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Hebrew literature

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Hebrew literature

  1. 1. Israel Hebrew Literature Prof. Ms. Sharon De Los Reyes Submitted to: Rodylyn V. Velasquez Submitted by:
  2. 2. Etymology • Hebrew comes from the middle english word “Ebreu” which come from the old french derived from the latin word “ Hebraeus” • Hebrews were ancestors of Samaritan and Jews • Jews were the descendant of Hebrews • Hebrews claim to be the descendant of Biblical Patriach Abraham • They live in the ancient middle east 1400 BC they settle in Canaan (formerly known as Israel) the country of the eastern coast Mediteranian Sea the territory of modern Isael, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria; • they live in the tent wealthier people live in the house. • Hebrew is a member of the Canaanite group of Semitic languages. It was the language of the early Jews, but from 586 BC it started to be replaced by Aramaic.
  3. 3. Aramaic (Arāmāyā, Syriac: ‫)ܐܝܡܪܐ‬ is a family of languages or dialects belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family. More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group, which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician.
  4. 4. • the church of hebrew was called jerusalem Temple (the first temple was built by King Solomon) covered with gold. • Hebrew food was similar to te food of other mediteranian people. • the popular drink was wine.
  5. 5. Hebrew literature Hebrew literature consists of ancient, medieval, and modern writings in the Hebrew language. It is one of the primary forms of Jewish literature, though there have been cases of literature written in Hebrew by non-Jews.Hebrew literature was produced in many different parts of the world throughout the medieval and modern eras, while contemporary Hebrew literature is largely Israeli literature.
  6. 6. Ancient Hebrew literature • literature in hebrew begins with oral literature of the Leshon Hakodesh on the Holy Language since very ancient times and with teaching of Abraham the first of the Biblical Patriach of Israel. Beyond comparison the most important word inancient hebrew is the hebrew bible (Tanakh) • the mishna is the primary rabbinic codification of laws as derived from the torah, It was written in the mishnais hebrew
  7. 7. Medieval Hebrew literature • During the medieval period, the majority of Jewish and Hebrew literature was composed in Islamic North Africa, Spain, Palestine, and the Middle East. Many works of medieval philosophical literature such as Maimonedes' Guide to the Perplexed and The Kuzari, as well as many works of fiction, were written in Judeo-Arabic. Works of rabbinic literature were more often written in Hebrew, including: Torah commentaries by Abraham ibn Ezra, Rashi and others; codifications of Jewish law, such as Maimonides' Mishneh Torah, the Arba'ah Turim, and the Shulchan Aruch; and works of Musar literature (didactic ethical literature) such as Bahya ibn Paquda's Chovot ha-Levavot (The Duties of the Heart). Much medieval Jewish poetry was written in Hebrew, including liturgical piyyutim in Palestine in the seventh and eighth centuries by Yose ben Yose, Yanai, and Eleazar Kalir. These poems were added to the Hebrew-language liturgy. This liturgy was compiled in book form as "the siddur" by rabbis including Amram Gaon and Saadia Gaon. • Later Spanish, Provençal, and Italian poets wrote both religious and secular poems; particularly prominent poets were Solomon ibn Gabirol, Yehuda Halevi, and Yehuda al-Harizi. Most were also active in translating Jewish rabbinic and secular literature from Arabic into Hebrew.
  8. 8. Modern Hebrew literature • In addition to writing traditional rabbinic literature in Hebrew, modern Jews developed new forms of fiction, poetry, and essay-writing, which are typically called "Modern Hebrew Literature."
  9. 9. Eighteenth Century By the early eighteenth century, Jewish literature was still dominated by Sephardic authors, often writing in Judeo-Arabic. Moses Hayyim Luzzatto's allegorical drama "La-Yesharim Tehillah" (1743) may be regarded as the first product of modern Hebrew literature. It has been referred to as "a poem that in its classic perfection of style is second only to the Bible."Luzzatto's pupil in Amsterdam, David Franco Mendes (1713–92), in his imitations of Jean Racine ("Gemul 'Atalyah") and of Metastasio ("Yehudit"), continued his master's work, though his works are not as respected as were Luzzatto's.Later in the eighteenth century, the Haskalah (Jewish enlightenment) movement worked to achieve political emancipation for Jews in Europe, and European Jews gradually began to produce more literature in the mould of earlier Middle Eastern Jewish authors. Moses Mendelssohn's translation of the Hebrew Bible into German inspired interest in the Hebrew language that led to the founding of a quarterly review written in Hebrew. Other periodicals followed. Poetry by Naphtali Hirz Wessely such as "Shire Tif'eret," or "Mosiade," made Wessely, so to speak, poet laureate of the period.
  10. 10. Nineteenth Century • In nineteenth-century Galicia, poets, scholars, and popular writers who contributed to the dissemination of Hebrew and to the emancipation of the Jews of Galicia included: • Joseph Perl (1773–1839), writer and educator who, in 1819, published Revealer of Secrets, the first Hebrew novel. • Nachman Krochmal (1785–1840), a philosopher, theologian, and historian. • Solomon Judah Loeb Rapoport (1790–1867), a rabbi, poet, and biographer • Isaac Erter (1792–1841), a satirical poet whose collection of essays, "Ha- Tzofeh le-Bet Yisrael," is one of the purest works of modern Hebrew literature, attacking Hasidic superstitions and prejudices in a vigorous and classical style. • Meir Halevy Letteris (1800–1871), a lyric poet also known for his adaption of Goethe's Faust into Hebrew.
  11. 11. Meir Halevy Letteris (1800–1871) In 1852, during a period in which he faced financial difficulties, he agreed to edit an edition of the masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible. In 1866 he produced a revised edition for a Christian missionary organization, the British and Foreign Bible Society. This revision was checked against old manuscripts and early printed editions, and has a very legible typeface. It is probably the most widely reproduced text of the Hebrew Bible in history, with many dozens of authorised reprints and many more pirated and unacknowledged ones.This revised edition became very popular, and was widely reprinted in both Jewish circles (often accompanied by a translation on facing pages) and in Christian circles (with the addition of the New Testament).
  12. 12. Solomon Judah Loeb Rapoport (1790–1867) • After various experiences in business, Rapoport became rabbi of Tarnopol (1837) and of Prague (1840). He was one of the founders of the new Wissenschaft des Judentums movement. His chief work was the first part of an (unfinished) encyclopaedia (Erekh Millin, 1852). Equally notable were his biographies of Saadia Gaon, Nathan (author of the Arukh), Hai Gaon, Eleazar Kalir and others. • After the fashion in rabbinic circles, Rapoport was known by an acronym "Shir", formed by the initial letters of his Hebrew name Shelomo Yehuda Rapoport (Shir literally means "song" in Hebrew)
  13. 13. Nachman Krochmal (1785–1840) • A philosopher, theologian, and historian. • He began the study of the Talmud at an early age. At age fourteen he was married, according to the custom of the time, to the daughter of the wealthy merchant Habermann. He then went to live with his father-in-law at Zhovkva, near Lemberg, where he devoted himself entirely to his studies, beginning with Maimonides' The Guide for the Perplexed, and studying other Hebrew philosophical writings.
  14. 14. Joseph Perl (1773–1839) • Revealer of Secrets, first published in 1819, is an epistolary novel by Joseph Perl, a proponent of Jewish emancipation and Haskalah. It is often considered the first modern novel in Hebrew. The book purports to be a collection of letters between various hasidic rabbis, but is actually a satire of their teachings. • It is an unusual book in that it satirizes the language and style of early hasidic rabbis writing in Hebrew, which was not the vernacular of the Jews of its time. To make his work available and accessible to his contemporaries, Perl translated his own work into Yiddish. It is currently in print only in an English translation, by Dov Taylor, published by Westview Press.
  15. 15. The Bible
  16. 16. Parable of the Good Samaritan • The parable of the Good Samaritan is a didactic story told by Jesus in Luke 10:25–37. It is about a traveler who is stripped of clothing, beaten, and left half dead alongside the road. First a priest and then a Levite comes by, but both avoid the man. Finally, a Samaritan comes by. Samaritans and Jews generally despised each other, but the Samaritan helps the injured man. Jesus is described as telling the parable in response to the question from a lawyer, "And who is my neighbor ?" whom Leviticus Lev 19:18 says should be loved.
  17. 17. The Story of Ruth • The book of Ruth is the Narrative of a love story, yet also has some important Genealogy. The timeline of this book is intertwined during the period of the Judges. It was written about 1046-1035 B.C. Key personalities include Ruth, Naomi, and Boaz. • Its purpose was to demonstrate the kind of love, and faithfulness that God desires for us. It shows the difference between what happens when a nation does not follow in obedience to the covenant of God (Judges), and when God’s people follow in faithfulness within the covenant (Ruth).
  18. 18. The Parable of the Prodigal Son • In the story, a father has two sons. The younger son asks for his inheritance and after wasting his fortune (the word "prodigal" means "wastefully extravagant"), becomes destitute. He returns home with the intention of begging his father to be made one of his hired servants, expecting his relationship with his father is likely severed. The father welcomes him back and celebrates his return. The older son refuses to participate. The father reminds the older son that one day he will inherit everything. But, they should still celebrate the return of the younger son because he was lost and is now found.
  19. 19. The “Parable of the Talents The “Parable of the Talents”, in Matthew 25:14–30 tells of a master who was leaving his house to travel, and, before leaving, entrusted his property to his servants. According to the abilities of each man, one servant received five talents, the second servant received two talents, and the third servant received one talent. The property entrusted to the three servants was worth 8 talents, where a talent was a significant amount of money. Upon returning home, after a long absence, the master asks his three servants for an accounting of the talents he entrusted to them. The first and the second servants explain that they each put their talents to work, and have doubled the value of the property with which they were entrusted; each servant was rewarded:
  20. 20. The Story of Joseph The story of Joseph is found in the Book of Genesis, from Genesis 37 though Genesis 50. Joseph’s saga is both expansive and integral to the overall narrative of the Israelites’ descent into Egypt. His progression from dream-interpreting shepherd to minister of Egypt is one of the more layered and elaborate stories in the Torah.
  21. 21. references: • • NCSR&noj=1 • • kingdom/?gclid=CIrl6tm1idICFYOZvAodLXUDKw
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