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Hormones of the Body


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Hormones of the Body

  1. 1. Hormones of the Body We’ll go through all the glands and the hormones they produce in this PowerPoint Presentation! By Dawn Tamarkin, Ph.D. Springfield Technical Community College
  2. 2. The Hypothalamus & the Pituitary Gland-- Master Endocrine Glands! <ul><li>The Hypothalamus: </li></ul><ul><li>Located in the brain, this region controls most endocrine secretions </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly regulatory hormones are released here. Most control the pituitary gland </li></ul><ul><li>The Pituitary Gland </li></ul><ul><li>Descending from the hypothalamus, this gland has two halves: anterior & posterior </li></ul><ul><li>The anterior half secretes mainly regulatory hormones </li></ul><ul><li>The posterior half secretes hormones, but manufactures none </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hormones secreted by the Hypothalamus & Anterior Pituitary Gland <ul><li>Hypothalamus Anterior Pituitary </li></ul><ul><li>GHRH (GH-releasing) GH (growth hormone) </li></ul><ul><li>SS (somatostatin, GH-inhib) “ </li></ul><ul><li>CRH (corticotropin-rel) ACTH (adrenocorticotropic) </li></ul><ul><li>GnRH (gonadotropin-rel) LH (luteinizing hormone) </li></ul><ul><li>“ FSH (follicle-stimulating) </li></ul><ul><li>PRH (PRL-releasing) PRL (prolactin) </li></ul><ul><li>PIH (PRL rel-inhibiting) “ </li></ul><ul><li>TRH (thyrotropin-rel) TSH (thyroid stimulating) </li></ul>       
  4. 4. What do these anterior pituitary hormones do? <ul><li>Growth Hormone : </li></ul><ul><li>stimulates cells to grow and divide </li></ul><ul><li>increases amino acid transport rate and protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>increases fat metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Typically, GH is secreted during sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>GH secretion increases when malnourished </li></ul><ul><li>GH influences bone growth via somatomedin: </li></ul><ul><li>GH in blood </li></ul><ul><li>GH arrives in liver </li></ul><ul><li>liver secretes somatomedin </li></ul><ul><li>cartilage divides </li></ul><ul><li>bones grow! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Problems with GH <ul><li>Too much GH in children leads to gigantism </li></ul><ul><li>Too much GH in adults leads to acromegaly </li></ul><ul><li>Too little GH in children leads to dwarfism </li></ul>
  6. 6. Other Anterior Pituitary Hormone Functions <ul><li>ACTH : </li></ul><ul><li>works on the cortex of the adrenal gland, influencing the release of cortisol </li></ul><ul><li>stress can increase CRH secretion which will increase ACTH secretion </li></ul><ul><li>negative feedback when adrenal cortex hormones in blood decrease CRH secretion </li></ul><ul><li>LH & FSH : </li></ul><ul><li>LH in females and in males leads to sex hormone secretion </li></ul><ul><li>FSH in females causes growth and development of egg cell-containing follicles in the ovary, and causes estrogen secretion </li></ul><ul><li>FSH in males instigates sperm production </li></ul><ul><li>both hormones are regulated by GnRH, which is not significant in concentration until puberty </li></ul>
  7. 7. More Anterior Pituitary Hormone Functions <ul><li>PRL : </li></ul><ul><li>In females, PRL promotes lactation </li></ul><ul><li>In males, PRL decreases LH secretion (note that too much PRL would then decrease androgen levels and cause sterility) </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by both PRH and PIH </li></ul><ul><li>TSH : </li></ul><ul><li>works on thyroid gland to either cause or inhibit its secretion of hormones </li></ul><ul><li>works on thyroid gland to affect its growth (too much TSH leads to a goiter) </li></ul><ul><li>negative feedback via thyroid hormones in blood </li></ul><ul><li>stress or cold temperatures can change TSH secretion </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Posterior Pituitary Lobe <ul><li>No hormones are made here. They are made in the hypothalamus and just released here. </li></ul><ul><li>Two peptide hormones are released from the posterior pituitary lobe (the neurohypophysis) : </li></ul><ul><li>ADH (antidiuretic hormone or vasopressin) </li></ul><ul><li>OT (oxytocin) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Function of Posterior Pituitary Lobe Hormones <ul><li>ADH : </li></ul><ul><li>as an “antidiuretic,” ADH decreases urine formation by having kidneys conserve water </li></ul><ul><li>also can contract smooth muscle cells, as found in blood vessels-- this causes an increase in blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>ADH release triggered by osmoreceptors and inhibited by stretch receptors in blood vessels </li></ul><ul><li>OT : </li></ul><ul><li>In females, contracts the uterine wall smooth muscles </li></ul><ul><li>In females, helps to eject milk when lactating </li></ul><ul><li>No known function in males, although in both males and females, OT can have some antidiuretic effects </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Thyroid Gland <ul><li>Structure : This bilobed gland contains many follicles. A follicle is a group of cells encircling a lumen. The lumen contains material called colloid (a glycoprotein) within it. As hormones are produced by the cells, the hormones are either released into the colloid or directly into the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>There are also extrafollicular hormone-secreting cells, called C cells . These are found between lumina. </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones Produced : </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroxine (T 4 ) made in follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Triiodotyronine (T 3 ) made in follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Calcitonin made by C cells </li></ul>
  11. 11. About the Thyroid Hormones... <ul><li>T 3 and T 4 : </li></ul><ul><li>Function: metabolism regulation (break down carbohydrates and fats, synthesize proteins) </li></ul><ul><li>Can only be made by follicular cells when iodides are available </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat hydrophobic and get carried by proteins in the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by anterior pituitary lobe TSH </li></ul><ul><li>T 3 more effective, T 4 more abundant </li></ul><ul><li>Calcitonin : </li></ul><ul><li>Function: decrease blood calcium levels and blood phosphate levels (by helping them get deposited in bone, and by stimulating excretion of them by kidneys) </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by blood calcium levels and digestive chemicals </li></ul>
  12. 12. Problems with the Thyroid Gland <ul><li>Hyperthyroidism : </li></ul><ul><li>high metabolic rate, hyperactivity, sensitivity to heat, protruding eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Grave’s disease : when hyperthyroidism is due to an autoimmune problem (TSH is mimicked by autoantibodies) </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothyroidism : </li></ul><ul><li>in the adult: low metabolic rate, sensitivity to cold, sluggishness </li></ul><ul><li>in an infant: cretinism -- stunted growth, mental retardation, abnormal bone formation </li></ul><ul><li>Hashimoto’s disease : when hypothyroidism is due to an autoimmune problem (autoantibodies attack and destroy follicular cells) </li></ul><ul><li>goiter : no T3 and T4 can be made because not enough iodides were ingested. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Let’s Review: <ul><li>What glands and hormones did we learn about so far? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hypothalamus & Anterior Pituitary <ul><li>Hypothalamus Anterior Pituitary </li></ul><ul><li>GHRH (GH-releasing) GH (growth hormone) </li></ul><ul><li>SS (somatostatin, GH-inhib) “ </li></ul><ul><li>CRH (corticotropin-rel) ACTH (adrenocorticotropic) </li></ul><ul><li>GnRH (gonadotropin-rel) LH (luteinizing hormone) </li></ul><ul><li>“ FSH (follicle-stimulating) </li></ul><ul><li>PRH (PRL-releasing) PRL (prolactin) </li></ul><ul><li>PIH (PRL rel-inhibiting) “ </li></ul><ul><li>TRH (thyrotropin-rel) TSH (thyroid stimulating) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Your book’s review diagram:
  16. 16. Posterior Pituitary & Thyroid Gland <ul><li>Posterior Pituitary : </li></ul><ul><li>ADH </li></ul><ul><li>OT </li></ul><ul><li>Both of these hormones are made in the hypothalamus… their release is regulated by the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid Gland : </li></ul><ul><li>T 3 (regulated by TSH) </li></ul><ul><li>T 4 (regulated by TSH) </li></ul><ul><li>calcitonin (NOT regulated by the pituitary!) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Moving on to More Glands! <ul><li>We still have the following left: </li></ul><ul><li>Parathyroid Gland </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal Gland: both the Medulla and the Cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Pineal </li></ul><ul><li>Other, including thymus and reproductive glands </li></ul>
  18. 18. Parathyroid Gland <ul><li>This gland only secretes one hormone: Parathyroid Hormone (or PTH) </li></ul><ul><li>PTH function (we began learning this when we studied bone) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increases blood calcium (Ca 2+ ) levels and decreases blood phosphate (PO 4 2- ) levels </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. PTH function (continued) <ul><li>How does PTH work? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PTH causes Ca 2+ & PO 4 2- to be released from bone into blood (by increasing osteoclast activity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PTH causes the kidneys to remove PO 4 2- ions from the urine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PTH increases vitamin D production, so that you absorb more Ca 2+ during digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PTH is regulated by blood calcium levels-- not by other glands! </li></ul>
  20. 20. Adrenal Glands <ul><li>An adrenal gland is found on top of each kidney. Each adrenal gland has two regions that carry out separate functions! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The adrenal medulla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The adrenal cortex </li></ul></ul>We will cover each of these two regions separately in the next few slides.
  21. 21. The Adrenal Medulla <ul><li>Acts very much like a part of the sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight) </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes two amines: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>norepinephrine (20%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>epinephrine (80%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stimulated by preganglionic neurons directly, so controlled by the hypothalamus as if part of the autonomic nervous system, NOT by tropic hormones </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Adrenal Cortex <ul><li>Acts like a regular endocrine organ </li></ul><ul><li>Secretes many hormones, but most importantly secretes the following steroids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>aldosterone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cortisol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sex hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aldosterone and cortisol require further explanation (while sex hormone production will be covered later this semester) </li></ul>
  23. 23. More about Adrenal Cortex Hormones <ul><li>Aldosterone : </li></ul><ul><li>Considered a mineralocorticoid </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates “mineral electrolyte” levels in the blood (for example: Na + and K + ions) </li></ul><ul><li>How is aldosterone controlled? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>blood plasma ion concentrations affect its secretion directly (but not always strongly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kidney secretes renin in response to altered electrolyte levels, which triggers angiotensin activation in the blood, which leads to aldosterone secretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACTH from the anterior pituitary can cause aldosterone secretion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cortisol : </li></ul><ul><li>Considered a glucocorticoid </li></ul><ul><li>Overall effect of cortisol: </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to keep blood glucose concentration within a normal range between meals </li></ul><ul><li>Specific actions of cortisol: </li></ul><ul><li>increases amino acid concentration in the blood (by inhibiting protein synthesis in select tissues) </li></ul><ul><li>promotes use of fat for energy production in our bodies (rather than glucose) </li></ul><ul><li>stimulates the liver to synthesize glucose (not from carbohydrates, but from amino acids and glycerol), called gluconeogenesis </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Pancreas <ul><li>This gland has both endocrine and exocrine functions… we’ll only cover the endocrine portion now (exocrine is for digestion) </li></ul><ul><li>The endocrine portion of the gland contains three types of cells, each making a different hormone, arranged into groups called Islets of Langerhans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alpha cells : secrete glucagon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beta cells : secrete insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>delta cells : secrete SS (somatostatin) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Note that these pancreatic hormones are involved in blood glucose regulation, and problems with them can lead to diabetes. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Blood Glucose Regulation by the Pancreas <ul><li>Glucagon : </li></ul><ul><li>It works on the liver to cause the production of glucose via: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glycogenolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gluconeogenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is regulated by blood glucose levels directly: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>secreted when blood glucose drops (before next meal) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevents hypoglycemia </li></ul><ul><li>Insulin : </li></ul><ul><li>It works on the liver to remove glucose from the blood via: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>making glycogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>preventing gluconeogenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increasing glucose transport into cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is also regulated by blood glucose levels directly </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents hyperglycemia </li></ul>Note: glucagon and insulin work in opposition, and their combined effects control blood glucose
  26. 26. Pineal Gland <ul><li>Secretes only one hormone: melatonin </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in your circadian rhythm (your recognition of day and night times): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>melatonin secretion decreases in the day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>melatonin secretion increases at night </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Melatonin is also involved in longer rhythms, like monthly and seasonal… and is thought to be involved in the female menstrual cycle and maybe in the onset of puberty </li></ul>
  27. 27. Other Endocrine Glands <ul><li>Thymus Gland: secretes thymosins which are involved in white blood cell production </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive glands (the gonads): the ovaries and the testes produce sex hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Others: too specific for now, we’ll get to them as we continue this semester. </li></ul>
  28. 28. The End!