Chapter 28

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Chapter 28

  1. 1. Endocrinology of reproduction <ul><li>Reproductive System </li></ul>
  2. 2. Anatomy of Male Reproductive System <ul><li>Testes </li></ul><ul><li>Series of ducts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Epididymides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ductus deferentia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessory glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seminal vesicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prostate gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulbourethral glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supporting structures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrotum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 chambered sac that contains testes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dartos and cremaster muscles help regulate temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perineum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diamond-shaped areas between thighs </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Male Pelvis
  4. 4. Testes <ul><li>Glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exocrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compartments divided by septa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seminiferous tubules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empty into rete testis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empties into efferent ductules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interstitial or Leydig cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Descent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass from abdominal cavity through inguinal canal to scrotum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cryptorchidism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure of of one or both of testes to descend into scrotum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents normal sperm development </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Histology of Testis
  6. 6. Descent of Testes
  7. 7. Sperm Cell Development <ul><li>Spermatozoa produced in seminiferous tubules </li></ul><ul><li>Spermatogonia divide ( mitosis ) to form primary spermatocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Primary spermatocytes ( first division of meiosis ) divide to form secondary spermatocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary spermatocytes ( second division of meiosis ) divide to form spermatids </li></ul><ul><li>Spermatids develop an acrosome and flagellum </li></ul><ul><li>Sertoli cells nourish sperm cells and form a blood-testis barrier and produce hormones </li></ul>
  8. 8. Spermatogenesis
  9. 9. Meiosis
  10. 10. Ducts <ul><li>Epididymis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site of sperm cell maturation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ductus deferens or vas deferens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passes from epididymis into abdominal cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ejaculatory duct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joining of ductus deferens and seminal vesicle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extends from urinary bladder to distal end of penis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passageway for urine and male reproductive fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prostatic urethra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Membranous urethra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spongy or penile urethra </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Male Reproductive Structures
  12. 12. Penis <ul><li>Three columns of erectile tissue that engorge with blood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corpora cavernosa (2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus spongiosum (1) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Glans penis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepuce or foreskin covers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circumcision: Surgical removal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>External urethra orifice </li></ul>
  13. 13. Penis
  14. 14. Accessory Glands <ul><li>Seminal vesicles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empty into ejaculatory duct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce about 60% of semen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prostate gland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces about 30% of semen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bulbourethral glands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribute about 5% to semen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secretions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composite of sperm cells and secretions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discharge of semen into prostatic urethra </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ejaculation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forceful expulsion of semen from urethra </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Regulation of Sex Hormone Secretion <ul><li>Hypothalamus releases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GnRH or LHRH which stimulates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LH or ICSH to produce testosterone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>FSH to stimulate sperm cell formation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibin inhibits FSH secretion from anterior pituitary </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Puberty and Testosterone <ul><li>Puberty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age at which individuals become capable of sexual reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before puberty small amounts of testosterone inhibit GnRH release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During puberty testosterone does not completely suppress GnRH release, resulting in increased FSH , LH , and testosterone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Testosterone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by interstitial cells, adrenal cortex and sustentacular cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes development of male sex organs in embryo, stimulates descent of testes, causes enlargement of genitals and necessary for sperm cell formation </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Male Sexual Behavior and Male Sex Act <ul><li>Male sexual behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testosterone required to initiate and maintain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Male sex act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex series of reflexes that result in erection of penis, secretion of mucus into urethra, emission, ejaculation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensations result in orgasm associated with ejaculation and then resolution </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Neural Control of Erection <ul><li>Stimulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactile or psychological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erection due to vasodilation of blood vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes erection, emission, ejaculation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Erectile Dysfunction </li></ul>
  19. 19. Anatomy of Female Reproductive System <ul><li>Female reproductive organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uterine tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vagina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External genital organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mammary glands </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Female Pelvis
  21. 21. Uterus, Vagina, Uterine Tubes, Ovaries and Supporting Ligaments
  22. 22. Ovary Histology
  23. 23. Maturation of Follicle and Oocyte
  24. 24. Maturation and Fertilization of Oocyte
  25. 25. Follicle and Oocyte Development <ul><li>Oogenesis is the production of a secondary oocyte in ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>Oogonia are cells from which oocytes develop </li></ul><ul><li>Primary oocytes are surround by granulosa cells and called a primordial follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Primordial follicle becomes a primary follicle when oocyte enlarges and cells change </li></ul><ul><li>Primary follicle becomes secondary follicle and enlarges to form mature or graafian follicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually only one is ovulated, others degenerate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary oocyte completes first meiotic division to produce secondary oocyte and a polar body </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary oocyte begins second meiotic division, which stops in metaphase II </li></ul>
  26. 26. Ovulation and Follicle Fate <ul><li>Ovulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follicle swells and ruptures, secondary oocyte is released from ovary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second meiotic division completed when secondary oocyte unites with sperm cell to form zygote </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fate of the follicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graafian follicle become corpus luteum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If fertilization occurs, corpus luteum persists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If no fertilization, becomes corpus albicans </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Uterine Tubes and Uterus <ul><li>Uterine or fallopian tubes or oviducts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open directly into peritoneal cavity to receive oocyte from ovary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport oocyte or zygote from ovary to uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uterus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts : Body, isthmus, cervix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of 3 layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perimetrium: Serous membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myometrium: Smooth muscle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endometrium: Mucous membrane </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Vagina and Perineum <ul><li>Vagina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Female organ of copulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows menstrual flow and childbirth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hymen covers the vaginal opening or orifice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perineum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into two triangles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urogenital: Contains the external genitalia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anal triangle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Clinical perineum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Region between vagina and anus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Episiotomy: Incision to prevent tearing during childbirth </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Female External Genitalia <ul><li>Vulva or pudendum or external female genitalia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vestibule : Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labia minora: Form borders on sides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clitoris: Erectile structure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corpora cavernosa </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corpora spongiosa </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labia majora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unite to form mons pubis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Female Perineum
  31. 31. Mammary Glands <ul><li>Organs of milk production located within mammae or breasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consist of glandular lobes and adipose tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooper’s ligaments support the breasts </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Puberty and Menstrual Cycle <ul><li>Puberty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins with menarche or first episode of menstrual bleeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins when GnRH levels increase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Menstrual Cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 28 days long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proliferative phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretory phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Menses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amenorrhea: Absence of a menstrual cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menopause: Cessation of menstrual cycles </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Menstrual Cycle
  34. 34. Hormone Regulation during Menstrual Cycle
  35. 35. Female Sexual Behavior and Sex Act <ul><li>Female sexual behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Androgens and steroids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on psychological factors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Female sex act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood engorgement in clitoris and around vaginal opening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erect nipples </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mucouslike fluid extruded into vagina and through wall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orgasm not necessary for fertilization to occur </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Female Fertility and Pregnancy <ul><li>Female fertility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm ejaculated into vagina during copulation and transported through cervix and uterine tubes to ampulla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm cells undergo capacitation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oocyte can be fertilized up to 24 hours after ovulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm cells can be viable for up to 6 days in female tract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ectopic pregnancy: Implantation occurs anywhere other than uterine cavity </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Sperm Cell Movement
  38. 38. Changes in Hormones During Pregnancy
  39. 39. Control of Pregnancy <ul><li>Behavioral methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstinence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coitus interruptus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhythm method </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Barrier methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Condom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Male and female </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervical cap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spermicidal agents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lactation </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral contraceptives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injections as Depo-Provera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morning-after pills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surgical methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasectomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tubal ligation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abortions </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Effects of Aging <ul><li>Male </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in size and weight of testes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in sperm production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prostate gland enlarges and increase in cancer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impotence is age-related </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in sexual activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Female </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Menopause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease in size of uterus and vaginal wall thins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age related increase in breast, uterine, ovarian cancer </li></ul></ul>

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