G2G google books


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Slides to my presentation as part of the Book Builders Boston Gutenberg to Google Two panel on Google Books, April 20, 2010

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G2G google books

  1. 1. The Book Search, The Lawsuits & The Settlements
  2. 2. Asaf Hanuka’s illustration for California Lawyer .
  3. 3. Asaf Hanuka’s illustration for California Lawyer . Also available as a 13 x 19” print from asafhanuka.com
  4. 4. An Academic View
  5. 6. 83 libraries
  6. 12. A Publisher’s View
  7. 14. <ul><li>Limited Preview </li></ul><ul><li>No Copying </li></ul><ul><li>No Printing </li></ul><ul><li>No Ads </li></ul>
  8. 15. books
  9. 17. How Does Google Books Work? <ul><li>Similar to search, books allows users to search over 9MM works by author, title or within complete text. </li></ul><ul><li>Users can read snippet, preview or complete work based on copyright. </li></ul><ul><li>Users can not copy text in print & in ©. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  10. 18. How Does Google Books Work? <ul><li>Users limited to what they can see, but Google has entire texts in database for search. </li></ul><ul><li>Opt-out model for publishers and authors. </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright owners can request for complete removal from database when opting out. </li></ul>
  11. 19. History of Google Books (2005-2006) <ul><li>Early 2005 - Google Print works with Harvard, Stanford, Oxford, the New York Public Library, and the University of Michigan. </li></ul><ul><li>Fall 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Print renamed Google Book Search. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google Partner Program & Google Books Library Project renamed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Authors Guild files a lawsuit against Google for copyright infringement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Association of American Publishers file a lawsuit challenging Google's digitization. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fall 2006- The University of California System, Complutense University of Madrid, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Wisconsin Historical Society, and the University of Virginia libraries join the digitization project. </li></ul>
  12. 20. History of Google Books (2007- 2008) <ul><li>May 2008 - Microsoft Book Project folds. </li></ul><ul><li>Fall 2008 - The Association of American Publishers, the Authors Guild, and Google announce the settlement agreement, which resolves both lawsuits. In addition to other terms, Google will make payments totaling $125 million (U.S.) and establish a Book Rights Registry to help publishers and authors control how their copyrighted works are accessed. </li></ul><ul><li>November 2008 - Google reaches 7 million books scanned. </li></ul>
  13. 21. History of Google Books (2009-2010) <ul><li>September 2009 - DOJ voices concerns over settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>November 2009 - Amended Settlement released: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access limited to titles published in US only. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes some user identification in Book Search info in BRR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights holders have until March 9, 2012 to request removal of title from database. After that date, identified titles will be pulled from viewing but still part of database. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights holders can change status of title (Creative Commons!!) and set purchase price to $0. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>February 2010 - DOJ still not satisfied with settlement. </li></ul>
  14. 22. Access Matrix
  15. 23. Google & Publishers <ul><li>Agreements: offer preview of in-print, in-copyright works from publisher. </li></ul><ul><li>Publishers determine which titles, how much to show, & what can earn ad revenue. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually sell POD titles through Google. Terms based on agreements. </li></ul>Image: Barbier, Dupont, A. Dubost at Versailles, http://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/3048511340
  16. 24. Fair Use <ul><li>Google provides full-text for PD, all others are limited preview… </li></ul><ul><li>But Google maintains entire text in database. </li></ul><ul><li>Fair Use for users but not for Google. </li></ul>
  17. 25. settlement
  18. 26. The Settlement <ul><li>70/30 (63/37) split. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a Book Rights Registry. </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries have limited access. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows Google to digitize books published before 2009 where a rights-holder has not opted out. </li></ul><ul><li>Google can exclude books from search and alter text (with permission of rights holder). </li></ul><ul><li>Give Google control of sales on Orphan Works. </li></ul>
  19. 27. Settlement & Public Domain <ul><li>Anything published previous to 1923 is in the PD. Google has close to 2 million PD titles </li></ul><ul><li>Google provides these complete text for free to US. </li></ul><ul><li>Google can place ads and sell POD versions. </li></ul>
  20. 28. Settlement & Publishers <ul><li>Publishers will control titles under agreements with Google in place. </li></ul><ul><li>Publishers will receive payment for authors like other royalties. </li></ul><ul><li>63% of revenues goes to publisher. </li></ul><ul><li>Covers books published before January 9, 2009. </li></ul>
  21. 29. Settlement & Competition <ul><li>Settlement creates a Book Rights Registry to act as an intermediary &quot;passing pricing decisions to Google and payments to copyright owners.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Future companies will need to create a similar registry as BRR is separate from Google but tied to it. </li></ul>
  22. 30. Settlement & Access <ul><li>Consumer- Google will start selling access to complete texts in copyright. </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries will have access to their files through one computer in the library. </li></ul><ul><li>Publishers can limit access to sample material through their arrangements with Google. </li></ul>
  23. 31. Image by rsd-http://www.flickr.com/photos/psd/102333292
  24. 32. <ul><li>If Google isn’t the only game in town for the entire back catalog, a remarkable number of other concerns become much less serious. Google cannot hook libraries using drug-dealer pricing (the first time is free) if it has serious competition. Botched scans are not the end of the story if there is another source for the pages. Terms and conditions will be fairer if negotiated in a competitive market. And so on and so forth. Fixing the exclusive licensing regime in the settlement is an absolutely necessary condition for competition to be feasible. </li></ul><ul><li>-James Grimmelmann, The Google Book Search Settlement: Ends, Means, and the Future of Books </li></ul>
  25. 33. Monopoly <ul><li>DOJ see this settlement as monopolistic. Google controls/ limits prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition? </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement and Registry pertains only to Google. </li></ul>
  26. 34. Orphan Works <ul><li>Doesn’t resolve questions about Orphan Works & copyright. </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement gives Google the right to price & sell OP work. Will hold money until author shows up (if they do). </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement and Registry pertains only to Google. </li></ul>
  27. 35. Privacy <ul><li>Bookstores & Patriot Act </li></ul><ul><li>Google & China </li></ul><ul><li>Book Registry includes data on users. How much will Google share? </li></ul>Image by Hyku: http://www.flickr.com/photos/hyku/368912557/sizes/s /
  28. 36. http://epic.org/privacy/googlebooks/default.html
  29. 37. Quality <ul><li>Who checks quality of scans? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fingers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Missing text </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems with metadata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Titles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjects </li></ul></ul>Image by bcostin: http://www.flickr.com/photos/bcostin/32024966
  30. 38. Resources <ul><li>Publicindex.org </li></ul><ul><li>Google Book Bibliography - Charles W. Bailey, Jr. </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratorium - James Grimmelmann </li></ul>