Leadership and Management CIPD UK Assignment Sheet
Learning & Development Practice
Assessed Coursework Cover Sheet
Student Name : Rodzidah bt Mohd Rodzi
IC : 791103-10-5336
Organisation : CIAST, Shah Alam
Unit Title : Understanding Organisations & The
Role of Human Resources
Unit Code : 3PDL F210B
Coursework Component : Written Assignment
Date of Submission : 27 July 2012
Write a report that ;
1. Explains the principles of adult learning and the learning cycle.
PRINCIPLES OF ADULT LEARNING
1. ACTIVE LEARNING (Dialogue) :
Adult learning is best achieved through dialogue. Adults have enough life experience to
dialogue with any trainer about any subject and will learn new attitudes or skills best in
relation to that life experience.
Dialogue needs to be encouraged and used in formal training, informal talks, one-on-one
counseling sessions, or any situation where adults learn.
2. SPACED LEARNING:
Make people feel comfortable making mistakes. Adults are more receptive to learning when
they are both physically and psychologically comfortable.
Psychological comfortable (spaced between each module / activities / theory
Physical surroundings (temperature, ventilation, overcrowding, light) can affect
Learning is best when there are no distractions.
Appreciate learners‘ contributions and life experience. Adults learn best when their
experience is acknowledged and new information builds on their past knowledge and
Learners need to receive praise for even small attempts. People need to be sure they are
correctly recalling or using information they have learned.
Start with the easiest ideas or skills and build on them. Introduce the most important ones
first. Reinforce key ideas and skills repeatedly. People learn faster when information or skills
are presented in a structured way.
Practice first in a safe place and then in a real setting.
7. MULTIPLE SENSE LEARNING :
Learning takes place through thinking, feeling, and doing and is most effective when it
occurs across all three.
8. THEORY OF FORGETTING (20/40/80 RULE):
Learners remember more when visuals are used to support the verbal presentation and best
when they practice the new skill. We remember 20 percent of what we hear, 40 percent of
what we hear and see, and 80 percent of what we hear, see and do.
9. RELEVANCE TO PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE:
People learn faster when new information or skills are related to what they already know or
Immediate relevance: learners should see how to use and apply what they have learned in
their job or life immediately.
Future relevance: People generally learn faster when they realise that what they‘re learning
will be useful in the future.
10. WHOLE/ PART LEARNING:
Help people learn from each other and solve problems in team or individual together. This
makes learning easier to apply to real life.
11. PROMOTE SELF ESTEEM:
Involve learners‘ emotions and intellect. Adults prefer to be active participants in learning
rather than passive recipients of knowledge. People learn faster when they actively process
information, solve problems, or practice skills.
12. TRANSFER OF LEARNING:
Ensure that learners understand and know how to put into practice what they have learned.
Wanting to learn
• People learn faster and more thoroughly when they want to learn. The trainer‘s challenge
is to create conditions in which people want to learn.
• Learning is natural, as basic a function of human beings as eating or sleeping.
• Some people are more eager to learn than others, just as some are hungrier than others.
In one person there are different levels of motivation.
• All the principles outlined will help the learner become motivated.
14. MEANINGFUL MATERIAL :
• Messages should be clear.
• Words and sentence structures should be familiar. Technical words should be explained
and their understanding checked.
• Messages should be VISUAL.
15. FEEDBACK: Feedback informs the learner in what areas s/he is strong or weak.
Learning Cycle - Kolb
LEARNING CYCLE – KOLB
Reflective practice is important to the development of trainers as professionals as it
enables from experiences of training and facilitating student learning. Developing reflective
practice means developing ways of reviewing our own teaching so that it becomes a routine
and a process by which we might continuously develop.
Kolb developed a theory of experiential learning that can give a useful model by which to
develop practice. This is called The Kolb Cycle, The Learning Cycle or The Experiential
Learning Cycle. The cycle comprises four different stages of learning from experience and can
be entered at any point but all stages must be followed in sequence for successful learning to
The Learning Cycle suggests that it is not sufficient to have an experience in order to learn. It is
necessary to reflect on the experience to make generalisations and formulate concepts which
can then be applied to new situations. This learning must then be tested out in new situations.
The learner must make the link between the theory and action by planning, acting out,
reflecting and relating it back to the theory.
Concrete Experience (doing / having an experience)
The 'Concrete Experience' is the 'doing' component which derives from the content and
process of the programme - through attending the workshops or, in the case of the on-line
module, learner‘s reading of the on-line learning materials - together with their actual
experience and practices.
Reflective Observation (reviewing / reflecting on the experience)
The 'Reflective Observation' element stems from learner‘s analysis and judgements of events
and the discussion about the learning that engage in with their mentor, colleagues and fellow
participants. People naturally reflect on their experiences of teaching, particularly when they
are new to it and less confident in their abilities or when an experience has been painful.
For example this might be through own self-reflections or evaluations after the event through
keeping a log or journal. It may also include student feedback, peer observation of teaching
(e.g. comments made by your mentor or colleague), moderation of assessments, external
examiner comments, discussions with your mentor or a fellow participants . All of these can be
brought together to give an overall reflection on practice.
Reflection in itself, though, is insufficient to promote learning and professional development.
Twenty years' experience may consist of twenty years teaching the same content in the same
way, Unless we act on our reflections of ourselves and on the opinions of others then no
development takes place.
Abstract Conceptualisation (concluding / learning from the experience)
In order to plan what would do differently next time, addition to reflections is needed on
experience - to be informed by educational theory e.g. through readings of relevant literature
on teaching and learning or by attending staff development or other activities. Reflection is
therefore a middle ground that brings together theories and the analysis of past action. It allows
learners to come to conclusions about our practice - 'Abstract Conceptualism'.
Active Experimentation (planning / trying out what you have learned)
The conclusions formed from 'Abstract Conceptualisation' stage then form the basis by which
changes are planned - 'Active Experimentation'. 'Active Experimentation' then starts the cycle
again when those changes implemented in teaching practice to generate another concrete
experience which is then followed by reflection and review to form conclusions about the
effectiveness of those changes.
2. The 4 different styles of learning and potential barriers to learning.
Many people recognize that each person prefers different learning styles and
techniques. Learning styles group common ways that people learn. Everyone has a mix of
learning styles. Some people may find that they have a dominant style of learning, with far less
use of the other styles. Others may find that they use different styles in different circumstances.
By recognizing and understanding person‘s learning styles, it is better to use suited
techniques. This improves the speed and quality of learning.
Visual (spatial): prefer using pictures, images, and spatial understanding. The occipital
lobes at the back of the brain manage the visual sense. Both the occipital and parietal
lobes manage spatial orientation.
Aural (auditory-musical): prefer using sound and music. The temporal lobes handle
aural content. The right temporal lobe is especially important for music.
Physical (kinesthetic): prefer using your body, hands and sense of touch. The
cerebellum and the motor cortex (at the back of the frontal lobe) handle much of our
Social (interpersonal): prefer to learn in groups or with other people. The frontal and
temporal lobes handle much of our social activities. The limbic system (not shown apart
from the hippocampus) also influences both the social and solitary styles. The limbic
system has a lot to do with emotions, moods and aggression.
POTENTIAL BARRIERS TO LEARNING
i. Visual impairment
Learners are required to read, take notes in lectures and seminars, use computers,
watch and learn from demonstrations and take part in practical activities in laboratories,
workshops or on field trips. They may be asked to look at a picture or watch a video,
then assimilate information and analyse meaning and content.
Some of these barriers can be minimised through changes in teaching strategies, the
support of an assistant, or the use of a specialist piece of equipment. Others require an
alternative way of doing things, such as an alternative method of assessment.
For some deaf and hard of hearing students, background noise can be heard but
human speech is difficult to understand. An induction loop linked to a hearing aid
amplifies words spoken into a microphone and can make them more distinct, but
comments from other people are not heard unless they also speak into a microphone.
Some rooms are built in a way that emphasises unwanted noise and causes more
Learners who became deaf after they learned to speak may be able to speak
sufficiently well that others assume that they can hear quite well, and suitable
adjustments for ensuring good communication may not be made.
Unfamiliar vocabulary can cause misunderstandings unless the context is given. New
words should be written on the board, and an understanding of explanations should be
checked with all students.
iii. Specific learning difficulties
Specific learning difficulties are quite varied, as are the barriers to learning that students
may face. Some have limited short term and working memory, so that information can
be quickly forgotten. This applies particularly to instructions, so learners may not be
able to recall what they should do next.
Learners may appear to be careless, although they can often work things out quickly in
their own way. There may be repetition and persistent errors in spelling, number or
grammar, although oral skills can be good.
Note taking is difficult and reading can be slow, particularly for those with visual–
perceptual disturbance. Organisation, time management and sequencing can cause
difficulties, and what is being said may be misunderstood, particularly if things are
moving quickly. There may be confusion between left and right.
Some learners find it difficult to speak out in class or to do a presentation, finding that
their words get jumbled and they forget the words they need. They can be easily
distracted and find it hard to concentrate where there are other things going on.
Others may have difficulties with coordination and find it difficult to use unfamiliar
iv. Mental health difficulties
Barriers to learning with mental health difficulties may be related to their symptoms or to
the side effects of their medication. Prescribed drugs may have unwelcome side effects
, both psychological (e.g. increased anxiety, disorientation) and physical (e.g. stiffness,
nausea, dizziness) that may have a significant impact on daily living and study.
Barriers to learning can also be due to an environment that does not recognise and
meet their needs. They may be directly related to study but can also be due to problems
with everyday living.
- Difficult to manage symptoms
Psychological distress and other difficult to manage symptoms can make it
extremely difficult to concentrate on learning. Symptoms include anxiety and
panic, disorientation, extreme emotions such as sadness or elation, and altered
perception such as hearing voices. Unmanageable symptoms may cause major
problems with attendance. Learners coping with distress and mood swings may
feel ‗unsafe‘ and unable to cope with appearing in public or using public
transport to get to university.
- Unrealistic or inappropriate expectations
Some learners with mental health difficulties find it difficult to see the ‗big picture‘
or to make rational judgments about what is required from them as a learner,
which may lead to difficulties in setting achievable goals. This can also be one of
the reasons why some learners with mental health difficulties do not make the
best use of the support strategies that are available to them.
- Sleep problems and fatigue
Problems in these areas can seriously affect attendance and punctuality,
particularly for early morning lectures, and can impact on staying power and the
ability to meet challenging deadlines or complete complex or large tasks.
- Social difficulties
Many learners with mental health difficulties have problems communicating with
others, making friends and sustaining relationships, and may not behave
appropriately in social contexts. As a consequence they can feel isolated from
their peers and very lonely. These problems can also present a huge barrier to
learning in modern universities, where effective communication of ideas and
collaborative work is essential.
v. Mobility, dexterity and chronic pain.
They can be divided into aspects related to
the physical setting
training and learning
personal and social well-being.
- Inaccessible surroundings and the problems this causes may mean that
learners cannot concentrate on their course.
- A lack of space or allowances for wheelchairs, crutches, sticks and bags cause
attention to be drawn to difficulties.
- Training rooms, laboratories, libraries and research areas may be poorly
designed and the height of tables, shelves, photocopiers and other equipment
may pose access issues.
- Insufficient use of non-slip surfaces both inside and out can lead to safety
- A lack of awareness of the importance of keeping internal floor surfaces dry
and clear of spills may lead to an increased hazard for those on crutches or
whose balance is unsteady.
Training and learning
- Inflexible training styles affect all learners. For instance, not being willing to
provide handouts electronically prevents students using text to speech software
to aid reading, or from scrolling through the document when they are unable to
- Curriculum materials that are difficult to access may make it impossible for
those using assistive technologies to work successfully.
- A lack of awareness of individual needs, such as not pausing to allow a
learners using a communication aid to ask a question, or not recognising that a
learner may need to stand or change position, to take medication, or to leave
the room to use the toilet during teaching times, can all lead to failure.
- A lack of understanding concerning the pacing of the workload may cause
undue fatigue and concern for those with mobility and dexterity difficulties.
- A strict adherence to prescribed timescales, such as cut-off dates for
coursework, can cause great concern for students who need to work at a
Personal and social well-being
- A lack of awareness of a learner‘s expectations can present barriers to
learning by undermining the determination that a student may have to
successfully cope with a chosen course, despite what may be considered
severe difficulties. A learner's over-ambitious expectations should be handled
- Constant accumulation of barriers, both social and physical, may affect the
mental health of learners with mobility and dexterity difficulties.
- A lack of discussion of hidden difficulties, such as poor memory or a short
concentration span, the affects of medication, sleep problems, tiredness and
fatigue may have an impact on skills and abilities.
3. Explain 4 organisational factors, including stakeholder requirements, which
impact on the design of learning and development activities.
Impact on the design of learning and development activities
No. Organisational factors
1 Stakeholder requirements
Once, the purpose of the learning as well as who are the clients, next step is to
determine exact learning requirements with the relevant stakeholders. The
stakeholders involved could include:
• the person to be trained—to get an idea of their:
› current competency level
› learning style, to structure the learning program to their benefit
› general attitude towards work and training
› future aspirations
the learner’s supervisor— to get :
› get their opinion of the learner‘s current competency (remember—what a
person thinks they can do and what they can actually do may not necessarily
be the same thing and it is important to get an outside opinion)
› get specifi c information about how things should be done in their department
and the standards to which they expect work to be carried out.
• the organisation’s management—to get:
› get a picture of where the training will fi t in with the organisation‘s overall
› learn about company standards, policies and procedures that may need to
be included in the training.
› determine the parameters of the training requirements. This could include
» timeframes for training
» location of training
» costs and other resources required
» scale of the training
• the organisation’s training manager: to discuss the learner‘s past history and
training strategy for the future.
2 Purpose of learning event
When developing a learning program, it is important to determine its intended
purpose. Questions need to be asked about why the program is being run. This
will substantially influence the delivery and assessment methods to be used. The
purpose of the program may determine:
• what topics need to be included
• how the learning will be delivered
• what assessment methods will be used
• the range and depth of knowledge to be imparted.
Organisations and individuals will require learning programs for a variety of
reasons. These reasons could include:
• doing an apprenticeship or traineeship—this involves on-the-job training over an
extended period of time with a trainer visiting the learner at regular intervals to
provide the ‗formal‘ training.
• refreshing or updating current skills to ensure that staff continue to work to the
desired standards; this may be a simple matter of highlighting information or
reminding learners of policies, procedures or product and service facts.
• learning a new skill or procedure—to improve employability skills or to enable
staff to meet the required work standards; this may involve providing in-depth
and/or complex information.
• professional development (PD) training—as part of the organisation‘s ongoing
staff development and/or to comply with government legislation dealing with staff
• developing vocational competency—for people who wish to pursue a nationally
• meeting legislation, licensing or registration requirements.
• taking corrective action—where staff are not performing to the required
standards and additional training is necessary.
3 Participant Profile
Before analyse the learning needs of the clients, a clear understanding of target
learner group must be identified. By finding out more about target learner group,
the learning program that meets their needs will be accomplished.
For example, is the target learner group:
• people who are already in the workforce—who might have constraints on their
• school graduates—who may have a limited knowledge of the business world?
• special target groups—who have very specific training needs?
• people who are already experienced in certain fi elds of business and who may
only need a refresher course?
• apprentices or trainees whose learning program may be delivered on the job
over a period of years?
• individuals learning new skills and knowledge or who wish to upgrade skills and
• individuals who wish to change their career path or prospects?
• unemployed people who wish to improve their employability skills?
• individuals on specialised learning programs, such as people with disabilities or
• learners from other countries?
• individuals or groups needing to meet licensing or other regulatory
Target learner characteristics can also include :
• their level and previous experiences of formal education
• their current skill or competency levels
• the level and breadth of their current and past work experience
• their cultural background and any related needs
• special needs—physical or psychological
• their reasons and motivations for participating in the learning program
• the language, literacy and numeracy abilities of learners
• their learning style and preferences.
4 Organisation requirements
This documentation should take the form of a training and assessment strategy
and must include as much information as possible. For example, when proposing
a full qualification course, the proposal should include:
• the name of the organisation delivering the learning program
• the timeframe over which the training will take place—this could be several
weeks or months depending on the complexity and formal nature of the program
• the qualification code and name
• the units of competency that will be included in the qualification
• the target audience or clients
• the training and assessment arrangements, including:
› how the course has been structured—for example, will each unit be
delivered as individual units or can they be clustered?
› the delivery mode that will be used—for example, will the program be
delivered in a training room, on the job or by distance?
› how competency will be assessed—how will you ensure that learners are
able to apply their new skills and knowledge?
› what evidence will be collected to show competence—how will you provide
proof (evidence) that the learner can, indeed, apply the new skills and
• which staff will be involved in delivering and assessing the program, as well as
• how the program will be or has been validated—how to ensure that the program
is in line with industry and client requirements?
4. Explains the relevance of Equal Opportunities, Health & Safety and Data
Protection legislation to the design of learning and development activities.
There are three key ways to support and promote equality of opportunity to the
learners in developing activities:
1. Designing and planning so that all learners have equal access to learning and
2. Choosing, designing and using learning materials that are accessible, do not
reinforce stereotypes and that are representative for a diverse range of people.
3. Delivering learning events in ways that include all learners and that promote
Organization policy on Equality and Diversity.
Design and plan learning activities so that the learners have equality opportunities.
- Include learners who work part-time or who have commitments (for example, people with
caring responsibilities or certain religious commitments. Avoid early starts or late finishes.
If more than one of the same event are running, vary the time and day of the week that it
takes place. Always finish events on time.
- Before the event, ask learners whether they have any accessibility, dietary (if
relevant) or other requirements that need to be taken into account. A standard
question to this effect should be included on the learners application form and/or
pre-event information. For example: ‗If you have any accessibility or other
requirements you would like us to be aware of, please inform us so that
appropriate arrangements can be made.‘
- When the learners states that they have access needs, make arrangements so that they
can participate fully in the event. This may mean asking them for guidance on how best to
meet their particular needs.
- Don‘t assume learners have equal access to or experience of using computers, email and
online material. Take this into account when advertising an event, providing pre or post-
event material or discussing computer-based issues or resources.
- Include everyone from the start. Make an effort to learn all participants‘ names at an early
stage. Ask for their first name, given name or the name they prefer to be known by, rather
than their first name. Check how to pronounce names, in order to help avoid the risk of
people feeling excluded. Name cards or badges can help.
- Make sure that all course members are encouraged to participate, that certain
people do not dominate and that groups or individuals are not excluded from discussions
or treated with less respect. Ground rules can be a helpful way to create a safe and
inclusive learning environment.
- Avoid making assumptions about the personal characteristics of delegates such as
their sexuality or religious beliefs. When discussing different groups of people, try
to avoid suddenly switching from ‗we‘ to ‗they‘.
- Gender-specific language should be avoided where unnecessary.
- Avoid labelling people or stereotyping. If someone raises an objection around the
terminology used, ask them what their preferred term is and use that terminology if
- When referring to people with specific disabilities, avoid using negative language
such as ‗confined to a wheelchair‘ or ‗she suffers with arthritis‘. Instead use terms
such as ‗wheelchair user‘ and ‗she has arthritis‘.
- The term ‗coloured is generally regarded as offensive. When referring to people
from Asian, African Caribbean or other ethnic minority groups, the most commonly
used term is ‗Black or ethnic minority‘.
- Any course participants who display racist, homophobic, sexist or any other form of
discriminatory behaviour should be challenged appropriately.
Health & Safety
Health and safety in learning development is about preventing people from being harmed by
learning or becoming ill through learning and the law applies to all businesses, however large
or small. This health and safety information is concluded to all the trainers and learners.
The Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) imposes a general duty on employers, self-
employed, employees, suppliers and owners of premises to ensure that their workplaces are
safe and offer no risk to health .
Health & Safety Law - Health and safety legislation places a number of duties on
organisations, managers and employees alike. Failure to carry out these duties can result in
fines and, in extreme cases, imprisonment.
Employers & Employees Duties - Making the workplace safe and without risks to health, so
far is as reasonably practicable. The basic principle is that every employee must take
reasonable care for the safety of themselves and of others who may be affected by their acts or
Risks & Hazards - A Hazard is something in the workplace that has the potential to cause
harm, damage or injury. Risk is the likelihood or severity of this happening.
Safety Signs - One area of importance with regards safety is the use of safety signs. There
are several types of safety signs that you will encounter.
The Accident Investigation - 'An accident at work is an unplanned happening or event, with a
specific cause or causes, which arises out of or in connection with work and leads to injury'
Review of Session - Creating an action plan to embed learning.
Objectives of the Health and Safety planning:
- Identify the key responsibilities under the Health & Safety at Work Act
- Recognise the learners and trainers responsibilities under the Act
- Identify what is a hazard and how to control the risks while in the training room
- State the health and safety control measures within the training place
- Recognise the accident reporting process within the training place.
Data Protection Legislation
Refer to the Data Protection Act , this act help to develop participants awareness of the data
Contents of Data Protection Legislation:
- Who holds our personal information? - Identifying who holds our personal data.
- What are the risks? - We discuss the risks to individuals arising from the data held
- What data is covered by the Act - We identify the type of data covered by the Act.
- Conditions for processing data - A brief look at the conditions that must apply to
enable us to process personal data.
- The Data Protection Principles - We look at the Data Protection Principles, which we
must comply with. This includes looking at some of the myths and realities of data
- Who can we give information to - A short activity to consider who we are able pass
personal information to.
- Identifying a caller - What security questions should we ask, to ensure we are talking
to the person we think we are talking to?
The main points should be compliance by participants in the Act are :
i. Outline the rights of individuals set out in the Data Protection Act
ii. Recognise ''Personal Data'' and ''Sensitive Personal Data'' as described in the Act
iii. Handle data in accordance with the data protection principles set out in the Act
Documents that protected under the Act are as below:
i. Trainers Notes - A very detailed and concise explanation of what you should do
during the session, complete with the comments you should make and notes on
what to do during activities etc. This is a very detailed step-by-step way of training.
ii. Workbook - This is a place for participants to add their action plans and learning,
whilst also containing information about the course and a place to work on
exercises and activities
iii. Session Plan - Details what is included in the course, so delegates have complete
awareness and the trainer can track course progress
iv. PowerPoint Slides - All slides necessary to run the course. Please note: Our
materials are not 'Death by PowerPoint'. The major content is in the Trainers Notes
and all courses have been designed to be interactive rather than presentational
v. Activities/Exercises - A detailed explanation of the activities/exercises used to
consolidate learning (these are included in the trainers notes)
vi. Pre-course Preparation - Advice on how to print out the slides in 'note' format to
include in the workbooks and also any necessary preparation that is specific to the
5. Explains at least 3 different learning methods, 3 different learning resources /
materials, the advantages and disadvantages of each, and the criteria for
LEARNING METHOD – CRITERIA, ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
No. Learning Method & Criteria Advantages / Disadvantages
1 Classroom or Instructor-Led Training
Instructor-led training remains one of the
most popular training techniques for
trainers. There are many types including:
- Blackboard or whiteboard. This may be
the most ―old-fashioned‖ method, but it
can still be effective.
- Overhead projector. This method is
increasingly being replaced with
PowerPoint presentations, which are
less manually demanding.
- Video portion. Lectures can be broken
up with video portions that explain
sections of the training topic or that
present case studies for discussion.
- Storytelling. Stories can be used as
examples of right and wrong ways to
- Efficient method to large or small
groups of learners.
- Face-to-face type of training as
opposed to computer-based training.
- Everyone gets the same information
at the same time.
- Storytelling grabs people‘s attention.
- Sometimes it is not interactive.
- Success of the training depends on
the effectiveness of the trainer.
- Scheduling classroom sessions for
large numbers of trainees can be
difficult—especially when trainees
are at multiple locations.
2. Interactive Methods
Breaking up training sessions and keep
trainees attentive and involved, including:
- Quizzes. For long, complicated training,
stop periodically to administer brief
quizzes on information presented to that
- Small group discussions. Break the
participants down into small groups and
give them case studies or work
situations to discuss or solve.
- Active summaries. Create small
groups and have them choose a leader
then summarize the major points.
- Q & A sessions. Informal question-and-
answer sessions are most effective with
small groups and for updating skills
rather than teaching new skills.
- Question cards. During the lecture, ask
participants to write questions on the
subject matter. Collect them and
conduct a quiz/review session.
- Demonstrations. Bring tools or
equipment that are part of the training
topic and demonstrate the steps.
- Interactive sessions keep trainees
engaged in the training.
- Training more fun and enjoyable.
- Provide ways for veteran employees
to pass on knowledge and
experience to newer employees.
- Provide in-session feedback to
trainers on how well trainees are
- Interactive sessions can take longer
because activities, such as taking
quizzes or breaking into small
groups, are time-consuming.
- Some methods, such as participant
control, can be less structured, and
trainers will need to make sure that
all necessary information is covered.
3. Hands-On Training
Experiential, or hands-on, training, offers
several more effective techniques
- Cross-training. Trainees experience
other jobs, which not only enhances
skills but also gives benefit of perform
- Effective for training in new
procedures and new equipment.
- Immediately applicable to trainees‘
more than one job.
- Apprenticeships. Opportunity to shape
inexperienced to fit existing and future
- Drills. Drilling is a good way to practice
skills. Evacuation drills are effective
when training emergency preparedness,
- Allow trainers to immediately
determine trainee has learned.
- Not good for large groups if do not
have enough equipment or
machines for everyone to use.
- Apprenticeship can be expensive
for paying who are being trained on
the job and are not yet productive.
4. Computer-Based Training (CBT)
Computer-based training formats vary from
the simplest text-only programs to highly
sophisticated multimedia programs to
virtual reality. Consider the following types:
- Text-only. The simplest computer-
based training programs offer self-
paced training in a text-only format.
- CD-ROM. A wide variety of off-the-shelf
training programs covering a broad
range topics and available on CD-
- Multimedia. These training materials
provide stimulating graphics, audio,
animation, and/or video. Multimedia
tends to be more provocative and
challenging and, therefore, more
stimulating to the adult mind.
- Virtual reality. Virtual reality is three-
dimensional and interactive, immersing
the trainee in a learning experience.
Most virtual reality training programs
take the form of simulation, which is a
highly effective form of training.
- Easy to use.
- Often be customized or custom
- Good for helping employees develop
and practice new skills.
- Useful for refresher training.
- Cost-effective, the same equipment
and program can be used by large
- Flexible because trainees can learn
at their own pace at a time.
- Computer-based programs are
available 24 hours a day, 7 days a
- Interactive, requiring trainees to
answer questions, make choices,
and experience the consequences
of those choices.
- Require trainees to be computer
- Require trainees to have computer
- Little or no interaction with a trainer.
- Not effective at teaching ―soft-
- Not the best choice for new or one-
time training. Trainers need live
interaction to ensure new skills or
concepts are being communicated.
- Some poorly designed programs are
―boring‖ and result in trainees having
a poor retention.
LEARNING RESOURCES/ MATERIALS – CRITERIA, ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
No. Learning Resource/Material & Criteria Advantages / Disadvantages
1 Power Point.
Presentation software is used to create
customized group training sessions that
are led by an instructor.
Training materials are provided on
CDROM and displayed on a large screen
for any number of trainees.
Trainees can also use the programs
individually, which allows for easy make-
- Can easily input images
- Templates are built in for different
- Can add notes pages
- Can easily add media and recordings
- More exciting than a simple word
up sessions for trainees who miss the
This method is one of the most popular
lecture methods and can be combined with
handouts and other interactive methods.
document or hand written
- Master slides make presentations
- Some features such as animations
and backgrounds can distract the
audience from the actual information
in the presentation
- File size can become quite large on
medium to large presentations
- Some of the features can be quite
complicated to use and even the
simple features require some getting
- When at work, you cant rely on
someone else's computer or laptop
to run your presentation, there are
too many software conflicts and disk
- Takes quite a bit of time to create a
2. Case study
Adults tend to bring a problem-oriented
way of thinking to workplace training.
Case studies are an excellent way to
capitalize on this type of adult learning. By
analyzing real job-related situations,
trainees can learn how to handle similar
- Good source of hypotheses.
- Provides in-depth information on
- Unusual cases can shed light on
situations or problems that are
They can also see how various elements
of a job work together to create problems
as well as solutions.
unethical or impractical to study in
- Vital information may be
missingmaking the case hard to
- The person‘s memories may be
selective or inaccurate
- The individual may not be
representative or typical.
An experiment is a method of testing - with
the goal of explaining - the nature of
Experiments can vary from personal and
informal (e.g. tasting a range of chocolates
to find a favourite), to highly controlled
(e.g. tests requiring complex apparatus
overseen by hoping to discover
information about subatomic particles).
- Allows learners to control the
- Permits learner to identify cause
and effect, and to distinguish
placebo effects from treatment
- Situation is artificial, and results
may not generalize well to the real
- Sometimes difficult to avoid
4. Laboratory observation
Laboratory Observation means observing
the individual in a laboratory setting,
paying close attention to his/her reaction
- Allows more control than naturalistic
- Allows use of sophisticated
- Allows researcher only limited
control of the situation
- Observations may be biased.
- Does not allow firm conclusions
about cause and effect
- Behavior may differ from behavior in
the natural environment
Devise a Session Plan for a learning / training session, to meet an identified need.
The plan should include at least 3 learning outcomes, 3 learning methods, 2
assessment methods and 1 evaluation method.
Produce two learning resources you have developed or materials for use within the
learning / training session.
Session Title: Emotional Intelligence at Work – Openness and Maturity
Target Group : Human Resource Department (15 persons)
Learning outcomes : at the end of the session, the participants will be able to
- Identify the purpose of Emotional Intelligence at Work – Openness and Maturity Course
- Explain meaning of Human Emotions
- Define the significance of Openness and Maturity Emotional at Work
- Describe the 5 Areas of Emotional Intelligence at work
Topics (ASK needed) Learning Method Materials needed Assessment Evaluation
Objectives for the
Ice breaking, Briefing:
Slide to show the
objectives and Poster of
point Slide, Poster
Openness and Maturity
about emotional problems
occurring at work,
Power point Slide, Self
participants; ASK in
Openness & Maturity
(EQ) by answering
Openness and Maturity
Emotional at work
(General, based on
Participants discuss in
group, lecture & coach,
team meeting & briefing
assessing their ASK
by each group.
5 Areas of Emotional
Intelligence at work :
1. Safe awareness and
self control at work
2. Empathy at work
3. Social expertness at
4. Personal influence at
5. Mastery of Purpose
and Vision at work
Discussion of case study in
group, plan acting
presentation, discussion of
problems in acting
storytelling, application of
knowledge and skills
Written materials, Group
discussion, case studies,
presentations, role play,
participants’ ASK in
lecturer guide, the
Individual Survey Form:
25 questions; using
Learning Resources : Briefing of Introduction and Objectives of the Session
Material : Power point Slide
Introduction Powerpoint SlideSlide
Learning Resources : Relationship between Human Emotions, Openness and Maturity at work
Material : Poster
Poster of the Significance of Emotional Intelligence
Learning Resources : Significance of Openness and Maturity Emotional at work
Material : Group Discussion
Group 1 Presentation Work