endocrine system


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endocrine system

  1. 1. Endocrine System Control of Our Bodies Homeostasis
  2. 2. Engage <ul><li>You will be viewing some video clips from Sideshow: Alive On The Inside . Within these clips you will see various types of endocrine disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are interested in viewing more endocrine system oddities, you can read the book Freak Show: Presenting Human Oddities for Amusement and Profit by Robert Bogdan. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Explore <ul><li>Explore 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Using your text and other resources, you will familiarize yourself with the endocrine glands and their functions by completing the endocrine system worksheet. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Role Play: The Rise and Fall of Glucose </li></ul>
  4. 4. Explain regulates Section 39-2 by means of the by means of the by means of the by means of the by means of the by means of the The Endocrine System Growth Water balance Reproduction Metabolism Calcium and glucose levels Response to stress Pituitary Ovaries Testes Thyroid Pancreas Adrenals Parathyroids
  5. 5. Explain <ul><li>List 4 types of endocrine glands and give their function. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the overall function of the endocrine system? </li></ul><ul><li>With what other systems does the endocrine system interact? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Exocrine or Endocrine <ul><li>Exocrine – release products (enzymes) into ducts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) Sweat, tears, digestive juices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endocrine – directly to bloodstream; NO DUCTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) Hormones </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Endocrine System <ul><li>Glands – release products to bloodstream directly. </li></ul><ul><li>Horomones – products deliver messages to body </li></ul><ul><li>Target cells – have specific receptors for specific hormones </li></ul>
  8. 8. Endocrine Glands Hypothalamus The hypothalamus makes hormones that control the pituitary gland. In addition, it makes hormones that are stored in the pituitary gland. Pituitary gland The pituitary gland produces hormones that regulate many of the other endocrine glands. Parathyroid glands These four glands release parathyroid hormone, which regulate the level of calcium in the blood. Thymus During childhood, the thymus releases thymosin, which stimulates Tcell development. Adrenal glands The adrenal glands release epinephrine and nonepinephrine, which help the body deal with stress. Pineal gland The pineal gland releases melatonin, which is involved in rhythmic activities, such as daily sleep-wake cycles. Thyroid The thyroid produces thyroxine, which regulates metabolism. Pancreas The pancreas produces insulin and glucagon, which regulate the level of glucose in the blood. Ovary The ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone. Estrogen is required for the development of secondary sex characteristics and for the development of eggs. Progesterone prepares the uterus for a fertilized egg. Testis The testes produce testosterone, which is responsible for sperm production and the development of male secondary sex characteristics Section 39-1
  9. 9. Pituitary Gland <ul><li>Master gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls the other endocrine glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth Hormone (GH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much – gigantism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too little – dwarfism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Antidiuretic (ADH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates kidneys to keep water </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Hypothalamus <ul><li>Part of brain and attached to pituitary </li></ul><ul><li>Controls pituitary secretions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Thyroid
  12. 12. THYROID GLAND <ul><li>Regulates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolism and energy balance </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Thyroid Hormones <ul><li>Thyroxine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates body energy usage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calcitonin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One hormones that regulates calcium and phosphate in blood </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Questions <ul><li>What are the two hormones that the thyroid secretes? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the function of thyroxine? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the function of calcitonin? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Parathyroid
  16. 16. Calcium Regulation PARAthyroid Glands <ul><li>PTH-Parathyroid hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Increases calcium, phosphate, and magnesium absorption in intestines. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes bones to release calcium and phosphate </li></ul><ul><li>Causes removal of calcium and magnesium from urine by kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Increases the making of Vitamin D in body </li></ul>
  17. 18. Negative Feedback Mechanism <ul><li>Our body uses feedback mechanism to maintain homeostasis within our body. </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of calcium is one example of this process. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you think of another one? Hint: Role Play Activity </li></ul>
  18. 19. Questions <ul><li>PTH cause the small intestine to absorb more calcium, _____ and _____. </li></ul><ul><li>What does PTH cause the bones to release? </li></ul><ul><li>What do the kidneys do because of PTH? </li></ul>
  19. 20. Adrenal Gland <ul><li>Releases hormones to deal with stress </li></ul>
  20. 21. Adrenal Gland Cont. <ul><li>Cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces more than 2 dozen steroid hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>corticosteriods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medulla </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ fight or flight” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epinephrine and norepinephrine </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Glucose Regulation <ul><li>Two Ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Eating Regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Hormone Adjustments </li></ul>
  22. 23. Pancreas: Endocrine and Exocrine <ul><li>What did the pancreas do in digestion? </li></ul><ul><li>Secreted Enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas also secretes hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine glands </li></ul><ul><li>- ductless organ that releases hormones DIRECTLY into the bloodstream. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Questions <ul><li>What do exocrine glands secrete? </li></ul><ul><li>What do endocrine glands secrete? </li></ul>
  24. 25. Blood Glucose Level <ul><li>Pancreatic Hormones regulate blood sugar level before and after meals. </li></ul><ul><li>Islets; clusters of cells in pancreas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alpha  secrete glucagon – increases sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beta  secrete insulin – decreases sugar </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. What Happens? <ul><li>Between meals </li></ul><ul><li>Blood glucose low  Pancreas secretes glucagon  Liver changes glycogen to glucose  glucose sent to target tissues </li></ul><ul><li>After a meal </li></ul><ul><li>Blood glucose high  Pancreas secretes insulin  Glucose goes to the Liver(Glygogen) and goes to Target tissues </li></ul>
  26. 29. Questions <ul><li>What organ regulates glucose in blood? </li></ul><ul><li>When we eat our blood glucose level is high or low? </li></ul><ul><li>In between meals our blood glucose level is high or low? </li></ul><ul><li>When our blood glucose is high the pancreas secretes ___________. </li></ul><ul><li>When our blood glucose is low the pancreas secretes ___________. </li></ul><ul><li>What mechanism allows our body to control the glucose level in our body? </li></ul>
  27. 30. Diabetes <ul><li>Diabetes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High sugar levels in blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not produce enough insulin to control blood sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some take insulin injections to regulate </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. Reproductive Glands <ul><li>Production of gametes </li></ul><ul><li>Secretion of sex hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Female – Ovaries - Estrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Males – Testes - Testosterone </li></ul>
  29. 32. Elaborate <ul><li>You will perform various investigations with plant hormones to better understand human hormones. You will be working with hormones that stimulate and inhibit plant growth. </li></ul>