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Leadership and Management CIPD UK Assignment Sheet


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Understanding Organisations & The Role of Human Resources (Assessment 3 PDL F210B) by Rodzidah Mohd Rodzi

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Leadership and Management CIPD UK Assignment Sheet

  1. 1. 1 Certificate in Learning & Development Practice Assessed Coursework Cover Sheet Student Name : Rodzidah bt Mohd Rodzi IC : 791103-10-5336 Organisation : CIAST, Shah Alam Unit Title : Understanding Organisations & The Role of Human Resources Unit Code : 3PDL F210B Coursework Component : Written Assignment Date of Submission : 27 July 2012
  2. 2. 2 Activity 1 Write a report that ; Question 1 1. Explains the principles of adult learning and the learning cycle. Answer PRINCIPLES OF ADULT LEARNING 1. ACTIVE LEARNING (Dialogue) : Adult learning is best achieved through dialogue. Adults have enough life experience to dialogue with any trainer about any subject and will learn new attitudes or skills best in relation to that life experience. Dialogue needs to be encouraged and used in formal training, informal talks, one-on-one counseling sessions, or any situation where adults learn. 2. SPACED LEARNING: Make people feel comfortable making mistakes. Adults are more receptive to learning when they are both physically and psychologically comfortable.  Psychological comfortable (spaced between each module / activities / theory lectures)  Physical surroundings (temperature, ventilation, overcrowding, light) can affect learning.  Learning is best when there are no distractions.
  3. 3. 3 3. RESPECT: Appreciate learners‘ contributions and life experience. Adults learn best when their experience is acknowledged and new information builds on their past knowledge and experience. 4. AFFIRMATION: Learners need to receive praise for even small attempts. People need to be sure they are correctly recalling or using information they have learned. 5. REINFORCING: Start with the easiest ideas or skills and build on them. Introduce the most important ones first. Reinforce key ideas and skills repeatedly. People learn faster when information or skills are presented in a structured way. 6. PRACTICE: Practice first in a safe place and then in a real setting. 7. MULTIPLE SENSE LEARNING : Learning takes place through thinking, feeling, and doing and is most effective when it occurs across all three. 8. THEORY OF FORGETTING (20/40/80 RULE): Learners remember more when visuals are used to support the verbal presentation and best when they practice the new skill. We remember 20 percent of what we hear, 40 percent of what we hear and see, and 80 percent of what we hear, see and do. 9. RELEVANCE TO PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE: People learn faster when new information or skills are related to what they already know or can do. Immediate relevance: learners should see how to use and apply what they have learned in their job or life immediately. Future relevance: People generally learn faster when they realise that what they‘re learning will be useful in the future.
  4. 4. 4 10. WHOLE/ PART LEARNING: Help people learn from each other and solve problems in team or individual together. This makes learning easier to apply to real life. 11. PROMOTE SELF ESTEEM: Involve learners‘ emotions and intellect. Adults prefer to be active participants in learning rather than passive recipients of knowledge. People learn faster when they actively process information, solve problems, or practice skills. 12. TRANSFER OF LEARNING: Ensure that learners understand and know how to put into practice what they have learned. 13. MOTIVATION: Wanting to learn • People learn faster and more thoroughly when they want to learn. The trainer‘s challenge is to create conditions in which people want to learn. • Learning is natural, as basic a function of human beings as eating or sleeping. • Some people are more eager to learn than others, just as some are hungrier than others. In one person there are different levels of motivation. • All the principles outlined will help the learner become motivated. 14. MEANINGFUL MATERIAL : • Messages should be clear. • Words and sentence structures should be familiar. Technical words should be explained and their understanding checked. • Messages should be VISUAL. 15. FEEDBACK: Feedback informs the learner in what areas s/he is strong or weak.
  5. 5. 5 LEARNING CYCLE Learning Cycle - Kolb LEARNING CYCLE – KOLB Reflective practice is important to the development of trainers as professionals as it enables from experiences of training and facilitating student learning. Developing reflective practice means developing ways of reviewing our own teaching so that it becomes a routine and a process by which we might continuously develop. Kolb developed a theory of experiential learning that can give a useful model by which to develop practice. This is called The Kolb Cycle, The Learning Cycle or The Experiential Learning Cycle. The cycle comprises four different stages of learning from experience and can be entered at any point but all stages must be followed in sequence for successful learning to take place.
  6. 6. 6 The Learning Cycle suggests that it is not sufficient to have an experience in order to learn. It is necessary to reflect on the experience to make generalisations and formulate concepts which can then be applied to new situations. This learning must then be tested out in new situations. The learner must make the link between the theory and action by planning, acting out, reflecting and relating it back to the theory.  Concrete Experience (doing / having an experience) The 'Concrete Experience' is the 'doing' component which derives from the content and process of the programme - through attending the workshops or, in the case of the on-line module, learner‘s reading of the on-line learning materials - together with their actual experience and practices.  Reflective Observation (reviewing / reflecting on the experience) The 'Reflective Observation' element stems from learner‘s analysis and judgements of events and the discussion about the learning that engage in with their mentor, colleagues and fellow participants. People naturally reflect on their experiences of teaching, particularly when they are new to it and less confident in their abilities or when an experience has been painful. For example this might be through own self-reflections or evaluations after the event through keeping a log or journal. It may also include student feedback, peer observation of teaching (e.g. comments made by your mentor or colleague), moderation of assessments, external examiner comments, discussions with your mentor or a fellow participants . All of these can be brought together to give an overall reflection on practice. Reflection in itself, though, is insufficient to promote learning and professional development. Twenty years' experience may consist of twenty years teaching the same content in the same way, Unless we act on our reflections of ourselves and on the opinions of others then no development takes place.
  7. 7. 7  Abstract Conceptualisation (concluding / learning from the experience) In order to plan what would do differently next time, addition to reflections is needed on experience - to be informed by educational theory e.g. through readings of relevant literature on teaching and learning or by attending staff development or other activities. Reflection is therefore a middle ground that brings together theories and the analysis of past action. It allows learners to come to conclusions about our practice - 'Abstract Conceptualism'.  Active Experimentation (planning / trying out what you have learned) The conclusions formed from 'Abstract Conceptualisation' stage then form the basis by which changes are planned - 'Active Experimentation'. 'Active Experimentation' then starts the cycle again when those changes implemented in teaching practice to generate another concrete experience which is then followed by reflection and review to form conclusions about the effectiveness of those changes.
  8. 8. 8 Question 2 2. The 4 different styles of learning and potential barriers to learning. Answer Many people recognize that each person prefers different learning styles and techniques. Learning styles group common ways that people learn. Everyone has a mix of learning styles. Some people may find that they have a dominant style of learning, with far less use of the other styles. Others may find that they use different styles in different circumstances. By recognizing and understanding person‘s learning styles, it is better to use suited techniques. This improves the speed and quality of learning.
  9. 9. 9 LEARNING STYLES  Visual (spatial): prefer using pictures, images, and spatial understanding. The occipital lobes at the back of the brain manage the visual sense. Both the occipital and parietal lobes manage spatial orientation.  Aural (auditory-musical): prefer using sound and music. The temporal lobes handle aural content. The right temporal lobe is especially important for music.  Physical (kinesthetic): prefer using your body, hands and sense of touch. The cerebellum and the motor cortex (at the back of the frontal lobe) handle much of our physical movement.  Social (interpersonal): prefer to learn in groups or with other people. The frontal and temporal lobes handle much of our social activities. The limbic system (not shown apart from the hippocampus) also influences both the social and solitary styles. The limbic system has a lot to do with emotions, moods and aggression. POTENTIAL BARRIERS TO LEARNING i. Visual impairment Learners are required to read, take notes in lectures and seminars, use computers, watch and learn from demonstrations and take part in practical activities in laboratories, workshops or on field trips. They may be asked to look at a picture or watch a video, then assimilate information and analyse meaning and content.
  10. 10. 10 Some of these barriers can be minimised through changes in teaching strategies, the support of an assistant, or the use of a specialist piece of equipment. Others require an alternative way of doing things, such as an alternative method of assessment. ii. Deafness For some deaf and hard of hearing students, background noise can be heard but human speech is difficult to understand. An induction loop linked to a hearing aid amplifies words spoken into a microphone and can make them more distinct, but comments from other people are not heard unless they also speak into a microphone. Some rooms are built in a way that emphasises unwanted noise and causes more difficulty. Learners who became deaf after they learned to speak may be able to speak sufficiently well that others assume that they can hear quite well, and suitable adjustments for ensuring good communication may not be made. Unfamiliar vocabulary can cause misunderstandings unless the context is given. New words should be written on the board, and an understanding of explanations should be checked with all students. iii. Specific learning difficulties Specific learning difficulties are quite varied, as are the barriers to learning that students may face. Some have limited short term and working memory, so that information can be quickly forgotten. This applies particularly to instructions, so learners may not be able to recall what they should do next. Learners may appear to be careless, although they can often work things out quickly in their own way. There may be repetition and persistent errors in spelling, number or grammar, although oral skills can be good. Note taking is difficult and reading can be slow, particularly for those with visual– perceptual disturbance. Organisation, time management and sequencing can cause
  11. 11. 11 difficulties, and what is being said may be misunderstood, particularly if things are moving quickly. There may be confusion between left and right. Some learners find it difficult to speak out in class or to do a presentation, finding that their words get jumbled and they forget the words they need. They can be easily distracted and find it hard to concentrate where there are other things going on. Others may have difficulties with coordination and find it difficult to use unfamiliar equipment. iv. Mental health difficulties Barriers to learning with mental health difficulties may be related to their symptoms or to the side effects of their medication. Prescribed drugs may have unwelcome side effects , both psychological (e.g. increased anxiety, disorientation) and physical (e.g. stiffness, nausea, dizziness) that may have a significant impact on daily living and study. Barriers to learning can also be due to an environment that does not recognise and meet their needs. They may be directly related to study but can also be due to problems with everyday living. - Difficult to manage symptoms Psychological distress and other difficult to manage symptoms can make it extremely difficult to concentrate on learning. Symptoms include anxiety and panic, disorientation, extreme emotions such as sadness or elation, and altered perception such as hearing voices. Unmanageable symptoms may cause major problems with attendance. Learners coping with distress and mood swings may feel ‗unsafe‘ and unable to cope with appearing in public or using public transport to get to university.
  12. 12. 12 - Unrealistic or inappropriate expectations Some learners with mental health difficulties find it difficult to see the ‗big picture‘ or to make rational judgments about what is required from them as a learner, which may lead to difficulties in setting achievable goals. This can also be one of the reasons why some learners with mental health difficulties do not make the best use of the support strategies that are available to them. - Sleep problems and fatigue Problems in these areas can seriously affect attendance and punctuality, particularly for early morning lectures, and can impact on staying power and the ability to meet challenging deadlines or complete complex or large tasks. - Social difficulties Many learners with mental health difficulties have problems communicating with others, making friends and sustaining relationships, and may not behave appropriately in social contexts. As a consequence they can feel isolated from their peers and very lonely. These problems can also present a huge barrier to learning in modern universities, where effective communication of ideas and collaborative work is essential. v. Mobility, dexterity and chronic pain. They can be divided into aspects related to  the physical setting  training and learning  personal and social well-being.
  13. 13. 13 Physical setting - Inaccessible surroundings and the problems this causes may mean that learners cannot concentrate on their course. - A lack of space or allowances for wheelchairs, crutches, sticks and bags cause attention to be drawn to difficulties. - Training rooms, laboratories, libraries and research areas may be poorly designed and the height of tables, shelves, photocopiers and other equipment may pose access issues. - Insufficient use of non-slip surfaces both inside and out can lead to safety concerns. - A lack of awareness of the importance of keeping internal floor surfaces dry and clear of spills may lead to an increased hazard for those on crutches or whose balance is unsteady. Training and learning - Inflexible training styles affect all learners. For instance, not being willing to provide handouts electronically prevents students using text to speech software to aid reading, or from scrolling through the document when they are unable to turn pages. - Curriculum materials that are difficult to access may make it impossible for those using assistive technologies to work successfully. - A lack of awareness of individual needs, such as not pausing to allow a learners using a communication aid to ask a question, or not recognising that a learner may need to stand or change position, to take medication, or to leave the room to use the toilet during teaching times, can all lead to failure.
  14. 14. 14 - A lack of understanding concerning the pacing of the workload may cause undue fatigue and concern for those with mobility and dexterity difficulties. - A strict adherence to prescribed timescales, such as cut-off dates for coursework, can cause great concern for students who need to work at a slower pace. Personal and social well-being - A lack of awareness of a learner‘s expectations can present barriers to learning by undermining the determination that a student may have to successfully cope with a chosen course, despite what may be considered severe difficulties. A learner's over-ambitious expectations should be handled with care. - Constant accumulation of barriers, both social and physical, may affect the mental health of learners with mobility and dexterity difficulties. - A lack of discussion of hidden difficulties, such as poor memory or a short concentration span, the affects of medication, sleep problems, tiredness and fatigue may have an impact on skills and abilities.
  15. 15. 15 Question 3 3. Explain 4 organisational factors, including stakeholder requirements, which impact on the design of learning and development activities. Answer Impact on the design of learning and development activities No. Organisational factors 1 Stakeholder requirements Once, the purpose of the learning as well as who are the clients, next step is to determine exact learning requirements with the relevant stakeholders. The stakeholders involved could include: • the person to be trained—to get an idea of their: › current competency level › learning style, to structure the learning program to their benefit › general attitude towards work and training › future aspirations the learner’s supervisor— to get : › get their opinion of the learner‘s current competency (remember—what a person thinks they can do and what they can actually do may not necessarily be the same thing and it is important to get an outside opinion) › get specifi c information about how things should be done in their department and the standards to which they expect work to be carried out. • the organisation’s management—to get: › get a picture of where the training will fi t in with the organisation‘s overall staff policies. › learn about company standards, policies and procedures that may need to be included in the training. › determine the parameters of the training requirements. This could include
  16. 16. 16 discussions about: » timeframes for training » location of training » costs and other resources required » scale of the training • the organisation’s training manager: to discuss the learner‘s past history and training strategy for the future. 2 Purpose of learning event When developing a learning program, it is important to determine its intended purpose. Questions need to be asked about why the program is being run. This will substantially influence the delivery and assessment methods to be used. The purpose of the program may determine: • what topics need to be included • how the learning will be delivered • what assessment methods will be used • the range and depth of knowledge to be imparted. Organisations and individuals will require learning programs for a variety of reasons. These reasons could include: • doing an apprenticeship or traineeship—this involves on-the-job training over an extended period of time with a trainer visiting the learner at regular intervals to provide the ‗formal‘ training. • refreshing or updating current skills to ensure that staff continue to work to the desired standards; this may be a simple matter of highlighting information or reminding learners of policies, procedures or product and service facts. • learning a new skill or procedure—to improve employability skills or to enable staff to meet the required work standards; this may involve providing in-depth and/or complex information. • professional development (PD) training—as part of the organisation‘s ongoing staff development and/or to comply with government legislation dealing with staff competency standards. • developing vocational competency—for people who wish to pursue a nationally recognised qualification. • meeting legislation, licensing or registration requirements.
  17. 17. 17 • taking corrective action—where staff are not performing to the required standards and additional training is necessary. 3 Participant Profile Before analyse the learning needs of the clients, a clear understanding of target learner group must be identified. By finding out more about target learner group, the learning program that meets their needs will be accomplished. For example, is the target learner group: • people who are already in the workforce—who might have constraints on their time? • school graduates—who may have a limited knowledge of the business world? • special target groups—who have very specific training needs? • people who are already experienced in certain fi elds of business and who may only need a refresher course? • apprentices or trainees whose learning program may be delivered on the job over a period of years? • individuals learning new skills and knowledge or who wish to upgrade skills and knowledge? • individuals who wish to change their career path or prospects? • unemployed people who wish to improve their employability skills? • individuals on specialised learning programs, such as people with disabilities or Indigenous? • learners from other countries? • individuals or groups needing to meet licensing or other regulatory requirements? Target learner characteristics can also include : • their level and previous experiences of formal education • their current skill or competency levels • the level and breadth of their current and past work experience • their cultural background and any related needs
  18. 18. 18 • special needs—physical or psychological • their reasons and motivations for participating in the learning program • the language, literacy and numeracy abilities of learners • their learning style and preferences. 4 Organisation requirements This documentation should take the form of a training and assessment strategy and must include as much information as possible. For example, when proposing a full qualification course, the proposal should include: • the name of the organisation delivering the learning program • the timeframe over which the training will take place—this could be several hours, weeks or months depending on the complexity and formal nature of the program • the qualification code and name • the units of competency that will be included in the qualification • the target audience or clients • the training and assessment arrangements, including: › how the course has been structured—for example, will each unit be delivered as individual units or can they be clustered? › the delivery mode that will be used—for example, will the program be delivered in a training room, on the job or by distance? › how competency will be assessed—how will you ensure that learners are able to apply their new skills and knowledge? › what evidence will be collected to show competence—how will you provide proof (evidence) that the learner can, indeed, apply the new skills and knowledge? • which staff will be involved in delivering and assessing the program, as well as their qualifications • how the program will be or has been validated—how to ensure that the program is in line with industry and client requirements?
  19. 19. 19 Question 4 4. Explains the relevance of Equal Opportunities, Health & Safety and Data Protection legislation to the design of learning and development activities. Answer  Equal Opportunities There are three key ways to support and promote equality of opportunity to the learners in developing activities: 1. Designing and planning so that all learners have equal access to learning and development opportunities. 2. Choosing, designing and using learning materials that are accessible, do not reinforce stereotypes and that are representative for a diverse range of people. 3. Delivering learning events in ways that include all learners and that promote Organization policy on Equality and Diversity. Design and plan learning activities so that the learners have equality opportunities. - Include learners who work part-time or who have commitments (for example, people with caring responsibilities or certain religious commitments. Avoid early starts or late finishes. If more than one of the same event are running, vary the time and day of the week that it takes place. Always finish events on time. - Before the event, ask learners whether they have any accessibility, dietary (if relevant) or other requirements that need to be taken into account. A standard question to this effect should be included on the learners application form and/or pre-event information. For example: ‗If you have any accessibility or other requirements you would like us to be aware of, please inform us so that appropriate arrangements can be made.‘
  20. 20. 20 - When the learners states that they have access needs, make arrangements so that they can participate fully in the event. This may mean asking them for guidance on how best to meet their particular needs. - Don‘t assume learners have equal access to or experience of using computers, email and online material. Take this into account when advertising an event, providing pre or post- event material or discussing computer-based issues or resources. - Include everyone from the start. Make an effort to learn all participants‘ names at an early stage. Ask for their first name, given name or the name they prefer to be known by, rather than their first name. Check how to pronounce names, in order to help avoid the risk of people feeling excluded. Name cards or badges can help. - Make sure that all course members are encouraged to participate, that certain people do not dominate and that groups or individuals are not excluded from discussions or treated with less respect. Ground rules can be a helpful way to create a safe and inclusive learning environment. - Avoid making assumptions about the personal characteristics of delegates such as their sexuality or religious beliefs. When discussing different groups of people, try to avoid suddenly switching from ‗we‘ to ‗they‘. - Gender-specific language should be avoided where unnecessary. - Avoid labelling people or stereotyping. If someone raises an objection around the terminology used, ask them what their preferred term is and use that terminology if appropriate. - When referring to people with specific disabilities, avoid using negative language such as ‗confined to a wheelchair‘ or ‗she suffers with arthritis‘. Instead use terms such as ‗wheelchair user‘ and ‗she has arthritis‘.
  21. 21. 21 - The term ‗coloured is generally regarded as offensive. When referring to people from Asian, African Caribbean or other ethnic minority groups, the most commonly used term is ‗Black or ethnic minority‘. - Any course participants who display racist, homophobic, sexist or any other form of discriminatory behaviour should be challenged appropriately.  Health & Safety Health and safety in learning development is about preventing people from being harmed by learning or becoming ill through learning and the law applies to all businesses, however large or small. This health and safety information is concluded to all the trainers and learners. Contents: The Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) imposes a general duty on employers, self- employed, employees, suppliers and owners of premises to ensure that their workplaces are safe and offer no risk to health . Health & Safety Law - Health and safety legislation places a number of duties on organisations, managers and employees alike. Failure to carry out these duties can result in fines and, in extreme cases, imprisonment. Employers & Employees Duties - Making the workplace safe and without risks to health, so far is as reasonably practicable. The basic principle is that every employee must take reasonable care for the safety of themselves and of others who may be affected by their acts or omissions. Risks & Hazards - A Hazard is something in the workplace that has the potential to cause harm, damage or injury. Risk is the likelihood or severity of this happening. Safety Signs - One area of importance with regards safety is the use of safety signs. There are several types of safety signs that you will encounter. The Accident Investigation - 'An accident at work is an unplanned happening or event, with a specific cause or causes, which arises out of or in connection with work and leads to injury' Review of Session - Creating an action plan to embed learning.
  22. 22. 22 Objectives of the Health and Safety planning: - Identify the key responsibilities under the Health & Safety at Work Act - Recognise the learners and trainers responsibilities under the Act - Identify what is a hazard and how to control the risks while in the training room - State the health and safety control measures within the training place - Recognise the accident reporting process within the training place.  Data Protection Legislation Refer to the Data Protection Act , this act help to develop participants awareness of the data protection. Contents of Data Protection Legislation: - Who holds our personal information? - Identifying who holds our personal data. - What are the risks? - We discuss the risks to individuals arising from the data held about them. - What data is covered by the Act - We identify the type of data covered by the Act. - Conditions for processing data - A brief look at the conditions that must apply to enable us to process personal data. - The Data Protection Principles - We look at the Data Protection Principles, which we must comply with. This includes looking at some of the myths and realities of data protection.
  23. 23. 23 - Who can we give information to - A short activity to consider who we are able pass personal information to. - Identifying a caller - What security questions should we ask, to ensure we are talking to the person we think we are talking to? The main points should be compliance by participants in the Act are : i. Outline the rights of individuals set out in the Data Protection Act ii. Recognise ''Personal Data'' and ''Sensitive Personal Data'' as described in the Act iii. Handle data in accordance with the data protection principles set out in the Act Documents that protected under the Act are as below: i. Trainers Notes - A very detailed and concise explanation of what you should do during the session, complete with the comments you should make and notes on what to do during activities etc. This is a very detailed step-by-step way of training. ii. Workbook - This is a place for participants to add their action plans and learning, whilst also containing information about the course and a place to work on exercises and activities iii. Session Plan - Details what is included in the course, so delegates have complete awareness and the trainer can track course progress iv. PowerPoint Slides - All slides necessary to run the course. Please note: Our materials are not 'Death by PowerPoint'. The major content is in the Trainers Notes and all courses have been designed to be interactive rather than presentational v. Activities/Exercises - A detailed explanation of the activities/exercises used to consolidate learning (these are included in the trainers notes) vi. Pre-course Preparation - Advice on how to print out the slides in 'note' format to include in the workbooks and also any necessary preparation that is specific to the course.
  24. 24. 24 Question 5 5. Explains at least 3 different learning methods, 3 different learning resources / materials, the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the criteria for selection. Answer LEARNING METHOD – CRITERIA, ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES No. Learning Method & Criteria Advantages / Disadvantages 1 Classroom or Instructor-Led Training Instructor-led training remains one of the most popular training techniques for trainers. There are many types including: - Blackboard or whiteboard. This may be the most ―old-fashioned‖ method, but it can still be effective. - Overhead projector. This method is increasingly being replaced with PowerPoint presentations, which are less manually demanding. - Video portion. Lectures can be broken up with video portions that explain sections of the training topic or that present case studies for discussion. - Storytelling. Stories can be used as examples of right and wrong ways to perform skills. Advantages - Efficient method to large or small groups of learners. - Face-to-face type of training as opposed to computer-based training. - Everyone gets the same information at the same time. - Cost-effective - Storytelling grabs people‘s attention. Disadvantages - Sometimes it is not interactive. - Success of the training depends on the effectiveness of the trainer. - Scheduling classroom sessions for large numbers of trainees can be difficult—especially when trainees
  25. 25. 25 are at multiple locations. 2. Interactive Methods Breaking up training sessions and keep trainees attentive and involved, including: - Quizzes. For long, complicated training, stop periodically to administer brief quizzes on information presented to that point. - Small group discussions. Break the participants down into small groups and give them case studies or work situations to discuss or solve. - Active summaries. Create small groups and have them choose a leader then summarize the major points. - Q & A sessions. Informal question-and- answer sessions are most effective with small groups and for updating skills rather than teaching new skills. - Question cards. During the lecture, ask participants to write questions on the subject matter. Collect them and conduct a quiz/review session. - Demonstrations. Bring tools or equipment that are part of the training topic and demonstrate the steps. Advantages - Interactive sessions keep trainees engaged in the training. - Training more fun and enjoyable. - Provide ways for veteran employees to pass on knowledge and experience to newer employees. - Provide in-session feedback to trainers on how well trainees are learning. Disadvantages - Interactive sessions can take longer because activities, such as taking quizzes or breaking into small groups, are time-consuming. - Some methods, such as participant control, can be less structured, and trainers will need to make sure that all necessary information is covered. 3. Hands-On Training Experiential, or hands-on, training, offers several more effective techniques including: - Cross-training. Trainees experience other jobs, which not only enhances skills but also gives benefit of perform Advantages - Effective for training in new procedures and new equipment. - Immediately applicable to trainees‘ jobs.
  26. 26. 26 more than one job. - Apprenticeships. Opportunity to shape inexperienced to fit existing and future jobs. - Drills. Drilling is a good way to practice skills. Evacuation drills are effective when training emergency preparedness, for example. - Allow trainers to immediately determine trainee has learned. Disadvantages - Not good for large groups if do not have enough equipment or machines for everyone to use. - Apprenticeship can be expensive for paying who are being trained on the job and are not yet productive. 4. Computer-Based Training (CBT) Computer-based training formats vary from the simplest text-only programs to highly sophisticated multimedia programs to virtual reality. Consider the following types: - Text-only. The simplest computer- based training programs offer self- paced training in a text-only format. - CD-ROM. A wide variety of off-the-shelf training programs covering a broad range topics and available on CD- ROM. - Multimedia. These training materials provide stimulating graphics, audio, animation, and/or video. Multimedia tends to be more provocative and challenging and, therefore, more stimulating to the adult mind. - Virtual reality. Virtual reality is three- dimensional and interactive, immersing the trainee in a learning experience. Most virtual reality training programs take the form of simulation, which is a highly effective form of training. Advantages - Easy to use. - Often be customized or custom designed. - Good for helping employees develop and practice new skills. - Useful for refresher training. - Cost-effective, the same equipment and program can be used by large group. - Flexible because trainees can learn at their own pace at a time. - Computer-based programs are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. - Interactive, requiring trainees to answer questions, make choices, and experience the consequences of those choices.
  27. 27. 27 Disadvantages - Require trainees to be computer literate. - Require trainees to have computer access. - Little or no interaction with a trainer. - Not effective at teaching ―soft- skills,‖. - Not the best choice for new or one- time training. Trainers need live interaction to ensure new skills or concepts are being communicated. - Some poorly designed programs are ―boring‖ and result in trainees having a poor retention. LEARNING RESOURCES/ MATERIALS – CRITERIA, ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES No. Learning Resource/Material & Criteria Advantages / Disadvantages 1 Power Point. Presentation software is used to create customized group training sessions that are led by an instructor. Training materials are provided on CDROM and displayed on a large screen for any number of trainees. Trainees can also use the programs individually, which allows for easy make- Advantages: - Can easily input images - Templates are built in for different appearances - Can add notes pages - Can easily add media and recordings - More exciting than a simple word
  28. 28. 28 up sessions for trainees who miss the group session. This method is one of the most popular lecture methods and can be combined with handouts and other interactive methods. document or hand written presentation - Master slides make presentations consistent Disadvantages: - Some features such as animations and backgrounds can distract the audience from the actual information in the presentation - File size can become quite large on medium to large presentations - Some of the features can be quite complicated to use and even the simple features require some getting used to - When at work, you cant rely on someone else's computer or laptop to run your presentation, there are too many software conflicts and disk space barriers. - Takes quite a bit of time to create a complete presentation 2. Case study Adults tend to bring a problem-oriented way of thinking to workplace training. Case studies are an excellent way to capitalize on this type of adult learning. By analyzing real job-related situations, trainees can learn how to handle similar Advantages - Good source of hypotheses. - Provides in-depth information on individuals. - Unusual cases can shed light on situations or problems that are
  29. 29. 29 situations. They can also see how various elements of a job work together to create problems as well as solutions. unethical or impractical to study in other ways. Disadvantages - Vital information may be missingmaking the case hard to interpret - The person‘s memories may be selective or inaccurate - The individual may not be representative or typical. 3. Experiment An experiment is a method of testing - with the goal of explaining - the nature of reality. Experiments can vary from personal and informal (e.g. tasting a range of chocolates to find a favourite), to highly controlled (e.g. tests requiring complex apparatus overseen by hoping to discover information about subatomic particles). Advantages - Allows learners to control the situation. - Permits learner to identify cause and effect, and to distinguish placebo effects from treatment effects. Disadvantages - Situation is artificial, and results may not generalize well to the real world. - Sometimes difficult to avoid experimenter effects.
  30. 30. 30 4. Laboratory observation Laboratory Observation means observing the individual in a laboratory setting, paying close attention to his/her reaction or behavior. Advantages - Allows more control than naturalistic observation. - Allows use of sophisticated equipment Disadvantages - Allows researcher only limited control of the situation - Observations may be biased. - Does not allow firm conclusions about cause and effect - Behavior may differ from behavior in the natural environment Activity 2  Devise a Session Plan for a learning / training session, to meet an identified need. The plan should include at least 3 learning outcomes, 3 learning methods, 2 assessment methods and 1 evaluation method.  Produce two learning resources you have developed or materials for use within the learning / training session.
  31. 31. 31 Session Title: Emotional Intelligence at Work – Openness and Maturity Target Group : Human Resource Department (15 persons) Learning outcomes : at the end of the session, the participants will be able to - Identify the purpose of Emotional Intelligence at Work – Openness and Maturity Course - Explain meaning of Human Emotions - Define the significance of Openness and Maturity Emotional at Work - Describe the 5 Areas of Emotional Intelligence at work Topics (ASK needed) Learning Method Materials needed Assessment Evaluation Objectives for the session Ice breaking, Briefing: Greeting, Introduction, Slide to show the objectives and Poster of course Implementation. Presentations, Demonstrations, Power point Slide, Poster Relationship between Human Emotions, Openness and Maturity at work Demonstration, Discussion about emotional problems occurring at work, Storytelling. Power point Slide, Self Reflection, Handouts, Written materials During sessions observe, participants’ entry skill assessment, participants; ASK in practicing the Openness & Maturity (EQ) by answering questions and storytelling.
  32. 32. 32 Significance of Openness and Maturity Emotional at work (General, based on participants experiences and opinion) Participants discuss in group, lecture & coach, team meeting & briefing Activities, Group discussion, Presentations, Written Notes During sessions observe, participants’ pre assessment by assessing their ASK in group cooperation, presentation, illustrations and graphical produced by each group. 5 Areas of Emotional Intelligence at work : 1. Safe awareness and self control at work 2. Empathy at work 3. Social expertness at work 4. Personal influence at work 5. Mastery of Purpose and Vision at work Discussion of case study in group, plan acting presentation, discussion of problems in acting storytelling, application of knowledge and skills Written materials, Group discussion, case studies, presentations, role play, activities During session observe post assessment by participants’ ASK in group without lecturer guide, the assessment done through their teamwork.
  33. 33. 33 Individual Survey Form: 25 questions; using feedback form End of programme “reactionnaires”, Lecturer’s performance review, participants’ satisfaction.
  34. 34. 34 Learning Resources : Briefing of Introduction and Objectives of the Session Material : Power point Slide Introduction Powerpoint SlideSlide
  35. 35. 35 Learning Resources : Relationship between Human Emotions, Openness and Maturity at work Material : Poster Poster of the Significance of Emotional Intelligence
  36. 36. 36 Learning Resources : Significance of Openness and Maturity Emotional at work Material : Group Discussion Group 1 Presentation Work
  37. 37. 37 Group 2 Presentation Work
  38. 38. 38 Learning Resources : 5 Key Areas of Emotional Intelligence at work Material : Activities, Group Discussion, Role Plays, Presentation Powerpoint Slide and Poster