ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
THEME: NATURE & ENVIRONMENT
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***Text book ( unit 1 – unit 3 )
WORKING HAND IN HAND TO CLEAN UP BRANTAS RIVER
1 In the past, the Brantas River, which runs through Malang, provided thousands of people with
their daily water needs. In those days, people used the water from the river for drinking, cooking
2 Previously, people also used to throw household waste into the river without causing much
harm. The waste was mostly organic and so was biodegradable. For example, goods that people
bought in the market were wrapped in banana leaves, which quickly rotted away.
3 In the 50’s, however, plastic was introduced to wrap goods. Plastic does not disappear
quickly, and it is a toxic substance. There were now many items in household bins that were
dangerous to the environment. At the same time, factories and industries appeared, and these
caused serious problems, as they dumped their waste in the river.
4 At first, people didn’t notice that there was anything wrong. The river usually carried away all
the garbage and people forgot about it. But then the amount of garbage increased with the increase
in population and the number of factories, thus the river became blocked in places. Blockages, were
often due to metal and plastic items which did not rot away. This meant that the garbage stayed in
the same place and the water became polluted. It became unsafe for drinking it was also unpleasant
to be near the river as it stank from all the rotting garbage.
5 People began to grumble about the Brantas river condition. Everyone was aware of the
situation, and so when the Malang municipal authorities set up a campaign to clean up the river, the
residents were keen to be actively involved. After all, gotong royong, or community service is part of
6 On that gotong royong day, 30,000 residents of Malang turned up to participate. It was a
wonderful thing to see old and young, men and women, army personnel and students working hand
in hand on this environment project. Their faces were full of joy and camaraderie: differences of
race, age, rank, and religion were set aside. Nothing stopped them from taking part, not even
slippery roads, the bad smell of water, heavy rain, or the heat of the sun: they were determined to
get the job done.
7 Even though each person cleaned just a small part of the river, the collective effort of all
those people succeeded in cleaning up the river. Nobody could take a drink of water from it, and it
took some time before fish lived in it again, but the community had taken a vital step. Each person
after that day looked at the river with pride; it belonged to each one of them and each had taken
care of it. They knew that they had to continue to take care of it to make sure the coming
generations could enjoy the Brantas river.
A) Meaning in context; write the meaning of the following words/ phrases
hand in hand
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B) Write out the main ideas and supporting details in each paragraph.
Paragraph Main ideas Supporting details
C) Writing Practice ( Text book, page 40 )
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PAPER 6355/1 : SECTION A (20 marks )GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
Part 1: Read the following text and complete the given task.
Petrologists (scientists who study rocks) define rocks as any natural mass of mineral
matter that make up the Earth’s crust. According to them, there are three main groups of
Igneous rock is found from magma that is pushed out of the volcano or onto the Earth’s
surface. If the magma cools quickly, it becomes a black, fine-grained volcanic rock called
basalt. If the magma cools slowly, the rock is coarse-grained and is called granite.
Sedimentary rock is made from sediments formed by the erosion and weathering of
other rocks. The sediments are carried by wind or water to the sea. Here, these sediments are
deposited and hardened to form rocks. An example of sedimentary rock would be sandstone.
Sandstone is made from grains of sand which have been naturally cemented together.
Sedimentary rock is also formed by the deposition of minerals by living organisms. For
example, chalk is formed from millions of tiny calcium carbonate (lime) skeletons.
Another type of rock would be the metamorphic rock, also known as changed-rock. This
rock is changed over time by heat and pressure. When rock is subjected to heat and pressure,
new minerals are formed, altering the characteristics of the rocks. An example is slate, a hard
rock formed by mud and clay. It splits easily into thin sheets.
Based on the information in the text, complete the table below.
(1) _____________ (2) _____________ (3) _____________
(4) _____________ (5) _____________ (7) _____________
_____________ _____________ _____________
(8) _____________ (9) _____________ (10) ____________
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Part 2: Read the following text and complete the given task
Volcanoes can be grouped into three main types, based largely on their eruptive patterns and
their general forms. Scoria cones are the smallest type, with heights generally less than 300 metres
and have straight sides with steep slopes and very large summit craters. Scoria cones are generated
by Strombolian eruptions which produces eruptive columns of basalt tephra generally only a few
hundred metres high. Paricutin in Mexico is one example of cinder cone.
On the other hand, shield volcanoes have very gentle convex slopes. Their heights are
typically about 1/20 of their widths. Their overall broad shapes result from the extrusion of basalt
lava. Shield volcanoes are generated by Hawaiian eruptions. The Mauna Loa volcano on the big
Island of Hawaii is the world’s largest shield volcano.
Stratovolcanoes are the most picturesque and the most deadly of the volcanoes and the most
deadly of the volcano types. Their lower slopes are gentle but they rise steeply near the summit to
produce an overall morphology that is concave in an upward direction . The summit area is typically
contains a surprisingly small summit crater. The compositional spectrum of these rocks types may
vary from basalt to rhyolite in single volcano. However. the overall average composition of
stratovolcanoes in andesitic. The eruptive history of most stratovolcanoes is delineated by highly
explosive Plinian eruptions . One classic example is Mount Fuji in Japan.
Based on the information from the text, complete the graphic organizer below.
VOLCANO VOLCANO ERUPTION NAME OF
TYPES SHAPES TYPE VOLCANO
Scoria cones 1. 5 8
*Large summit craters
Shield 6 9
volcanoes *Have broad shapes
Stratovolcanoes 7 10
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As a reporter for a science magazine, you have to write a report about global warming. Use
the information given in the table below to write the report.
Causes Effects Solutions
* Man made gases are * Higher temperature * Reduce the use of fossil
trapped and build up in fuel
the atmosphere * Health problems
* use more energy efficient
* Burning of fossil fuels * Rising sea levels- products
depletion of coastal
* Deforestation resources * Cut down on the use of
* Open burning * Loss of plant and animal
species * Plant more trees
* Dumping of too much
rubbish * Droughts and intense * Reduce rubbish
In your report you must;
Include its causes, effects and solutions
Use all the content points given
Provide any other relevant information
Your report should not be less than 200 words.
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Causes Effects Solutions
P1. Man made gases are P6 Higher temperature P11 Reduce the use of fossil
trapped and build up *the increasing greenhouse Fuel
in the atmosphere gases especially carbon *we are using non-renewable
*man made gases are mainly dioxide causes heat to be energy from fossil fuels at an
greenhouse gases trapped in the atmosphere alarming rate.
*such as carbon dioxide, and leads to Earth’s average *use more renewable energy
methane, nitrous oxide and temperature increases sources which does not
chlorofluorocarbon. * Scientists predicted that contribute to high concentration
*these gases in turn trap the earth’s temperature may of carbon dioxide in the
heat in the atmosphere and rise by 1.5 C to 4.5 C by atmosphere.
causes global warming which 2030. *eg are solar energy,
can cause climate change *Sea water becomes warm hydroelectric, geothermic and
and ecosystem destruction and thus decline in wave energy.
P2 Burning of fossil fuels food web will be affected P12 Use more energy
*Combustion sources such efficient Products
as motor vehicle exhaust, P7 Health problems *cars which use solar energy to
smoke form fires, engine *High level of carbon dioxide reduce the combustion of fossil
fumes can lead to respiratory fuels.
*Produce greenhouse gases problem *improve fuel efficiency in
such as carbon dioxide which *carbon monoxide poisoning motorised vehicles
traps heat from the sun are headaches, nausea and *and also in factories by
giving rise to an increase in fatigue modifying the engines and
temperature *high concentration of lead machines
*combustion of fossil fuel can retard mental
can give rise to the presence development in children. P13 Cut down on the use of
of lead in the environment vehicles
which is hazardous to health P8 Rising sea levels- * a lot of greenhouse gases
depletion of coastal come from the burning of fossil
P3 Deforestation resources fuels from motor vehicles
*the act of extensive cutting *one of the most significant * carpool, use
down or burning trees in a coastal resources is the * use public transport such as
forest mangrove swamp which are trains and buses
*vast areas of forests are rich in biodiversity. * advisable to walk or cycle to
cleared for extracting timber *Mangrove swamps play an short distances. Not only
or fuel wood, agriculture and important role in flood preserving the environment, but
urban development control, coastal erosion also good exercise for the body.
*causes weather and climatic prevention, sediment control
changes and as a barrier against P14 Plant more trees
*cutting of trees will reduce strong sea waves *vegetation can affect both
rainfall, transpiration rate * mangrove trees are also temperature and precipitation
and the rate of using carbon used for piling construction. patterns in an area.
dioxide during These resources will deplete *Plants can influence how much
photosynthesis by plants sun’s energy is absorbed and
*carbon dioxide prevent heat P9 Loss of plant and how quickly energy is released
from escaping from the animal species *forest reserves are gazetted
atmosphere. Thus, the level *global warming leads to *Organize campaigns for
of carbon dioxide increases extinction of plants and Replanting programmes
and global temperature also animals species due to very *Reforestation ensures that
increases which leads to high temperature. forests are renewed. Restoration
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global warming. * eg loss of habitat for seals activities should be conducted to
and penguins due to melting restore damaged forests.
of polar ice. * forests play an important role
P4 Open burning *as a consequence, it in regulating the climate and
*open burning of rubbish, reduces biodiversity and the concentration of carbon dioxide.
farms and forests release source of food and valuable
more carbon dioxide into the medicines for humans. P15 Reduce rubbish
atmosphere which *damage of leaf cells and *Rubbish should be sorted into
aggravates global warming chlorophyll, thus reducing recyclable and non-recyclable
*people who like to practise photosynthesis and killing materials.
quick solution to garbage the plants. *management of resources
disposal resort to open includes the 3R concept, which
burning. P10 Droughts and intense are reduce, reuse and recycle of
*replanting in oil palm Rainstorms resources
plantation requires the old *drought due to global * these include newspapers,
trees to be felled and warming causes land to dry. glass, bottles and aluminium
removed from the area. *ecosystem becomes cans.
*decomposition of these unstable as the producers, *reducing rubbish helps in the
requires long period of time. the plants are not able to conservation of the environment
*Heavy fines should be thrive
imposed on people who carry *intense rainstorms can lead
out open burning to massive floods and loss of
properties and lives.
P5 Dumping of too much
*dumping of too much
rubbish cause depletion of
*for instance when papers
are thrown, more trees will
be cut down to produce new
*cutting down of more trees
will encourage the
accumulation of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere
and this give rise to an
increase in the temperature
*decomposition of too much
rubbish will produce more
methane which is one of the
* this also will trap heat from
the sun causing earth
temperature to rise.
1. The world’s population has increased exponentially, reaching over 6 billion today.
2. As human population grows, there is an increasing demand for shelter, food, medicine, transport and raw
3. Expectation of better living conditions, better mode of transport and industrial revolution have brought
about clearing of more forest to grow food, build factories, houses and roads
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4. The negative effects of unplanned development and mismanagement of ecosystem give rise to various
environmental problems such as global warming
5. Laws prohibiting random tree felling, hunting and farming must be enforced
6. Concerted effort from all countries in the world to combat global warming. Conferences at international
level to increase awareness on the dangers of global warming.
7. Education is the best way to teach the public on the need to maintain a balanced ecosystem.
8. Through formal education in schools, colleges and universities
9. Informal education through mass media, campaigns, seminars, pamphlets, posters ans documentaries.
10. Earth Hour campaign
Students often think that greenhouse effect and global warming are the same phenomenon. Greenhouse
effect occurs naturally and is essential to keeping the atmosphere warm for living things to survive on
Earth. Global warming on the other hand, is an increase in temperature of Earth’s atmosphere that may be
caused or influenced by human activities.
Greenhouse effect: is a natural warming of Earth’s surface. The major gases are water vapour and carbon
dioxide. The greenhouse gases are transparent to incoming solar radiation and therefore much of this energy
reaches the earth’s surface. Most of this energy is reradiated skyward. But too much of greenhouse gases will
revert the solar back to Earth.
Global warming: as a result of an increase in greenhouse gases particularly carbon dioxide, more heat from the
sunlight is absorbed and stored in these gases, thus increasing the global temperature of the Earth’s surface.
Depletion of The Ozone Layer: Ozone layer is in the stratosphere. When exposed to CFC the chlorine atom in
CFC will attract one of the three of oxygen atoms and thus destroys the ozone molecules. Consequently, the
ozone layer will be depleted. This in turn will allow the UV light (UV-B) to reach the surface of our planet.
Exposure to UV light can cause health hazards eg skin cancer, destruction of food chain, climatic change.
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organic Produced by or existing in living things
biodegradable That can be absorbed back into the earth naturally and so do not harm the
rot Decompose/ To go bad as part of natural process
hand in hand together
camaraderie Spirit of togetherness/ friendship
community All the people who live in a particular area
Paragraph Main ideas Supporting details
1 The Brantas River provided thousands People used the water from the river
of people with their daily water needs for drinking, cooking and washing
2 People throw household waste into the The waste was mostly organic and
river without causing much harm. biodegradable
3 *In the 50’s plastic was introduced and -
it is a roxic substance
*Many items in the household bins
were dangerous to the environment
*factories and industries dumped their
waste in the river causing serious
4 - *Blockages which did not rot away
*Water pollution/ water became
*Air pollution/ river stank from the
5 The malang municipal authorities set *gotong royong or community service
up a river cleaning campaign
6 - 30,000 people participated willingly in
7 - It is a continuous process for the
benefit of the future generations
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1. Igneous rock
2. Sedimentary rock
3. Metamorphic rock
4. Magma that is pushed out of the volcano or onto the earth’s surface
5. Erosion and weathering of other rocks
6. Deposition of minerals by living organisms
7. Changed over time by heat and pressure
8. Basalt/ Granite (or both)
9. Sandstone/Chalk (or both)
1. Straight sides with steep slopes
2. Very gentle convex slopes
3. Gentle lower slopes, but steep upper slopes
4. Small summit craters
9. Mauna Loa
10. Mount Fuji
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Global warming is one of the most hotly debated topics in the world. The world’s leading
environmentalists insist that we are on the verge of global warming. Global warming is defined as the increase of
average temperature on Earth. The global temperature for the past four decades has been warm but human
activities have led to an even warmer earth. Contrary to what the environmentalists think, the sceptics continue
their defence that there are natural reasons that are yet to be unveiled. Is there a scientific consensus on global
Human activities are the main cause of global warming. Human activities cause the concentration of
greenhouse gases to increase significantly over these years. Man made gases are trapped and build up in the
atmosphere. One of the most notable greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is harmful to the
environment in large amount. This gas forms a blanket around the earth that traps heat from the sun and prevent
the heat to escape into the space. As a result, global temperature increases and causes catastrophic events to the
Since fossil fuels such as petroleum and natural gas are introduced to power up engines, it has been an
important component in the motoring industry. However, the products from the burning of some fossil fuels are
not environment friendly. As the motoring industry has become more productive for the last few years, it has
cause the amount of carbon dioxide to skyrocket. Not to mention, pollutants such as carbon monoxide, smoke
and dust are also produced. In addition, open burning is also another cause of global warming. Open burning on a
large scale to clear the forest for agricultural purposes has negative impacts on the environment.
Deforestation is also a cause of global warming. Since there are fewer trees on earth, the amount of
carbon dioxide and oxygen in the atmosphere become imbalanced. There is too much carbon dioxide but too little
oxygen in the atmosphere. Furthermore, dumping of too much rubbish in open landfills can produce another
greenhouse gas believed to be the culprit to global warming which is methane. Methane causes similar effects like
carbon dioxide, blanketing the earth and trapping heat from the sun.
Global warming has brought erratic changes to the environment and our lives. Higher temperature has
caused some grassland to become desserts. There is less space for agricultural activities to be carried out. This can
cause famine in some poor countries that are fully dependant on agricultural products for food. In addition, the
habitats of floras and faunas are altered and these disrupt the balance of ecosystem that inevitably leads to loss
of plants and animal species.
Moreover, the earth is experiencing drastic weather changes. Particularly, droughts and intense
rainstorms are occurring more frequently in some parts of the world. Natural disasters especially tornadoes and
flood are happening frequently and with greater effects. The melting of ice and glaciers in the North and South
Pole have caused rising sea levels. Coastal areas have the tendency to be affected by flood and this can lead to
depletion of natural resources. Health problem such as hypotension can occur during a heat wave.
Therefore, what can we do to stop global warming? We cannot stop global warming in a few years but we
can, however mitigate the effects of global warming. Firstly, we should reduce the use of fossil fuels. Research
and development in finding the most suitable, eco-friendly fuels that are being carried out at a progressive rate.
For example, biomass fuel is obtained from the decaying of dead organisms and organic matter. We should also
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use more energy-efficient products to save electricity. We should take the initiative to cut down the use of
vehicles. Instead, walk or ride a bicycle if you are going to a place nearby your house.
We should plant more trees through reforestation. More trees on earth means lower amount of carbon
dioxide and this can help to decrease the high temperature on earth. We should reduce rubbish by dispensing
them the right way. We must throw rubbish into a rubbish bin. Incinerators can be used to eradicate rubbish in a
Thus, we should all give our cooperation to stop global warming from destroying our home planet. This is
to ensure that our future generations can live a comfortable and safer life. Remember, we do not inherit the
environment but merely borrowing It from our children.
(MOHAMMAD NAJMI BIN MOHAMMAD SAZALI)
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THEME: NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT 22 JAN 2010
Study the information given below regarding water pollution.
P1• Waste water and rubbish from domestic use channeled into drains and rivers cause water pollution.
P2• Industrial waste and effluents discharged from factories into rivers affects quality of water.
P3• Chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in farming are washed into water sources.
P4• Rubbish dumped at landfills leaks during heavy rainfalls contaminates water sources.
P5• Water pollution poses threats to humans and other living organisms.
P6• Stench from water-logged areas causes discomfort to residents.
P7• Educate public on proper ways to dispose of rubbish.
P8• Enforce stringent laws to offenders
Write a report on this topic. Your report must include the following:
• the causes of water pollution
• the effects of water pollution
• any other relevant information
Your report should be about 200 words in length.
Water is essential to life on Earth, all living things need it in order to survive and A
flourish. Water is the major constituent of living matter – between 50 and 90 per cent AA
of the weight of all living organisms, from microscopic bacteria to giant blue whales, AA
is water. On our planet, water exists in all three states of matter: as a solid in the A
form of ice, as a liquid in the forms of freshwater and seawater, and as a gas in the A
form of water vapour. A
Waste water and rubbish from domestic use channeled into drains and rivers is P1
one of the causes of water pollution. This will result to clogged drains and polluted E1
rivers. Clogged drains will in turn cause flash floods during heavy rains. Flash floods E1
are floods that occur quickly, usually within six hours of the start of heavy rainfall. AA
Although flash floods tend to occur quickly and last only a short time, they can still be
devastating because they normally come with little warning. For the people who use AA
rivers as their main sources of water, they will be at risk of contracting water-borne E1
diseases since contaminated water often contains pathogens such as vibrio cholera E1E1
that causes cholera which may lead to fatality. E1
Industrial waste and effluents discharged from factories into rivers affect the
quality of water. This industrial waste which can be in the solid and liquid form is P2 E2
composed of acidic toxic wastes which may pollute the rivers. This will result to low E2
oxygen level in the water. Not only that, this hazardous toxic waste is highly E2
poisonous for aquatic organisms. If corrosive waste is disposed into drains, it will E2
change the PH value of water in lakes and rivers and harm the aquatic ecosystem. E2 E2
Besides corrosive waste, toxic industrial waste and effluents also can contain heavy
metals such as mercury, lead, arsenic and cadmium. These heavy metals will E2
accumulate in the body and disrupt the functions of organs such as the brain, heart E2 E2
and kidney. E2
Another major contributor of water pollution is the use of chemical fertilizers and
pesticides in farming activities which are often washed into rivers and other water P3
sources during heavy rains. Nitrates, nitrites and phosphates from chemical fertilizers E3 E3
induce the rapid growth of algae. Consequently, the oxygen content of the water will E3
decrease as the bacteria decomposers require a lot of oxygen to decompose the E3
abundant amount of dead algae. Pesticides on the other hand contain toxic AE3
RH/EST Panel/SASER 10 Page 14
substances and when consumed by aquatic organisms may lead to their death. E3
Water pollution may also arise due to landfills. Rubbish dumped at landfills often
leaks during heavy rainfall and this can contaminate our water sources such as the P4
underground water. Therefore landfills require good management of waste which E4
includes dumping of waste according to the types of waste as well as proper E4
management of leakage and methane gas which is the by-product of decomposition E4 E4
of waste. To prevent leakage, the construction of a landfill requires a well-planned
approach and suitable site. Thus it is vital that landfills are high above the E4E4
groundwater table so as to avoid the leakage and contamination problem. E4
Water pollution gives rise to many effects and poses threats not only to humans
but also other living organisms. Apart from reducing the oxygen content of the water P5E5
which may result to death of aquatic organisms, water pollution also give rise to
many water borne diseases such as cholera and hepatitis A. For example, if human E5 E5
waste is released into rivers, pathogens can enter the water system and infect many E5 E5
people. On the other hand, excessive fertilizers washed into lakes and rivers can
cause algal blooms. When the algae decay, oxygen in the water will be used up by the E5
decaying process. This causes fish and other aquatic population to die. The whole E5
process is called eutrophication. E5
Another effect of water pollution is stench from water-logged areas causes
discomfort to residents. The dumping of waste into water areas such drains and P6
rivers is often done by unscrupulous people. Little regard of concern is given to this E6
act of dumping as long as it can help people to save cost on proper disposal method. E6
To them, it is of little consequences if they throw their rubbish and human waste into
the water as it is the easiest and fastest way to get rid of unwanted waste. The stench E6
from clogged drains for example can be unbearable and this can tarnish our tourism E6 E6
industry. Besides, dirty rivers choked with rubbish are breeding grounds for E6
mosquitoes and rodents which are carriers of diseases. E6
To curb water pollution, formal and informal education play a major role to E7 E7
educate the public on proper ways to dispose rubbish. The curriculum of our formal P7
education system contains environmental pollutions related issues. This is to create E7 E7
awareness of environmental problems such as water pollution among the younger E7
generation. Informal education includes variety of activities like public campaigns and E7
gotong royong that have been organized by the government and non-government E7 E7
organizations. These activities are carried out to educate the public on the E7
importance of preventing water pollution. E7
Another effective method to stop water pollution is to enforce stringent laws to P8
offenders. Relevant authorities should set up check points to curtail illegal dumping E8
to avoid the consequences that it may bring upon the environment. Factories or E8
individuals who are caught responsible for this despicable act should be fined with E8
heavy penalty and licence of the factories concerned should be revoked. E8 E8.
In conclusion, if this human-made water pollution issue is not tackled immediately A
there will be more disasters and diseases in our society. It is everyone’s responsibility A
to help overcome this water pollution problem. We do not want all our waterways
end up as dead rivers that even fish cannot survive. We want our rivers to stay clean AA
and alive where our children can treasure the greatest gift of nature. The future AA
generation is rightfully entitled to inherit sustainable living environment. A
ROGAYAH BINTI HARON
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