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Prof. Ms. Sharon De Los Reyes
Rodylyn V. Velasquez
• Hebrew comes from the middle english word “Ebreu” which come from the old french
derived from the latin word “ Hebraeus”
• Hebrews were ancestors of Samaritan and Jews
• Jews were the descendant of Hebrews
• Hebrews claim to be the descendant of Biblical Patriach Abraham
• They live in the ancient middle east 1400 BC they settle in Canaan (formerly known as
Israel) the country of the eastern coast Mediteranian Sea the territory of modern Isael,
Jordan, Lebanon and Syria;
• they live in the tent wealthier people live in the house.
• Hebrew is a member of the Canaanite group of Semitic languages. It was the language of the
early Jews, but from 586 BC it started to be replaced by Aramaic.
(Arāmāyā, Syriac: )ܐܝܡܪܐ is a family of languages or dialects belonging to the
Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family. More specifically, it is
part of the Northwest Semitic group, which also includes the Canaanite
languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician.
• the church of hebrew was called jerusalem Temple (the first
temple was built by King Solomon) covered with gold.
• Hebrew food was similar to te food of other mediteranian people.
• the popular drink was wine.
Hebrew literature consists of ancient, medieval, and modern
writings in the Hebrew language. It is one of the primary forms
of Jewish literature, though there have been cases of literature
written in Hebrew by non-Jews.Hebrew literature was
produced in many different parts of the world throughout the
medieval and modern eras, while contemporary Hebrew
literature is largely Israeli literature.
Ancient Hebrew literature
• literature in hebrew begins with oral literature of the Leshon
Hakodesh on the Holy Language since very ancient times
and with teaching of Abraham the first of the Biblical
Patriach of Israel. Beyond comparison the most important
word inancient hebrew is the hebrew bible (Tanakh)
• the mishna is the primary rabbinic codification of laws as
derived from the torah, It was written in the mishnais
Medieval Hebrew literature
• During the medieval period, the majority of Jewish and Hebrew literature was
composed in Islamic North Africa, Spain, Palestine, and the Middle East.
Many works of medieval philosophical literature such as Maimonedes' Guide
to the Perplexed and The Kuzari, as well as many works of fiction, were
written in Judeo-Arabic. Works of rabbinic literature were more often written
in Hebrew, including: Torah commentaries by Abraham ibn Ezra, Rashi and
others; codifications of Jewish law, such as Maimonides' Mishneh Torah, the
Arba'ah Turim, and the Shulchan Aruch; and works of Musar literature
(didactic ethical literature) such as Bahya ibn Paquda's Chovot ha-Levavot
(The Duties of the Heart). Much medieval Jewish poetry was written in
Hebrew, including liturgical piyyutim in Palestine in the seventh and eighth
centuries by Yose ben Yose, Yanai, and Eleazar Kalir. These poems were
added to the Hebrew-language liturgy. This liturgy was compiled in book
form as "the siddur" by rabbis including Amram Gaon and Saadia Gaon.
• Later Spanish, Provençal, and Italian poets wrote both religious and secular
poems; particularly prominent poets were Solomon ibn Gabirol, Yehuda
Halevi, and Yehuda al-Harizi. Most were also active in translating Jewish
rabbinic and secular literature from Arabic into Hebrew.
Modern Hebrew literature
• In addition to writing traditional
rabbinic literature in Hebrew,
modern Jews developed new
forms of fiction, poetry, and
essay-writing, which are
typically called "Modern
By the early eighteenth century, Jewish literature was still dominated by Sephardic
authors, often writing in Judeo-Arabic. Moses Hayyim Luzzatto's allegorical drama
"La-Yesharim Tehillah" (1743) may be regarded as the first product of modern
Hebrew literature. It has been referred to as "a poem that in its classic perfection of
style is second only to the Bible."Luzzatto's pupil in Amsterdam, David Franco
Mendes (1713–92), in his imitations of Jean Racine ("Gemul 'Atalyah") and of
Metastasio ("Yehudit"), continued his master's work, though his works are not as
respected as were Luzzatto's.Later in the eighteenth century, the Haskalah (Jewish
enlightenment) movement worked to achieve political emancipation for Jews in
Europe, and European Jews gradually began to produce more literature in the mould
of earlier Middle Eastern Jewish authors. Moses Mendelssohn's translation of the
Hebrew Bible into German inspired interest in the Hebrew language that led to the
founding of a quarterly review written in Hebrew. Other periodicals followed.
Poetry by Naphtali Hirz Wessely such as "Shire Tif'eret," or "Mosiade," made
Wessely, so to speak, poet laureate of the period.
• In nineteenth-century Galicia, poets, scholars, and popular writers who
contributed to the dissemination of Hebrew and to the emancipation of the
Jews of Galicia included:
• Joseph Perl (1773–1839), writer and educator who, in 1819, published
Revealer of Secrets, the first Hebrew novel.
• Nachman Krochmal (1785–1840), a philosopher, theologian, and historian.
• Solomon Judah Loeb Rapoport (1790–1867), a rabbi, poet, and biographer
• Isaac Erter (1792–1841), a satirical poet whose collection of essays, "Ha-
Tzofeh le-Bet Yisrael," is one of the purest works of modern Hebrew literature,
attacking Hasidic superstitions and prejudices in a vigorous and classical style.
• Meir Halevy Letteris (1800–1871), a lyric poet also known for his adaption
of Goethe's Faust into Hebrew.
Meir Halevy Letteris (1800–1871)
In 1852, during a period in which he faced financial
difficulties, he agreed to edit an edition of the masoretic
text of the Hebrew Bible. In 1866 he produced a revised
edition for a Christian missionary organization, the British
and Foreign Bible Society. This revision was checked
against old manuscripts and early printed editions, and has a
very legible typeface. It is probably the most widely
reproduced text of the Hebrew Bible in history, with many
dozens of authorised reprints and many more pirated and
unacknowledged ones.This revised edition became very
popular, and was widely reprinted in both Jewish circles
(often accompanied by a translation on facing pages) and in
Christian circles (with the addition of the New Testament).
Solomon Judah Loeb Rapoport (1790–1867)
• After various experiences in business, Rapoport
became rabbi of Tarnopol (1837) and of Prague
(1840). He was one of the founders of the new
Wissenschaft des Judentums movement. His chief
work was the first part of an (unfinished)
encyclopaedia (Erekh Millin, 1852). Equally notable
were his biographies of Saadia Gaon, Nathan
(author of the Arukh), Hai Gaon, Eleazar Kalir and
• After the fashion in rabbinic circles, Rapoport was
known by an acronym "Shir", formed by the initial
letters of his Hebrew name Shelomo Yehuda
Rapoport (Shir literally means "song" in Hebrew)
Nachman Krochmal (1785–1840)
• A philosopher, theologian, and historian.
• He began the study of the Talmud at an early
age. At age fourteen he was married,
according to the custom of the time, to the
daughter of the wealthy merchant
Habermann. He then went to live with his
father-in-law at Zhovkva, near Lemberg,
where he devoted himself entirely to his
studies, beginning with Maimonides' The
Guide for the Perplexed, and studying other
Hebrew philosophical writings.
Joseph Perl (1773–1839)
• Revealer of Secrets, first published in 1819, is an epistolary
novel by Joseph Perl, a proponent of Jewish emancipation
and Haskalah. It is often considered the first modern novel
in Hebrew. The book purports to be a collection of letters
between various hasidic rabbis, but is actually a satire of
• It is an unusual book in that it satirizes the language and
style of early hasidic rabbis writing in Hebrew, which was
not the vernacular of the Jews of its time. To make his work
available and accessible to his contemporaries, Perl
translated his own work into Yiddish. It is currently in print
only in an English translation, by Dov Taylor, published by
Parable of the Good Samaritan
• The parable of the Good Samaritan is a
didactic story told by Jesus in Luke 10:25–37. It
is about a traveler who is stripped of clothing,
beaten, and left half dead alongside the road.
First a priest and then a Levite comes by, but
both avoid the man. Finally, a Samaritan
comes by. Samaritans and Jews generally
despised each other, but the Samaritan helps
the injured man. Jesus is described as telling
the parable in response to the question from a
lawyer, "And who is my neighbor ?" whom
Leviticus Lev 19:18 says should be loved.
The Story of Ruth
• The book of Ruth is the Narrative of a love
story, yet also has some important Genealogy.
The timeline of this book is intertwined during
the period of the Judges. It was written about
1046-1035 B.C. Key personalities include Ruth,
Naomi, and Boaz.
• Its purpose was to demonstrate the kind of
love, and faithfulness that God desires for us. It
shows the difference between what happens
when a nation does not follow in obedience to
the covenant of God (Judges), and when God’s
people follow in faithfulness within the
The Parable of the Prodigal Son
• In the story, a father has two sons. The
younger son asks for his inheritance and
after wasting his fortune (the word
"prodigal" means "wastefully extravagant"),
becomes destitute. He returns home with the
intention of begging his father to be made
one of his hired servants, expecting his
relationship with his father is likely severed.
The father welcomes him back and
celebrates his return. The older son refuses
to participate. The father reminds the older
son that one day he will inherit everything.
But, they should still celebrate the return of
the younger son because he was lost and is
The “Parable of the Talents
The “Parable of the Talents”, in Matthew 25:14–30
tells of a master who was leaving his house to travel,
and, before leaving, entrusted his property to his
servants. According to the abilities of each man, one
servant received five talents, the second servant
received two talents, and the third servant received
one talent. The property entrusted to the three
servants was worth 8 talents, where a talent was a
significant amount of money. Upon returning home,
after a long absence, the master asks his three
servants for an accounting of the talents he
entrusted to them. The first and the second servants
explain that they each put their talents to work, and
have doubled the value of the property with which
they were entrusted; each servant was rewarded:
The Story of Joseph
The story of Joseph is found in the
Book of Genesis, from Genesis 37
though Genesis 50. Joseph’s saga is
both expansive and integral to the
overall narrative of the Israelites’
descent into Egypt. His progression
from dream-interpreting shepherd to
minister of Egypt is one of the more
layered and elaborate stories in the