Mendelian exceptions 11 3


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  • Mendelian exceptions 11 3

    1. 1. Mendelian Exceptions Chapter 11 Section 3
    2. 2. Mendel’s Principles Revisited <ul><li>Inheritance of biological _____________ is determined by individual units known as ______. </li></ul><ul><li>During sexual reproduction, genes are passed from parents to _________. </li></ul><ul><li>Two or more forms of the gene for a single _____ exist, some forms of the gene may be _________ and others may be recessive. </li></ul>characteristics offspring genes trait dominant
    3. 3. Mendel’s Principles Revisited <ul><li>Organisms typically have ____copies of each gene, (one from each _______) </li></ul><ul><li>An organism’s _____ of genes (2 alleles) are segregated from each other when ________ are formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Alleles for different ______ usually segregate _____________ of one another. (through meiosis) </li></ul><ul><li>(Law of Independent Assortment) </li></ul>independently parent two gametes genes pair
    4. 4. Independent Assortment in Peas __ Round yellow __ Round green __ Wrinkled yellow __ Wrinkled green 9 3 3 1
    5. 5. Incomplete Dominance <ul><li>In incomplete dominance, neither allele is __________ so there is a blending of ______ when two different alleles for the same trait occur together. </li></ul><ul><li>Colors blend together </li></ul><ul><li>(______________ individuals = 3 rd phenotype) </li></ul>dominant traits heterozygous red white pink
    6. 6. Incomplete Dominance <ul><li>In Four O’ Clocks, if you cross a red _____ (which is always pure) with a white _____ (that is also always pure) , you get a pink _____ (which is always hybrid / heterozygous </li></ul>RR WW RW RW RW RW RW
    7. 7. Incomplete Dominance <ul><li>In another flower, if red ____ and blue ____ flowers are crossed, they produce a 3 rd purple ____ flower </li></ul><ul><li>What would be the genotype ratio and phenotype ratio if you crossed two purple flowers? </li></ul>RR BB RB
    8. 8. Incomplete Dominance <ul><li>Cross of two purple flowers ____ X ____ </li></ul><ul><li>What are gamete possibilities? </li></ul><ul><li>genotype ratio </li></ul><ul><li>1RR : 2RB : 1BB </li></ul><ul><li>phenotype ratio </li></ul><ul><li>1red : 2 purple : 1 blue </li></ul><ul><li>Can you have a heterozygous red or hybrid blue flower? ___ </li></ul>B R R B BB RB RR RB red purple purple blue RB RB no
    9. 9. Codominance <ul><li>Both _______ contribute to the phenotype of the organism by showing up simultaneously (at the same time) in heterozygous </li></ul><ul><li>individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>In cattle and horses, if you cross a pure ____ ( RR) with a pure ______ (WW), you get (RW) which produces the color _____ . </li></ul>alleles red white roan
    10. 10. Codominance <ul><li>These cattle or horses actually have both red and white hairs intermixed, or are spotted. Roan is a third ___________ . </li></ul><ul><li>If you cross a roan with a white… </li></ul>W W R W WW RW RW WW phenotype roan roan white white
    11. 11. Codominance <ul><li>Andalusian chickens also show this pattern of inheritance. </li></ul><ul><li>If you cross a black (BB) chicken </li></ul><ul><li>With a white (WW) chicken </li></ul><ul><li>You get black+white speckled (BW) chicken </li></ul>
    12. 12. Multiple Alleles <ul><li>In this pattern of inheritance, the genes have more than _____ alleles controlling them and are therefore said to have multiple alleles. No individual has more than _____ alleles, but there are more than _____ possible alleles in a population, so a ______ will be expressed in more than two forms. </li></ul>two two two trait
    13. 13. Multiple Alleles <ul><li>Blood type in humans is an example of this inheritance pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>The ______ different blood groups: </li></ul><ul><li>A, B, O, and AB </li></ul><ul><li>Are produced by ______ different alleles: </li></ul><ul><li>A, B, and O </li></ul>four three OO only O AB only AB BB or BO B AA or AO A Genotype Phenotype
    14. 14. Multiple Alleles <ul><li>Examples of Blood type crosses </li></ul>
    15. 15. Multiple Alleles Phenotype (Blood Type Genotype <ul><li>Blood Groups </li></ul>Antigen on Red Blood Cell Safe Transfusions To From
    16. 16. Multiple Alleles <ul><li>The example of _______ hair color, which has at least four different alleles, (on text pg 273) is seen in these different Rex rabbits. </li></ul>rabbit
    17. 17. Polygenic Traits <ul><li>Traits controlled by two or more genes </li></ul><ul><li>Show a wide range of phenotypes </li></ul><ul><li>The phenotype is produced by the interaction of more than ________ of genes. </li></ul>1 pair
    18. 18. Polygenic Traits <ul><li>These are called ___________ traits, which means “having _______ genes”. </li></ul><ul><li>In humans, _____ color, </li></ul><ul><li>_____ color, </li></ul>polygenic many skin eye
    19. 19. Polygenic Traits <ul><li>These are called ___________ traits, which means “having _______ genes”. </li></ul><ul><li>In humans, _____ color, </li></ul><ul><li>_____ color, </li></ul><ul><li>and _____ color </li></ul>polygenic many skin eye hair
    20. 20. Polygenic Traits <ul><li>These are called ___________ traits, which means “having _______ genes”. </li></ul><ul><li>In humans, _____ color, </li></ul><ul><li>_____ color, </li></ul><ul><li>and _____ color </li></ul><ul><li>are just a few of the many traits __________ by many genes. </li></ul>polygenic many skin controlled eye hair
    21. 21. Polygenic Traits <ul><li>Sometimes the combination of the different genes results in continuous __________ of these traits. </li></ul><ul><li>The combined size of all the ______ parts from head to foot, determines the _______ of the person. </li></ul>variation body height James Bond Height Chart