SAM Endocrine System.doc.doc

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SAM Endocrine System.doc.doc

  1. 1. SAM Endocrine System 1. endocrine secretions would lead to a disease process when there is: A. excessive secretions B. reduced secretions C. reduced bioavailability D. a and b E. a,b,and c Answer: E 2. hormones are predominantly: A. steroidal B. peptides C. ketoacids D. triglycerides E. none of the above Answer: B 3. the "boss" who controls the hormonal secretions is: A. anterior pituitary B. neuro hypophysis C. hypothalmus D. thalmus E. pineal gland Answer: C 4. a litter of 2-month old german shepherd pups is brought to you for immunization and other preventive health maintenance measures. one pup out of the litter named "sam" catches your attention. he seems to be slight in build and over all smaller in size. on inquiry you are told that he was the last to be born and had a tough competition to suckle. you are also informed that besides being smaller in size, he otherwise is a very active, healthy, normal pup. the owner is interested to know whether sam would catch up with other littermates. A. he has nutritional deficiency due to inadequate suckling & probably will catch up. B. he will not catch up as we are not dealing with a nutritional problem C. keeping the age of the animal in mind, it is too early to characterize D. he has a tremendous parasitic load will catch up Answer: C 5. an eight year old female is presented to you with the signs of pu/pd, nocturia an incontinence. urine specific gravity is less than 1010, and osm is normal. animal is restless, eating less and is loosing weight. water deprivation test keeps the specific gravity nearly fixed. biochemical profile is within limits. what is your diagnosis? A. diabetes mellitis (dm) B. chronic renal failure (crf) C. diabetes inspidus (di) D. pschycogenic pu/pd (psy.pu/pd) E. pyometra Answer: C 1
  2. 2. 6. acth response test is used to diagnose: A. hyperadrenocorticism B. hypoadrenocorticism C. pituitary neoplasia D. thyrotoxicoses E. a and b Answer: E 7. acth response test followed by dexamethasone (dxm) supression test in a poodle yields the following values? acth response test results resting cortisol- 4ug/dl post acth cortisol- 33ug/dl high dose dxm suppression results resting cortisol- 28ug/dl 3 hour post dxm- 2ug/dl 8 hour post dxm- 1ug/dl from looking at acth and dxm suppression,what could be the possible diagnosis? A. hypoadrenocorticism B. hyperadrenocorticism C. hyperadrenocorticism due to adrenal tumor D. results in conclusive E. pituitary dependent adrenal hyperplasia Answer: E 8. signalment: toy poodle,4 years,female history: anorexic for 3 days, weakness in rear limbs, stumbling, limited water intake, depression over 24 hours, started vomiting since last night. physical exam: temp. 98.0; p55 r-25, lethargic, very weak pulse, lateral recumbency.ancillary data: bun 110, na 114, k-9.4.ekg-h.r.54,t- waves more than 1/4 the r-wave,p-wave absent, ors 23 sec; 1mv.every other parameter is within normal limits. what is your diagnosis? A. hypothyroidism B. dm C. chronic renal failure D. addison's disease E. cushing's syndrome Answer: D 9. signalment: toy poodle, 4 yrs, female history: anorexic for 3 days,weakness in rear limbs, stumbling, limited water intake, depression over 24 hours, started vomiting since last night. physical exam: temp. 98.0; p55, r-25, lethargic, very weak pulse, lateral recumbency.ancillary data: bun 110, na 114, k-9.4. ekg-h.r. 54, t-waves more than 1/4 the r-wave, p-waves absent, qrs 23 sec; 1mv. what definitive test would you request to confirm addison's disease? A. acth stimulation B. tsh stimulation C. dexamethasome suppression test D. a and b E. none of the above Answer: A 10. signalment;toy poodle, 4 yrs,female history: anorexic for 3 days,weakness in rear limbs, stumbling,limited water intake, depression over 24 hours, started vomiting since last night.physical exam: temp.98.0; p55 r-25, lethargic, very weak pulse,lateral recumbency.ancillary data:bun 110, na 114, k-9.4, ekg-h.r. 54, twaves more than 1/4 the r-wave, pwaves absent, qrs 23 sec; 1mv.what would be your treatment regimen? A. dried bovine pituitary B. growth hormones 2
  3. 3. C. deoxycorticoacetate D. normal saline infusion E. c and d Answer: E 11. hyperadrenocorticism, etiologically is mostly encountered due to: A. adrenal tumors B. ectopic acth secreting focus C. pituitary dependent hyperplasia D. adrenal involution E. none of the above Answer: C 12. the specimen submitted for t3 and t4 evaluation is: A. heparinized blood B. flourinated blood C. blood in edta vial D. blood without anticoagulant E. none of the above Answer: E 13. which of the following will drive k++ back into the cell. A. bicarbonate B. penicillin C. amnophyline D. urea Answer: A 14. in addisonian crisis the fluid of choice for parenteral administration would be: A. normal saline B. ringers lactate (r/l) C. 5% dextrose D. any of the above E. none of the above Answer: D 15. primary hypothyroidism is due to: A. pituitary disorders B. hypothalmic disorders C. adrenal disorders D. thyroid disorders E. secondary to immune disorders Answer: D 16. the drug of choice for hypothyroidism is: A. lysodern B. o'p -ddd C. synthroid D. prednisolone 3
  4. 4. E. deoxycorticoacetate Answer: C 17. a biochemical profile in a dog reveals high normal ca; high phosphorus, high k, normal na. which of the following diseases related to parathyroid glands would you consider in your differentials? A. renal secondary hypoparathyroidsm B. nutritional hypoparathyroidism C. hyperparathyroidism D. a and c E. a and b Answer: E 18. diabetes mellitus is a disorder related to: A. increased insulin and decreased glucagon B. increased insulin and increased glucagon C. decreased insulin and decreased glucagon D. decreased insulin and increased glucagon E. normal insulin and normal glucagon Answer: D 19. the following biochemical profile is indicative of: bun - 110 blood glucose - 200 sgpt - 500 ap - 250 na - 110 k 7.4 A. cushing-like syndrome B. addison's disease C. diabetes mellitus D. chronic renal failure E. complicated diabetes mellitus Answer: E 20. a 12-year-old poodle is presented for cataracts and polyuria. you note 4+ glucose and 3+ ketones in urine. you give 1/3 unit regular insulin/ lb 1.m. the poodle become more depressed and weaker. what would be the most likely consideration: A. paradoxical csf acidosis B. hyperosmolar syndrome C. pancreatic fibrosis D. acute renal failure E. hypokalemia Answer: E 21. an example of "abnormal target response" can be seen in A. hyperthyroidism B. hyperadrenoccorticism C. nephrogenic diabetes insipidus D. diabetes mellitus E. pseudohyperparathyroidism Answer: B 22. an example of "decreased bioavailability (e.g. protein binding) can be seen in A. hypothyroidism 4
  5. 5. B. hypoadrenocorticism C. nephrogenic diabetes insipidus D. diabetes mellitus E. pseudohyperparathyroidism Answer: A 23. hormonal regulation takes place via: A. humoral control B. nervous control C. genetic control D. all of the above E. none of the above Answer: D 24. negative feed back control of hormonal regulation is achieved via A. humoral control B. nervous control C. genetic control D. all of the above E. none of the above Answer: A 25. an increase in daylight causes an increase in follicular stimulating hormone, this is achieved via: A. humoral control B. nervous control C. genetic control D. all of the above E. none of the above Answer: B 26. the hypothalmus secretes: A. releasing factors B. trophic factors C. inhibitory factors D. a and c E. a and b and c Answer: E 27. pituitary dwarfism is seen most commonly in: A. german shephards B. doberman pinscher C. toy pinscher D. a and c E. a and b and d Answer: A 28. rathke's pouch differentiation failure resulting in trophic hormone secretion failure will cause: A. growth disturbances B. thyroid disturbances 5
  6. 6. C. adrenal gland disturbances D. sex hormone disturbances E. all of the above Answer: E 29. rathke's pouch differentiates from: A. oropharyngeal ectoderm B. oropharyngeal neuroderm C. oropharyngeal endoderm D. orolaryngeal ectoderm E. none of the above Answer: A 30. which of the following is not affected by "hypothalmic hypophysical axis" regulation. A. hyperadrenocorticism B. hypoadrendocorticism C. hypothyroidism D. diabetes mellitus E. diabetes insipidus Answer: E 31. administration of pitressin would not be indicated in case of A. psychogenic polyurea polydysea B. nephrogenic diabetes insipidus C. central diabetes insipidus D. end stage kidney E. a and b Answer: B 32. adrenal cortex originates from A. ectodermal celomic epithelium B. mesodermal celomic epithelium C. ectodermal cells of neural crest D. mesodermal cells of neural crest E. none of the above Answer: A 33. the adrenal medulla originates from: A. ectodermal celomic epithelium B. mesodermal celomic epithelium C. ectodermal cells of neural crest D. mesodermal cells of neural crest E. none of the above Answer: C 34. glucocorticoids are secreted by: A. zona fasiculata which forms 60% of the a. cortex B. zona fasiculata which forms 15% of the a. cortex C. zona fasiculata which forms 25% of the a. cortex 6
  7. 7. D. zona glomerulosa which forms 25% of the a. cortex E. zona reticularis which forms 15% of the a. cortex Answer: A 35. which of the following has an equal sex distribution A. hyperadrenocorticism B. hypoadrenocorticism C. diabetes mellitus D. puerperal tetany E. none of the above Answer: A 36. which of the followings is seen more in females than males? A. hypoadrenocorticism B. diabetes mellitus C. puerperal tetany D. all of the above E. none of the above Answer: D 37. most cases of hyperadrenoccorticism are: A. pituitary dependent B. adrenal dependent C. ectopic acth secreting focus dependent D. iatrogenic glucocorticoid administration dependent E. none of the above Answer: A 38. feedback-failure-dependent-cushings syndrome is most often due to: A. functional pituitary tumor B. functional adrenal tumor C. iatrogenic glucocorticoid administration D. all of the above E. none of the above Answer: A 39. polyuria, polydypsia and polyphagia is seen in all of the following except: A. hyperadrenocorticism B. diabetes insipidus C. diabetes mellitus D. hyperthyroidism E. all of the above Answer: B 40. muscle atrophy is seen in: A. hyperadrenocorticism B. hyperthyroidism C. diabetes insipidus D. diabetes mellitus 7
  8. 8. E. none of the above Answer: A 41. thickness of skin decreases in cushing's dogs due to the atrophy of: A. epidermis B. hypodermis C. dermis D. subcutaneous tissue E. sub cutis Answer: A 42. testicular hypofunction is seen in: A. hypoadrenocorticism B. primary hypoparathyroidism C. hyperthyroidism D. a and c E. all of the above Answer: A 43. diarrhea may be one of the symptoms in: A. hypoadrenocorticism B. primary hypoparathyroidism C. hyperthyroidism D. a and c E. all of the above Answer: A 44. delayed wound healing is encountered in: A. hyperadrenocorticism B. hyperthyroidism C. hypoadrenocorticism D. diabetes mellitus E. none of the above Answer: C 45. increased susceptibility to infection may be due to all of the followings except. A. impaired chemotaxis B. decreased antibodies C. increased complement synthesis D. decreased phagocytosis E. lymphopenia Answer: B 46. hemogram stress triad is seen in: A. hypoadrenocorticism ' B. hyperadrenocorticism C. hyperthyroidism D. hypothyroidism E. none of the above 8
  9. 9. Answer: E 47. stress triad is: A. leukipenia, eosinophilia, lymphopenia B. leukocytosis, eosinophilia, lymphocytosis C. leukocytosis, eosinopenia, lymphocytosis D. leukocytosis, eosinopenia, lymphopenia E. neutrophilia, eosinopenia, lymphopenia, leukocytosis. Answer: D 48. a trace glucosuria with low urine specific gravity is seen in: A. hyperadrenocorticism B. diabetes mellitus C. diabetes insipidus D. all of the above E. none of the above Answer: C 49. in hyperadrenocorticism o.p. 'ddd should be continued till water intake of the animal drops to: A. 10 ml/lb/day B. 20 ml/lb/day C. 30 ml/lb/day D. 40 ml/lb/day E. 50 ml/lb/day Answer: C 50. maintenance theraphy of o.p'ddd should be given: A. once a day B. twice a day in divided doses C. once a week D. twice a week in divided doses E. none of the above Answer: D 51. most common cause of addisons disease is: A. panhypopituitarism B. iatrogenic-opddd overdose C. iatrogenic-stopage of external steroid therapy D. bilateral idiopathic adrenal cortical atrophy E. none of the above Answer: B 52. low sodium and low normal potassium is seen in: A. diabetes mellitus B. diabetes insipidus C. adddisons disease D. hypothyroidism E. hyperthyroidism Answer: C 9
  10. 10. 53. low sodium and high ptoassium is seen in: A. diabetes mellitus B. diabetes insipidus C. addisons disease D. hypothyroidism E. hyperthyroidism Answer: D 54. for long term therapy of addison's A. soludelta cortef B. desoxycorticosterone actetate C. prednisolone D. fludrocortisone acetate E. none of the above Answer: E 55. largest endocrine gland in the body is: A. pituitary B. adrenal cortex C. thyroid D. liver E. pancreas Answer: C 56. history of difficulty in breathing and swallowing is mentioned in: A. pituitary tumors B. adrenal tumors C. thyroid tumors D. complicated diabetes mellitus E. none of the above Answer: B 57. an antithyroid drug is: A. synthroid B. propylthiouracil C. cytoben D. all of the above E. none of the above Answer: E 58. hypothyroidism is mostly seen in: A. toy breeds B. small breeds C. medium breeds D. large breeds E. c and d Answer: B 10
  11. 11. 59. mild normocytic and normochromic anemia is seen in: A. hyperadrenocorticism B. hypoadrenocorticism C. hyperthyroidism D. hypothyroidism E. b and d Answer: C 60. parathormone release is influenced by: A. total serum ca2+ B. bound ca2+ C. ionized ca2+ in blood D. all of the above E. none of the above Answer: A 61. slow heart rate, weak femoral pulse, low amplitude on ekg are indicative of: A. hypoadrenalcorticism B. hypothyroidism C. hyperparathyroidism D. a and b E. a and b and c Answer: E 62. parathormone increases ca2+ absorption by acting on: A. bone B. intestine C. kidney D. a and b E. a and b and c Answer: D 63. most common of all endocrine disease is: A. hyperadrenocorticism B. hypoadrenocorticism C. hyperthyroidism D. hypothyroidism E. diabetes mellitus Answer: A 64. most common form of hypothyroidism is: A. primary due to acquired factors B. secondary due to decreased tsh C. iodine deficiency due to goiterogenous substances D. all of the above E. none of the above Answer: B 65. for long term maintenance of hypoparathyroidism the drug of choice is 11
  12. 12. A. 10% ca gluconate B. vitamin d C. bone meal D. all of the above E. none of the above Answer: E 66. in chronic hypoparathyroidism ca supplementation will be necessary when: A. ca levels do not become normal after rest B. ca levels stay subnormal despite vitamin d supplementation C. phosphorus level stay high despite vitamin d supplementation D. ca supplemention will not be necessary ever E. b and c Answer: C 67. steroids cause A. increased ca absorption from gut B. increased ca absorption from kidney C. decreased ca absorption from gut D. decreased ca absorption from kidney E. no change in ca absorption Answer: D 68. prolonged hypercalcemia can lead to: A. primary hypoparathyroidism B. renal failure C. nephrolithiasis D. b and c Answer: B 69. secretions of parathormone like polypeptide or other bone resorbing substances profiles in: A. primary hyperparathyroidism B. pseudohyperparathyroidism C. renal secondary hyperparathyroidism D. nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism E. none of the above Answer: C 70. normal ca and increases phosphorous levels will be seen in clinical biochemistry profiles in: A. primary hyperparathyroidism B. pseudohyperparathyroidism C. secondary hyperparathyroidism D. a and b E. all of the above Answer: D 71. increased ca and low phosphorus levels will be seen in clinical biochemistry profiles in: A. primary hyperparathyroidism B. pseudohyperparathyroidsim 12
  13. 13. C. secondary hyperparathyroidism D. a and b E. none of the above Answer: D 72. metastatic calcification occurs when ca and phosphorus multiplication total exceeds: A. 30 B. 45 C. 60 D. 75 E. none of the above Answer: D 73. ideal ca:p ratio in diet is: A. 1:1 B. 1:2 C. 2:1 D. 1.2:1 E. 1.2:2 Answer: E 74. treatment of choice in puerperal tetany is all of the following except: A. vitamin d B. 10% ca gluconate 1/v C. wean the pups D. calphosan i.m. E. steroids Answer: B 75. kussmaul breathing is seen in: A. uncomplicated diabetes mellitus B. complicated diabetes mellitus C. ethylene glycol poisoning D. jasmine intoxication E. all of the above Answer: D 76. kussmaul breathing is: A. slow and deep respiration B. slow and shallow respiration C. rapid and shallow respiration D. rapid and deep respiration E. none of the above Answer: A 77. following i/v glucose tolerance test the glucose levels come back to normal within 60 minutes. the animal is A. normal B. mildly diabetic 13
  14. 14. C. hyperinsulinism D. ketotic E. none of the above Answer: D 78. mild cases of diabetes can be controlled by: A. increasing cho and decreasing fat B. increasing cho and fat C. decreasing cho and increasing fat D. decreasing cho and fat E. none of the above Answer: D 79. purpose of insulin therapy is to reduce afternoon blood glucose to: A. 50-75 B. 75-100 C. 100-120 D. 120-150 E. 150-170 Answer: A 80. increased excercise will A. decreased the insulin requirement B. increased the insulin requirement C. not change the insulin requirement D. result in complicated diabetes millitus E. cause paradixical cns aciosis Answer: A 81. i/v rate of k+ infusion should be: A. 0.5 mg/kg/hr B. 2.5 mg/kg/hr C. 5 mg/kg/hr D. 5.5 mg/kg/hr E. none of the above Answer: D 82. in complicated diabetes mellitus continuous i/v infusion should be given with: A. long acting insulin B. medium acting insulin C. intermediary acting insulin D. prompt acting insulin E. any of the above Answer: D 83. complicated diabetes mellitus can be treated as uncomplicated diabetes mellitus once the blood glucose levels fall below: A. 500 mg/dl B. 600 mg/dl 14
  15. 15. C. 300 mg/dl D. 200 mg/dl E. 150 mg/dl Answer: D 15

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