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Comprehensible output hypothesis


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Comprehensible output hypothesis for Topic in linguistics class

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Comprehensible output hypothesis

  1. 1. Comprehensible output hypothesis
  2. 2. Second Language Acquisition • Comprehensible Output Hypothesis.
  3. 3. Comprehensible output hypothesis • Output is closely related to the process of language production.
  4. 4. Comprehensible output hypothesis • Developed by Merrill Swain • states that learning takes place when a learner encounters a gap (fissure) in his or her linguistic knowledge of the second language (L2). • the learner becomes aware and may be able to modify his output he learns something new about the language.
  5. 5. Comprehensible output hypothesis • “The output hypothesis claims that the act of producing language (speaking or writing) constitutes under certain circumstances, part of the process of second language learning” Merrill Swain
  6. 6. Comprehensible output hypothesis • According to this author there are three specific functions of output. They are as follows: • The noticing • The hypothesis-testing function • The metalinguistic
  7. 7. 1. Noticing function: It refers to the awareness or “noticing” students find when they cannot say or write exactly what they need for conveying meaning.
  8. 8. 2. Hypothesis-testing function: This function suggests learners may use the method of “trial and error” for testing his production expecting to receive a feedback. By uttering something, the learner tests this hypothesis and receives feedback from an interlocutor.
  9. 9. 3. Metalinguistic function: Learners reflect on the language they learn, and thereby the output enables them to control and internalize linguistic knowledge.
  10. 10. Comprehensible output hypothesis • The comprehensible output (CO) hypothesis states that we acquire language when we attempt to transmit a message but fail and have to try again. • Eventually, we arrive at the correct form of our utterance, our conversational partner finally understands, and we acquire the new form we have produced.
  11. 11. Comprehensible output hypothesis • Merrill Swain does not claim that CO is responsible our language competence. • "sometimes, under some conditions, output facilitates second language learning in ways that are different form, or enhance, those of input"
  12. 12. Comprehensible output hypothesis • For Swain, constant practice facilitates the learner to be conscious of her/his production. • Output makes to move the learner from the semantic processing to the complete grammatical processing for accurate production.
  13. 13. Comprehensible output hypothesis • Feedback is important, especially, because it is one of the few settings in which students have a contact to the target language and they need advices and corrections for improving their production.
  14. 14. Comprehensible output hypothesis Advantanges in language clasroom • The collaboration and interaction are necessary for students to feel comfortable and work together. • Language in this case will serve as a mediating tool, which allows students to lead with the solving-problem process they encounter in the path of acquiring the second language.
  15. 15. Comprehensible output hypothesis Advantanges in language clasroom • This hypothesis has a great importance since thanks to it, we can move from the input data provided to the student from the environment to the capacity of the learner to produce a clear and coherent language.
  16. 16. References • Swain, M. and Lapkin, S. (1995). A step towards second language learning. Oxford University Press. • Dulay, H. & Burt, Marina. (1982) Language two. New York: Oxford University Press • Krashen, S. (1994). The Input Hypothesis and Its Rivals. Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages. London: Academic Press.