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  1. 1. b) SatellitesThe outer space is not as empty and deserted as it is always pictured. There arehundreds of satellites filled the space at a vast range of altitudes. These satelliteshave different functions based on their purposes. Some satellites are placed at Alow orbit where they are positioned at about 400 km above the Earth’s surface. ATo prevent them from being pulled towards the earth by gravitational force, theyhave to move at high speeds of about 29 100 kilometres per hour. These low Aorbit satellites are able to take clear pictures of objects as small as three metres Ain diameter on the Earth’s surface. Geostationary satellites on the other hand, are placed at a higher altitudes Acompared to the low orbit satellites. They have the speed of less than half thespeed of the Low Earth orbit satellites which is about 11 000 km/hour. It takes Aone day to complete an orbit, thus it appears as though they are stationary if Aobserved from the surface of the Earth. Malaysia has launched three of these Asatellites, namely MEASAT 1 ( Malaysian East Asia Satellites 1 ), MEASAT 2 Aand MEASAT 3. To send a geostationary satellite requires higher cost as it Aneeds a powerful and an expensive rocket to send it to a high altitude. One of the types of satellites is the Earth Resources Satellites. Thesesatellites are used to take pictures of the Earth’s surface and provide researcherswith information. It can be used to observe vegetation and placement of the P1E1Earth’s resources such as petroleum and minerals. Therefore through this E1satellite, deforestation can be controlled by observing the size of forest areas E1which can prevent the extinction of rare and valuable flora and fauna. E1 Other than that, Meteorology satellites are used to predict weather. Naturaldisasters such as typhoons and hurricanes can be detected by these satellites. By E2predicting the direction of the typhoons and hurricanes, lives of people can besaved. Thermal pollution can also be seen and thus precautionary steps can be P2taken to prevent further damages and actions will be taken to overcome this type E2of pollution. Heat from volcanoes can also be sensed by the satellites, so the E2activities of the volcanoes can be predicted. Evacuation of people who live near E2an active volcano able to save thousands of lives. Next are the Military Satellites which are used for defense. For example, in awar. Missiles can be launched from a distance through the signal sent by a E3Military satellite. In addition, these satellites can assist in a search and rescue P3mission as they can utilize the technology of Global Positioning System (GPS). E3 Navigation satellites have been very useful for captains of ships and pilots as E4they help the navigators to stay on course. They provide the navigators the P4directions and information of their current position, including altitudes of E4aircrafts. The information is transmitted through radio signals which are sent to E4the system of the ships or aircrafts. Communication satellites are placed in the space in order to connect places. P5These satellites are used to relay telephone calls, relay messages and also to P6P7send and receive television signals. The signals are sent by microwave beams P8which is a type of electromagnetic waves. Three of these satellites are needed to E5link round the world where they are positioned at the same altitude and at equal E5
  2. 2. intervals. The technology of satellites has given many benefits to human. For example, E5satellites allow people to communicate over a distance in a short time. E5Compared to the period when we were not equipped with satellites, it took along time for a person from one place to relay messages to another person who E7lived in another country or continent. However, nowadays, through the internet, E7an e-mail can be sent in a split second to anyone and at any place on Earth as E7long as he or she has the access. Telephones and mobile phones may also be E6used to contact a person in a very simple and easy procedure. These satellites E6also allow people to watch live telecast of sports , games or entertainment E8programmes from another country. E8 In addition, satellites have been utilized in saving human lives. Throughenvironmental satellites, natural disaster occurrence is detected and warnings E2will be sent to the targeted people so that lost of lives can be avoided. This could E2be applied during the tsunami tragedy in 2004 that had shocked the world with E2the loss of lives and destruction of civilization in Acheh . If the warnings had Areached the people earlier, the total loss might be reduced. A Satellites provide thousands of advantages and therefore they must never bemisused. Let us all appreciate this technology and develop it further for thebenefit of mankind.Written by, ,AIMI NADIAH BT ZAINUDIN
  3. 3. 1. QUESTION: Satellites play a very important role in this era of science and technology.Hundreds of artificial satellites have been sent to orbit to do what they are designed to do.Study the information given below:  Earth Resources Satellites- pictures of earth’s surface- information  Meteorology Satellites- predict weather-save lives  Military satellites- defense-search and rescue mission  navigation satellites- navigators stay on course  Communications satellites – connect places  Relay telephone calls  Relay messages  Send and receive television signals. Write a report based on the information above. Your report must include the following; *function of satellites *benefits of satellites any other relevant information. ______________________________________________________________________________ a) Artificial SatellitesAs we move into the new era of globalization, the world starts changing and nowgadgets of modernization begin to escalate in production numbers and usage.Many of these technologies are however connected to each other in order to workat optimum level. One of the Earth’s most powerful and needed instrument of Atechnology are the orbiting and floating objects in space called satellites. A One of the satellites that we use daily is the Earth Resources Satellites. This typeof satellites is placed in the outer space and is used to take pictures of the earth’ssurface. It is very useful when concerning agriculture as it provides information P1regarding the earth’s geology which is crucial in finding suitable places for E1farming. Besides that, it is also used to study rocks and minerals available on earth. E1This, in turn helps in increasing economic growth of a country through the E1discovery of natural resources and farmland. Another useful and widely used satellites are the Meteorology satellites or theWeather Monitoring satellites. As the name goes, this type of satellites predicts the E2weather and many of them are placed in space to fulfill the task. They help the E2weather forecasters in their weather prediction, and whether a thunderstorm or a E2typhoon is approaching. This helps to save lives by informing in advance of E2P2incoming weather hazards like floods and tsunamis that might besiege the place. E2 Military satellites assist in the country’s defense system. They can detect anincoming foreign objects or entry of intruders via air, land or sea. This is vital in E3protecting the country from potential enemies and at the same time, making E3preparations against sudden enemy attacks. This helps in keeping the country safe E3and ensuring no entrance of intruders that might harm the country. Military E3satellites also help in search and rescue mission. Twenty four of these satellites are P3E3needed to form the Global Positioning System (GPS) that indicates the location of E3a particular missing troop or person, hence assisting in the search and rescue E3mission. Navigation satellites on the other hand, ensure the navigators stay on course. P4Ships and aeroplanes are given navigation from these satellites to help them reach E4their destination. Navigation satellites are also used nowadays by the navigation
  4. 4. system in cars where it helps to seek alternative roads in times of need like during E4emergencies or traffic jams. In addition, these satellites also help in informing E4incoming dangers or turbulence in the sea or sky and at the same time giving E4directions to alternative routes. Communication satellites connect places as they relay messages and telephone P5 P7calls. With the help of these satellites, communications can occur from varying P6E5places, near or far. One could be in Japan and make a phone call back to Malaysia E6or even as far as the North Pole. Communication satellites have improved theirvitality and usage as years passed and nowadays we could even send video images E7through cell phones and with the mechanism of 3G we could communicate in E6various ways. These satellites also help to send and receive television signals. It is P8via these satellites that we are able to watch live telecast of football matches and E8all other live events on television. Satellites may be categorized according to their orbits. The higher the orbit of a Asatellite, the longer the period taken for one orbit. The Low Earth orbits are placed Aat an altitude of 400 kilometres. On the other hand, the Geostationary satellites AAhave high orbits and are positioned at a height of 36 000 kilometres above the AAEarth’s equator and take exactly one day to complete an orbit. A The existence of satellites has benefited us a lot. Besides ensuring our safetythey also keep us in track of everything around us and improve the system ofcommunication. Malaysia too has launched three satellites of its own and they are AMEASAT 1 and MEASAT 2 in 1996 and MEASAT 3 was launched in 2006. Even AAthough launching of satellites demands large capital their existence is much needed Aas they play vital role in many aspects. AReported by,DR RAMLI BIN HUSIN
  5. 5. QUESTION: Genetic engineering is being carried out worldwide because it is said to bringmuch benefit to mankind. However, some people say that genetic engineering does more harmthan good. As a scientist, what is your opinion on this? Using the information given below,write an essay giving your viewpoint. Benefits Drawbacks *more and better crops that are resistant to *genetically modified food cause pests and diseases degenerative diseases in mice *more productive farm animals that are *cloned animals –age prematurely, shorter resistant to diseases lifespan *can help human beings-treat degenerative *genetically engineered microorganisms can diseases such as Alzheimer be used for biological warfare *grow transplant organs in the laboratory-no *cloning of human beings-morally and need for donors ethically wrong Recommendation: need for code of ethics in genetic engineeringIn your essay, you must include the following*your opinions on the topic*the reasons to support your opinion*your recommendation._______________________________________________________________ Genetic EngineeringHave you ever wondered how much the world has changed in the past twentyyears? Thanks to modern technology, people today are spoilt for choices. A Asimple task like buying an apple could get sophisticated, as nowadays we getto choose between a conventional apple and a genetically modified one. In Athis era of globalization, genetic engineering is being carried out worldwidebecause it is said to bring much benefit to mankind. However, some people saythat genetic engineering does more harm than good. Based on my 27 years ofexperience as a scientist, I firmly believe that genetic engineering does moregood than harm. In this report, I am going to share with you my thoughts,opinions and justifications on the choice that I have made. It is undeniable that genetic engineering benefits us in one way or another.Take a genetically modified red apple and place it beside a conventional redapple. Now, observe and compare these two apples based on their sizes, colourand overall appearance. It is crystal clear that the genetically modified or GMapple is much larger in size, is even more red in colour and even tastier. Take a AAAbite from both the apples and you would find that the GM apple is sweeter, E1juicier and crunchier compared to conventional apple. This shows that genetic E1engineering produces not only more and better crops that are resistant to pestand diseases but also food of better taste. Not long ago, an outbreak of a crop P1 E1disease in Malaysia caused farmers to lose a large amount of their harvest as AAtheir crops were infected by the disease. Genetically modified crops areresistant and able to withstand diseases. Hence, farmers can save cost as they E1don’t have to buy any pesticides, herbicides or insecticides. The drawback of a E1genetically modified crop is that when eaten by certain people, it could causean allergic reaction. When a new gene is introduced, it may create a new Aallergen and cause allergic reaction to certain people. AA Genetic engineering brings about more productive farm animals that are
  6. 6. resistant to diseases. These farm animals also produce meat of better quality P2 E2and live longer. E2 Genetic engineering also benefits human medically as it can help intreating degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer. This is done by growing P3brain cells in a nutrient culture and then placing them in the affected area of the E3brain. The same method is used to treat patients with head injury and brain E3damage. As the number of patients on the waiting lists for donors is increasing E4by the second, a lot of people can benefit from genetic engineering as organsfor transplants can be grown in the laboratory. With this, there is no need towait for donors. Hence, a lot of lives can be saved. P4 E4 Genetic engineering can be misused to clone human beings. This act is P8morally and ethically wrong. However some scientists argue that humancloning will produce organs for life-saving transplants. On the other hand, E8cloned animals have been found to age prematurely and have shorter lifespan. P6This is proven by Dolly, the world’s first cloned mammal which was born in E6E61997. Dolly lived for only six years, compared with the average lifespan of 11 E6E6years for a normal sheep. The success rate of cloning is also very low: 1 out of E6267. E6 Another drawback is genetically modified food cause degenerativediseases in mice. This finding cause an alarm as it shows that a similar effect P5can be brought to human as consumers of genetically modified food. In E5tackling this problem, The Ministry of Health has prepared a Draft Regulation Aon Genetically Modified Food which requires all GMFs that are to be sold Alocally and abroad must be approved by the Director General of Health. The Adraft also requires all GMFs to be labeled before they are marketed. A Scientists have also produced genetically-engineered microorganismswhich can be used for biological warfare. These microorganisms are developed P7to withstand antibiotics and therefore they are seriously deadly if used against E7E7enemies. Though genetic engineering has its drawbacks, all these could be resolvedif we establish a code of ethics which must be adhered to. Thus we are guided Rby what we could and could not do in genetic engineering. In the long run, Agenetic engineering will surely benefits us more than it does harm.Written by,RAMLI BIN HUSIN
  7. 7. Question: As a reporter for a science magazine, you have been assigned to write an article on how infectious diseases can be prevented. Based on the information below, write out the article.  P1 Harmful effects of microorganisms – viruses, bacteria, fungi spread infectious diseases  P2 Airborne diseases – sneezing, coughing  P3Contaminated water sources  P4Food – improper handling  P5 Physical contact – sharing of personal belongings  P6 Vectors – houseflies, mosquitoes  P7Personal hygiene  P8 Control of vectors – biological control  P9 Immunisation – boost resistance  P10 Health campaigns Your article should include the following:  Harmful effects of microorganisms  Prevention and treatment  Any other relevant information Your article should be about 200 words. How Infectious Diseases Can Be Prevented Creations in life are from enormous things like massive balls of fire in space to the tiniest beings barely visible to the naked eye such as the viruses and bacteria. People do realize the dangers that can be caused by meteors if they penetrate the Earth’s atmosphere but they seldom think about microorganisms that may cause quite a similar adverse effect. Microorganisms are organisms that can only be observed through a microscope or preferably an electron microscope. Not all microorganisms are harmful to humans but the ones that cause diseases are known as pathogens. Pathogens include viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Their harmful effect is that they cause and spread infectious diseases. A good example is the HIV virus which causes a fatal disease, AIDS which can be transmitted through exchange of body fluids like blood transfusion. Diseases caused by these microorganisms can be spread by three main methods, which are direct contact, water as well as vectors. Diseases spread by direct contact are referred to as contagious diseases as they are easily transmitted from one patient to another. Examples of air-borne diseases are influenza and tuberculosis which can easily be spread by sneezing and coughing. Diseases are also spread by contaminated water sources. These water sources might contain pathogens that can cause cholera and hepatitis A. Due to improper handling of water from industries and homes, toxic waste and sewage are easily flowed into ponds and seas. Not only do they affect humans, they also affect the aquatic life. The destruction of coral reefs due to these for example will lead to the extinction of certain species of marine life. Vectors like houseflies and mosquitoes spread harmful diseases too. Improperhandling of food such as not covering food on the table may attract insects such ashouseflies. When a housefly walk over faeces and other food, pathogens may betransferred. Black spots of fly ‘dirt’ and the fly’s saliva can also transmit otherdiseases to those who later consume the food. Mosquitoes transmit diseases by biting
  8. 8. an infected person and injecting the infected blood to another victim. The pathogenslater will develop in the body of the new host and this can bring fatal diseases likemalaria and dengue fever. In order to prevent ourselves from getting infected by all these diseases, apersonal and simple way, is to take care of personal hygiene. A person has to takebath regularly and wash hands after going to the toilet to ensure optimum cleanliness.It is known that diseases, normally skin diseases are spread by physical contactthrough sharing of personal belongings. As a method of prevention, do not share yourpersonal belongings like your towels with anybody else. This action will reduce thepossibility of transmitting and contracting such diseases. Another way to prevent these infectious diseases is by using biological control tocontrol vectors. Biological control refers to using nature rather than chemicals likepesticides and insecticides. This is regarded as the best method as it does not bringadverse effects to the environment. Such example is to keep fish in ponds such as theguppies which feed on mosquito larvae in ponds. Aside from that, infectious diseases can also be prevented by immunisationprogrammes. Immunisation is a process that protects a person before he or she isattacked by certain microbes. This includes two main types of immunity which arepassive immunity and active immunity. These two are further divided into naturallyacquired immunity and artificially acquired immunity. Your body can be triggeredinto producing antibodies for certain diseases. This can be done by having vaccinesinjected into your body. Vaccines are made from heat-treated bacteria and viruses orfrom the toxins that they produce which are incapable of harming the body. Once avaccine is injected into a person, it will induce the person’s immunity system toproduce antibodies as a defence against them. Thus, your body builds up immunityagainst that particular disease. Normally a booster dose of vaccines will be given laterto ensure that the level of antibodies in the body is enough to boost resistance againstparticular diseases. Immunisation, which protects against many dangerous diseases, isan important health control measure. Immunization programmes conducted bygovernment health departments require school-children to be immuned againstseveral dangerous diseases including rubella and polio. Infectious diseases can also be treated by using drugs. A pathogenic bacterium,fungus or worm can be treated with a certain drug or a combination of multiple drugs.The drug is known as antibiotic and can kill the pathogens such as bacteria that causediseases like syphilis and tuberculosis. Examples of antibiotics are streptomycin,tetracycline and penicillin. Penicillin was the first antibiotic to be used to treatwounded soldiers in World War II. The government also has to play a role in the prevention of infectious diseases. Away to do this is by organizing health campaigns particularly in schools so that theyounger generation understands the importance of preventing infectious diseases. Maintaining good health is vital in making sure that we can do our daily activitiesand chores. Thus we should be health conscious and not take matters that mightthreaten our health lightly. The Black Death plague that had occurred years beforeperished thousands of lives due to rats as vectors. Therefore let us all practice themethods of prevention as to avoid similar occurrence from reoccurring.Written by,NADIA KAMARUDDIN
  9. 9. QUESTION : Methods Of Waste Disposal Landfills ( L ) Incineration ( I ) Reduction Campaign ( R ) Description *Bury waste in a hole * burning of waste * campaign- reduce, reuse, Recycle * restore mining grounds, * clean * reduce waste, Advantages quarries * quick solution resources * good management and * education- ways to control - successful reduce waste Disadvantages :* poor management * expensive * a long term plan * contaminate water * waste of resources * not all materials resources can be reused or recycledWrite a report and include the following:  a method of your choice  comparison of the three methods  reasons for choosing the method  any other relevant information.To : The Director, Seremban City Council.From : Chief Engineer, Seremban City Council.Subject : Method Of Waste Disposal Based on the detailed findings of the three methods, I have chosen ReductionCampaign as the potential method of waste disposal. Reduction campaign is chosen Choicemainly because of its advantages such as reducing wastage of resources. Depletion ofnatural resources will give rise to various environmental problems that can threatenour life. Hence, reduction campaigns which encourage people to reuse, reduce andrecycle must be taken seriously as this can reduce the negative effects to theenvironment. On the other hand, landfills where waste is buried in holes have the advantage ofrestoring mining grounds and quarries. In addition, with good management andcontrol, this method can prove to be a success. Restoring mining grounds and quarrieswill ensure no wastage of land and balance of nature is not upset. Good managementof waste includes dumping of waste according to the types of waste as well as propermanagement of leakage and methane gas which is the by-product of decomposition ofwaste. The construction of a landfill requires a well-planned approach and the primaryconcern is the location of the site. If the construction is not up to the predefinedspecifications added with poor management, landfills may lead to pollution of thelocal environment such as contamination of the water resources. Thus, it is vital thatlandfills are high above the groundwater table so as to avoid the leakage andcontamination problem. Poor management of landfills may also give rise toaccumulation of vectors in the area which can cause the spread of diseases. Thereforethese adverse effects of landfill operations make it less desirable as a method of wastedisposal. Another method of waste disposal is incineration. This method involves burning of
  10. 10. waste at high temperature. This type of waste treatment is also described as thermaltreatment. Even though this waste treatment method proves to be clean, the cost of itsconstruction is too expensive making it too costly to set up. Building and operatingincinerators involve a lot of money and require long recovery of investment capital.No doubt that it is a quick solution to waste treatment as it takes only a few hourscompared to the other methods, but it is a complete wastage of resources as everythingwill be burnt where in actual fact, some can still be reused or recycled such as glass orplastic bottles. As the world’s population increases, there is more demand for basic needs andconsequently more waste will be produced. This high amount of waste, if not properlymanaged, will upset the balance of nature and cause environmental problems likepollution and depletion of natural resources. Hence, reduction campaign should becarried out extensively as it is the responsibility of every individual to help managethe environment better. In the year 2000, the Ministry of Housing together withvarious local councils allocated RM 5 million to increase the awareness andimportance of recycling. About 2360 bins were distributed and placed at strategicplaces to collect the recyclable items. This has proven to be a success until today. Another effective way to reduce waste is through education which teaches theyoungsters the right way to reduce waste. Schools for example can organize recyclingcampaigns where students are required to collect waste materials such as paper,aluminium cans, glass and plastics and send them to recycling centres to produce newaluminium cans, new glass bottles and plastic materials. They should also beencouraged to reuse old things such as old plastic bottles that can be turned intoflower vases. Proper education should introduce school children to the many ways ofreusing synthetic polymers which not biodegradable. These polymers if disposedanywhere or in open landfills without being processed, will remain in the environmentfor a long time and at the same time polluting the environment. Likewise, used tyrescan be tied together and lowered into the sea bed to function as artificial reefs. Theseartificial reefs can act as a breeding ground for fish It is no doubt that not all materials can be reused or recycled and reductioncampaigns need a long term plan to reach all levels of society especially in educatingthe public on the 3Rs as they are so used to throwing all unwanted items, but in myopinion this is still the best method as reduction campaigns help to conserve andpreserve our natural environment. Of course certain wastes like food remnants andgarden wastes cannot be recycled but this type of waste actually is of minimumamount. And some very harmful waste like cyanide can lead to death. This typecannot be recycled and need to be treated carefully at a special waste treatment plantsuch as ‘Pusat Kualiti Alam’ in Nilai, Negeri Sembilan. Thus, the obvious alternative to landfills and incineration method is reductioncampaign. To reduce waste, we can use it to produce compost which is humusproduced from the decomposition of organic substances such as domestic and gardenwastes. The purpose of producing compost is to reduce the amount of garbage and toreturn useful minerals back into the soil. In recent years, some countries such as Indiaand Netherlands have used animal dung to produced energy. Hence, based on the reasons stated, I strongly propose reduction campaign as themethod of waste disposal.By;IR ELYAS B RAMLI,Chief Engineer,
  11. 11. Seremban City Council.Question:Study the information given below regarding water pollution.• Waste water and rubbish from domestic use channeled into drains and rivers cause water pollution.• Industrial waste and effluents discharged from factories into rivers affects quality of water.• Chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in farming are washed into water sources.• Rubbish dumped at landfills leaks during heavy rainfalls contaminates water sources.• Water pollution poses threats to humans and other living organisms.• Stench from water-logged areas causes discomfort to residents.• Educate public on proper ways to dispose of rubbish.• Enforce stringent laws to offendersWrite a report on this topic. Your report must include the following:• the causes of water pollution• the effects of water pollution• any other relevant informationYour report should be about 200 words in length.ANSWER Water Pollution A Water is essential to life on Earth, all living things need it in order to survive AAand flourish. Water is the major constituent of living matter – between 50 and 90 per AAcent of the weight of all living organisms, from microscopic bacteria to giant blue Awhales, is water. On our planet, water exists in all three states of matter: as a solid in Athe form of ice, as a liquid in the forms of freshwater and seawater, and as a gas in theform of water vapour. However, C1 EC1 Waste water and rubbish from domestic use channeled into drains and rivers is EC1one of the causes of water pollution. This will result to clogged drains and polluted AArivers. Clogged drains will in turn cause flash floods during heavy rains. Flash floodsare floods that occur quickly, usually within six hours of the start of heavy rainfall. AAAlthough flash floods tend to occur quickly and last only a short time, they can still be EC1devastating because they normally come with little warning. For the people who use EC1EC1rivers as their main sources of water, they will be at risk of contracting water-borne EC1diseases since contaminated water often contains pathogens such as vibrio cholera thatcauses cholera which may lead to fatality. C2 EC2 Industrial waste and effluents discharged from factories into rivers affect the quality EC2of water. The industrial waste and effluents mainly composed of acidic toxic wastes EC2which may pollute the rivers. This will result to low oxygen level in the water. Notonly that, this hazardous toxic waste is highly poisonous for aquatic organisms. C3 Another major contributor of water pollution is the use of chemical fertilizers and EC3pesticides in farming activities which are often washed into rivers and other water EC3sources during heavy rains. Nitrates, nitrites and phosphates from chemical fertilizers EC3induce the rapid growth of algae. Consequently, the oxygen content of the water will EC3decrease as the bacteria decomposers require a lot of oxygen to decompose the EC3abundant amount of dead algae. Pesticides on the other hand contain toxic substances
  12. 12. and when consumed by aquatic organisms may lead to their death. C4 Water pollution may also arise due to landfills. Rubbish dumped at landfills often EC4leaks during heavy rainfall and this can contaminate our water sources such as the EC4underground water. Therefore landfills require good management of waste which EC4 EC4includes dumping of waste according to the types of waste as well as proper EC4management of leakage and methane gas which is the by-product of decomposition of EC4waste. To prevent leakage, the construction of a landfill requires a well-plannedapproach and suitable site. Thus it is vital that landfills are high above the groundwatertable so as to avoid the leakage and contamination problem. C5 Water pollution gives rise to many effects and poses threats not only to humans butalso other living organisms. Apart from reducing the oxygen content of the waterwhich may result to death of aquatic organisms, water pollution also give rise to manywater borne diseases such as cholera and hepatitis A. For example, if human waste isreleased into rivers, pathogens can enter the water system and infect many people. Incertain areas, sewage, which is urineReported by;ELYAS AIMAN BIN RAMLI