Chapter 25 Endocrine System
Introduction <ul><li>Ductless glands </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Control other organs / cells (ta...
Components <ul><li>Pituitary gland </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>Parathyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>A...
Pituitary <ul><li>Located in sella turcica </li></ul><ul><li>Infundibulum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalk connects to hypothal...
Development of Pituitary <ul><li>From 6-8 weeks  </li></ul><ul><li>the neurohypophyseal bud grows inferiorly from the hypo...
Adenohypophysis (ant. pit.) <ul><li>7 hormones </li></ul><ul><li>GH growth hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates body g...
Adenohypophysis  <ul><li>MSH melanocyte stimulating hormone </li></ul><ul><li>FSH follicle stimulating hormone </li></ul><...
Hypothalamus <ul><li>Controls adenohypophysis </li></ul><ul><li>Releasing hormones  </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibiting hormones ...
Hypophyseal portal system <ul><li>Hormones secreted in hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Enter capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>...
Neurohypophysis <ul><li>Nerve cell bodies in hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Axons to neurohypophysis via infundibulum </li...
ADH (antidiuretic hormone), vasopressin <ul><ul><li>Targets DCT and collecting tubules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>   H 2 ...
Oxytocin <ul><li>Stimulates smooth muscle of uterus during childbirth </li></ul>24.26cd
Thyroid gland <ul><li>Located around trachea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just inferior to larynx </li></ul></ul>25.7
Thyroid follicle <ul><li>Functional unit </li></ul><ul><li>Sphere of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete TH precursor </li></u...
Hyperthyroidism & exophthalmos <ul><li>Protrusion of one or both eyeballs that results from orbital inflammation, edema, t...
Grave’s disease / hyperthyroidism <ul><li>Graves' disease patient with exophthalmos and vitiligo.  </li></ul><ul><li>Vitil...
Parafollicular cells <ul><li>Located between follicles </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete calcitonin </li></ul><ul><li>   blood Ca...
Parathyroid glands <ul><li>Location: 2 pairs of tiny glands on posterior surface of thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>PTH </...
Adrenal gland <ul><li>Located on superior surface of kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal medulla </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secret...
Adrenal cortex <ul><li>Aldosterone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>   reabsorption of H 2 O and Na +  in kidney </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Pancreas <ul><li>Exocrine pancreas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endocrine pancreas </li>...
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Chapter 25 Endocrine System Introduction

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Chapter 25 Endocrine System Introduction

  1. 1. Chapter 25 Endocrine System
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Ductless glands </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Control other organs / cells (target tissue) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Components <ul><li>Pituitary gland </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>Parathyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal gland </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gonads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enteroendocrine glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thymus </li></ul></ul>25.1
  4. 4. Pituitary <ul><li>Located in sella turcica </li></ul><ul><li>Infundibulum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalk connects to hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adenohypophysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior pituitary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gland tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neurohypophysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior pituitary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neural pituitary </li></ul></ul>25.3abc
  5. 5. Development of Pituitary <ul><li>From 6-8 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>the neurohypophyseal bud grows inferiorly from the hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>the hypophyseal pouch grows superiorly from the roof of the mouth (Rathke’s pouch) </li></ul><ul><li>neurohypophyseal bud becomes the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis) </li></ul><ul><li>hypophyseal pouch becomes the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) </li></ul>5-6 wks 25.14a-d
  6. 6. Adenohypophysis (ant. pit.) <ul><li>7 hormones </li></ul><ul><li>GH growth hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates body growth, e.g., epiphyseal plate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PRL prolactin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates mammary glands to produce milk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TSH thyroid stimulating hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li> TH,  metabolic rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate adrenal cortex to secrete steroids </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Adenohypophysis <ul><li>MSH melanocyte stimulating hormone </li></ul><ul><li>FSH follicle stimulating hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates development of sperm and ova </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LH luteinizing hormone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates development of sperm and ova </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Hypothalamus <ul><li>Controls adenohypophysis </li></ul><ul><li>Releasing hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibiting hormones </li></ul>25.3
  9. 9. Hypophyseal portal system <ul><li>Hormones secreted in hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Enter capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Carried by hypophyseal portal veins </li></ul><ul><li>Second capillary bed in adenohypophysis </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones affect adenohypophyseal cells </li></ul>25.5
  10. 10. Neurohypophysis <ul><li>Nerve cell bodies in hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Axons to neurohypophysis via infundibulum </li></ul>25.6
  11. 11. ADH (antidiuretic hormone), vasopressin <ul><ul><li>Targets DCT and collecting tubules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> H 2 O reabsorption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> blood volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> BP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> concentration of urine,  volume </li></ul></ul>23.4b
  12. 12. Oxytocin <ul><li>Stimulates smooth muscle of uterus during childbirth </li></ul>24.26cd
  13. 13. Thyroid gland <ul><li>Located around trachea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just inferior to larynx </li></ul></ul>25.7
  14. 14. Thyroid follicle <ul><li>Functional unit </li></ul><ul><li>Sphere of cells </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete TH precursor </li></ul><ul><li>TH stimulates basal metabolic rate </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by TSH </li></ul>25.7bc
  15. 15. Hyperthyroidism & exophthalmos <ul><li>Protrusion of one or both eyeballs that results from orbital inflammation, edema, tumors, or injuries; cavernous sinus thrombosis; or enlargement of the eyeball (as in congenital glaucoma and unilateral high myopia). </li></ul><ul><li>In hyperthyroidism, edema and lymphoid infiltration of the orbital tissues may cause unilateral or bilateral exophthalmos. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.merck.com/mrkshared/mmanual/section8/chapter92/92c.jsp </li></ul>
  16. 16. Grave’s disease / hyperthyroidism <ul><li>Graves' disease patient with exophthalmos and vitiligo. </li></ul><ul><li>Vitiligo is a skin condition resulting from loss of pigment which produces white patches. It may be an autoimmune process </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.aad.org/pamphlets/Vitiligo.html </li></ul>http://www.thyroidmanager.org/Chapter11/11-text.htm
  17. 17. Parafollicular cells <ul><li>Located between follicles </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete calcitonin </li></ul><ul><li> blood Ca ++ levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibits osteoclasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Ca ++ secretion in kidney </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly in childhood </li></ul></ul>25.7bc
  18. 18. Parathyroid glands <ul><li>Location: 2 pairs of tiny glands on posterior surface of thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>PTH </li></ul><ul><ul><li> blood Ca ++ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates osteoclasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> excretion of Ca ++ by kidney </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activates vitamin D </li></ul></ul></ul>25.9a
  19. 19. Adrenal gland <ul><li>Located on superior surface of kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Adrenal medulla </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes norepinephrine & epinephrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targets sympathetic effector organs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adrenal cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes corticosteroids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sER </li></ul></ul>25.10
  20. 20. Adrenal cortex <ul><li>Aldosterone </li></ul><ul><ul><li> reabsorption of H 2 O and Na + in kidney </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cortisol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps body deal with stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> blood glucose levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-inflammatory, suppresses immune response </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Pancreas <ul><li>Exocrine pancreas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Endocrine pancreas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Islets of Langerhans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete glucagon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> blood sugar levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete insulin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> blood sugar levels </li></ul></ul></ul>25.12

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