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Chapter 18: Endocrine and Reproductive


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Chapter 18: Endocrine and Reproductive

  1. 1. Chapter 18: Endocrine and Reproductive Systems
  2. 2. Indiana State Health Standards 10.1.2 Analyze how behavior can impact health maintenance and disease prevention 10.4.1 Analyze the influences of family, peers, and community have on the health and health behavior of individuals. 10.4.3 Research and evaluate the effect of media and other factors on personal, family, and community health and health behaviors.
  3. 3. The Endocrine System A system of glands that secrete hormones.
  4. 4. Structures of the Endocrine System Endocrine Glands are ductless-or tubeless- organs that secrete hormones. Hormones are chemical substances that are produced in glands and help regulate many body functions. The Thyroid Gland produces hormones that regulate metabolism, body heat, and bone growth. Parathyroid Gland produce a hormone that regulates body calcium and phosphorus balance. The Pancreas is a gland that serves both digestive and endocrine systems. Pituitary Gland regulates and controls the activities of all the other endocrine glands. Called the “Master Gland”. The Gonads is another name for the ovaries and testes . The Adrenal Glands are glands that help the body recover from stress and respond to emergencies.
  5. 5. Problems of the Endocrine System <ul><li>Diabetes Mellitus -is a disorder where the pancreas produces to little or </li></ul><ul><li>no insulin resulting in high glucose levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Graves’ Disease - is a disorder in which and overactive and enlarged </li></ul><ul><li>thyroid gland produces excessive amounts of thyroxin. </li></ul><ul><li>Cushing’s Disease - the overproduction of adrenal hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>A Goiter - is an enlargement of the thyroid gland. This is mainly caused by a lack of iodine in the diet. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Structure and Function of the Male Reproductive System Reproductive system is the system of organs involved in producing offspring. Sperm is the male reproductive cells. The male sex hormone is Testosterone . Two small glands that produce sperm are called the Testes . The testes are located in an external skin sac called the Scrotum . The Penis is the tube-shaped organ that extends from the trunk of the body just above the testes. The thick fluid that contains sperm and other secretions from the male reproductive system is called Semen .
  7. 7. Internal Male Reproductive Organs Seminal Vesicle- produces a nourishing fluid that combines with the sperm as they move through the vas deferens . Urethra- is the passageway through which both semen and urine leave the male body. Prostate Glands and Cowper’s Glands- are glands that produce secretions that combine with the sperm-containing fluid to produce semen.
  8. 8. Care of the Male Reproductive System Regular Checkups- should occur every 12-18 months and should be performed by a physician. Regular Bathing- or showering should happen daily for thorough cleansing of the penis and scrotum. Uncircumcised males should be sure to clean, take care, and wash under the foreskin. Wearing Protective Equipment- like a cup or supporter during physical activities should shield external organs.
  9. 9. STD’s Chlamydia and Gonorrhea- are bacterial infections that cause discharge from the penis and burning upon urination. Syphilis- is another bacterial infection, is initially painless, reddish sore that appears at the site of the infection. Genital Herpes- is a virus that causes periodically occurring blister like sores in the genital area.
  10. 10. Problems of the Male Reproductive System An Inguinal Hernia is a separation of tissue that allows part of the intestine to push into the abdominal wall near the top of the scrotum. Sterility is the inability to reproduce. In males it can result from too few sperm, fewer than 20 million per milliliter of seminal fluid, or sperm of poor quality Testicular Cancer can affect males of any age, but occurs more often in males between the ages of 14 and 40. When the prostate gland can become enlarged as a result of an infection, a tumor, and age-related problems are known as problems of the Prostate Gland .
  11. 11. The Female Reproductive System The female reproductive system has several functions. It produces female sex hormones and stores female reproductive cells, called ova. (singular ovum)
  12. 12. Structure and Function of the Female Reproductive System The Ovaries are the female sex glands that store the ova and produce female sex hormones. Ovulation -is the process of releasing a mature ovum into the fallopian tube each month.
  13. 13. Female Reproductive Organs The Fallopian Tubes are a pair of tubes with fingerlike projections that draw in the ovum. The Vagina is a muscular, elastic passageway that extends from the uterus to the outside of the body.
  14. 14. Menstruation The Cervix -is the opening to the uterus. The shedding of the uterine lining is called Menstruation . This shedding of the uterine lining occurs about every 28 days.
  15. 15. Care of the Female Reproductive System Regular bathing -is especially important during the menstrual period. Practicing abstinence from sexual activity -Is the only 100% effective method in preventing pregnancy and STDs. Breast self-exam -is important to help detect breast cancer early. The best time to do this is right after the menstrual period.
  16. 16. Problems of the Female Reproductive System Menstrual cramps -sometimes occur at the beginning of a menstrual period. Premenstrual syndrome -is a disorder caused by hormonal changes. Toxic shock syndrome -is a rare but serious bacterial infection that affects the immune system, and the liver can be fatal.
  17. 17. Problems Related to Infertility Endometriosis -is a painful chronic disease that occurs when tissue that lines the uterus migrates and grows in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, or pelvic cavity. Pelvic inflammatory disease -(PID) is an infection of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and surrounding areas of the pelvis. Sexually transmitted diseases -(STDs)are the most common causes of infertility and other disorders of the reproductive system.
  18. 18. Other Female Reproductive Disorders Vaginitis -is caused by bacterial vaginosis and is the most common vaginal infection in women of childbearing age, and is often accompanied by discharge, odor,pain, itching, or burning. Blocked Fallopian Tubes -is the leading cause of infertility, and may result from PID, abdominal surgery, STDs or Endometriosis. Ovarian Cysts -are fluid-filled sacs on the ovary. Cervical, Uterine, and Ovarian Cancer -occur in the female reproductive system.