology of Parathyroid Glands Insufficient parathyroid secretion results in hypoparathyroidism. Hypocalcaemia. In severe cases tetany. Hyperparathyroidism – overproduction of PTH. Causes hypercalcemia and may lead to weakened bones and formation of kidney stones.
  6. 6. Pathology of Parathyroid Glands Treatment – parathyroidectomy is removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands to control hyperparathyroidism. Part II The Adrenal Glands Located on top of the kidney. Each adrenal has 2 parts. Adrenal cortex (outer portion). Adrenal medulla (inner portion). Functions – control electrolyte levels. Helps regulate metabolism. Reacts with sympathetic nervous system in response to stress. Adrenal Cortex Secrete Corticosteroid – Used to suppress inflammation Helps prevent organ rejection 3 types Mineral corticoids Glucocorticoids Gonadocorticoids Adrenal Cortex 1. Mineralocortocoids – regulate mineral slates in the body. Aldosterone – regulates salt and water levels by increasing sodium reabsorption in the kidneys. Adrenal Cortex 2. Glucocorticoids – regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats & proteins. Influences blood pressure. Have anti-inflammatory effect. Hydrocortisone (cortisol) is the primary glucocorticoid. Adrenal Cortex 3. Gonadocorticoid (androgens) – influence sex-related characteristics. Adrenal Medulla Secretions. Epinephrine (adrenaline) & norepinephrine. Stimulate the sympathetic nervous system which increases heart rate and blood pressure. The cortex is the outer part of the adrenal glands. True or false? Ture
  7. 7. Which adrenal hormone regulates salt and water balance by increasing sodium reabsorption in the kidneys? A. Insulin B. Aldosterone C. Mineralocortocoids D. Adrenalin Pathology of the Adrenals Addisons’ disease – adrenals do not produce enough cortisol. May be due to inadequate secretion of the ACTH or problem with the adrenal glands. Can produce life threatening Addisonian crisis. Adrenals Drugs Used to Treat Disorders of the Adrenal Glands Cortisone – the synthetic drug used to treat inflammation and for transplant patients. Epinephrine – synthetic drug used as a vasoconstrictor to treat heart dusrhythmia and asthma attacks. The Pancreatic Islets (Islets of Langerhans) Function – control blood sugar levels and glucose metabolisms. Secrete glucagon which is produced by the alpha cells in the islets. Secreted in response to low blood sugar.It stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose. Insulin – secreted by the beta cells of the islets in response to high blood sugar. The Pancreatic Islets (Islets of Langerhans) Insulin – secreted by the beta cells of the islets in response to high blood sugar. It allows glucose to enter the cells for use as energy and when additional glucose is not needed it stimulates the liver to convert glucose into glygogen for storage. The Pancreatic Islets - Pathology  Hyperglycemia – an abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood. Hyperinsulinism – excessive secretion of insulin resulting in hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia – abnormally low blood sugar.
  8. 8. Which hormone decreases blood levels of calcium by moving it into storage in the bones and teeth? A. Calcitonin B Melanotropin C. Parathyroid Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus – group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. The Pancreatic Islets (Islets of Langerhans) Type 1 diabetes – insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) – autoimmune d/o. Destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells causing the body to not secrete enough insulin. Insulin replacement therapy is used to treat it. The Pancreatic Islets (Islets of Langerhans) Type 1 (IDDM) – Symptoms – Increased urination Constant thirst and hunger Weight loss Blurred vision Extreme fatigue Slow wound healing The Pancreatic Islets (Islets of Langerhans) Type II diabetes (NIDDM) – adult onset diabetes is an insulin resistance disorder. Insulin is produced by the body but the body does not use it effectively. May have no symptoms for years but when they do occur they will be same as Type I plus recurring infections, irritability and tingling sensation in hands and feet. The Pancreatic Islets (Islets of Langerhans) Type II diabetes - treat with diet and exercise and medication that produce more insulin or work within cells to help insulin let sugar in. The Pancreatic Islets (Islets of Langerhans) Gestational diabetes mellitus – Diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. Usually resolves after the pregnancy but the woman may be prone to type II diabetes later. Diagnostic Procedures for Diabetes Mellitus Diagnostic procedures. Fasting blood sugar. Glucose tolerance test. Finger stick blood sugar monitoring test.
  9. 9. Hemoglobin A1C – (Glycohemoglobin) measures average blood sugar level over past 3 – 4 months. Fructosamine test- measures average Glucose levels over past 3 weeks. Diabetic Emergencies Hypoglycemia Hyperglycemia Diabetic ketoacidosis Diabetic complications Heart disease Kidney disease Peripheral neuropathy Diabetic retinopathy Treatments Procedures of the Pancreas Pancreatectomy – surgical removal of pancreas Thymus Midline anterior thoracic cavity. Helps with immune system. Secretes thymosin which stimulates maturation of lymphocytes into T cells. Pineal Gland Function – thought to influence the sleep/ wake cycle. Secretes melatonin. Pineal Gland Pinealopathy – any disorder of the pineal gland. Pinealectomy – surgical removal of the pineal body. Gonads The ovaries in the female. The testicles in the male. They are the gamete-producing glands. A gamete is the reproductive cell. Sperm in the male and ova in the female. Gonads Functions. Secrete hormones responsible for development and maintenance of secondary sex characteristics. Secretions of the testicles. Testosterone – stimulates development of male secondary sex characteristics. Gonads Secretions of the ovaries.
  10. 10. Estrogen – development & maintenance of female sex characteristics & regulate menstrual cycle. Progesterone – released during 2nd half of menstrual cycle by the corpus luteum in the ovary. Completes preparation for pregnancy. Gonads If pregnancy occurs, the placenta takes over production of progesterone. If pregnancy does not occur, secretion of progesterone stops and the menstrual period starts. The Placenta Organ formed during pregnancy that allows exchange of nutrients, O2, and waste. Human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (HCG) is secreted by the placenta during pregnancy. Pathology of the Gonads Gynecomastia – excessive mammary development in the male. Pathology of the Endocrine System Endocrinopathy – any disease due to disorder of the endocrine system Hypercrinism – excessive secretion of any gland Hypocrinism – deficient secretion of any gland Endocrine System Steroids Steroids help control Metabolism Inflammation Immune function Salt & water balance Development of sexual characteristics Ability to withstand illness or injury