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The endocrine system Its control over body functions
What is an endocrine gland? <ul><li>Secretory structure </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes into interstitial fluid, then blood </l...
What is a hormone? <ul><li>Small molecule: protein, glycoprotein or lipid (steroid or eicosanoid) </li></ul><ul><li>Releas...
Overview of the endocrine system
Important endocrine glands <ul><li>Structure and location </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones produced </li></ul><ul><li>Target cel...
Hypothalamus/pituitary gland
Two lobes to (adult) pituitary <ul><li>Anterior (adenohyphosis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pars distalis (anterior), pars tuber...
Hormones secreted by anterior pituitary cells <ul><li>Human growth hormone (somatotrophs) </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid-stimul...
Posterior pituitary <ul><li>Neurosecretory cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxytocin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antidiuretic ho...
Summary of pituitary activity
The thyroid gland
Thyroid hormone affects metabolic rate Disorders are common
Parathyroid glands <ul><li>Regulate blood calcium levels, along with C cells of thyroid </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates osteo...
Adrenal glands <ul><li>Paired glands lie superior to kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Cortex (outer part) and medulla (inner part...
Location, blood supply, histology of adrenal glands
Pancreas is an endocrine and exocrine gland 99% of tissue A cells- glucagon B cells- insulin D cells- somatostatin F cells...
Pineal gland <ul><li>Part of epithalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Melatonin helps regulate biorhythms </li></ul><ul><li>May regul...
Endocrine functions of other organs <ul><li>Kidneys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EPO, renin, calcitrol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hea...
Summary <ul><li>Endocrine organs are distributed over the body </li></ul><ul><li>Some are regulated by hypothalamus and pi...
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revisedb5endocrine.ppt

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revisedb5endocrine.ppt

  1. 1. The endocrine system Its control over body functions
  2. 2. What is an endocrine gland? <ul><li>Secretory structure </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes into interstitial fluid, then blood </li></ul><ul><li>Secretion rates are extremely low </li></ul><ul><li>All are highly vascularized </li></ul><ul><li>What ARE the endocrine glands? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal pineal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many other organs and tissues have endocrine function </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What is a hormone? <ul><li>Small molecule: protein, glycoprotein or lipid (steroid or eicosanoid) </li></ul><ul><li>Released into blood </li></ul><ul><li>Binds to specific receptors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptors can be blocked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones can be synthesized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells may vary the number of receptors </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Overview of the endocrine system
  5. 5. Important endocrine glands <ul><li>Structure and location </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones produced </li></ul><ul><li>Target cells </li></ul><ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of insufficiency or overproduction </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hypothalamus/pituitary gland
  7. 7. Two lobes to (adult) pituitary <ul><li>Anterior (adenohyphosis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pars distalis (anterior), pars tuberalis (posterior) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes hormones that regulate many body functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is itself regulated by releasing and inhibiting hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portal system delivers the hormones </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Hormones secreted by anterior pituitary cells <ul><li>Human growth hormone (somatotrophs) </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid-stimulating hormone (thyrotrophs) </li></ul><ul><li>Follicle-stimulating hormone; luteinizing hormone (gondaotrophs) </li></ul><ul><li>Prolactin (lactotrophs) </li></ul><ul><li>ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Posterior pituitary <ul><li>Neurosecretory cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxytocin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transported out of axons, into posterior hypophyseal veins </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Summary of pituitary activity
  11. 11. The thyroid gland
  12. 12. Thyroid hormone affects metabolic rate Disorders are common
  13. 13. Parathyroid glands <ul><li>Regulate blood calcium levels, along with C cells of thyroid </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates osteoclast activity </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes calcium retention at kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulates production of calcitrol at kidney </li></ul>
  14. 14. Adrenal glands <ul><li>Paired glands lie superior to kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Cortex (outer part) and medulla (inner part) derive from different tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Cortex produces “stress hormones”; can’t live without them! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zona glomerulosa (mineralocorticoids) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zona fasciculata (glucocorticoids) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zona reticularis (androgens) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medulla produces epinephrine and norepinephrine </li></ul>
  15. 15. Location, blood supply, histology of adrenal glands
  16. 16. Pancreas is an endocrine and exocrine gland 99% of tissue A cells- glucagon B cells- insulin D cells- somatostatin F cells- pancreatic polypeptide Responds to eating or fasting
  17. 17. Pineal gland <ul><li>Part of epithalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Melatonin helps regulate biorhythms </li></ul><ul><li>May regulate reproductive function </li></ul><ul><li>Other tissues have endocrine function but primary role may be different (digestive system, heart, kidneys, etc.) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Endocrine functions of other organs <ul><li>Kidneys </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EPO, renin, calcitrol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><li>ANP and BNP suppress ADH </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive organs- secretion of digestive enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive organs to be discussed </li></ul>
  19. 19. Summary <ul><li>Endocrine organs are distributed over the body </li></ul><ul><li>Some are regulated by hypothalamus and pituitary, some by negative feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Exert effects by releasing hormones that activate specific cells </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormal levels of hormone secretion or activity can cause complex disorders </li></ul>

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