2. Uses of stone
6. Reinforced concrete
8. Advantages and disadvantages of plaster
10. What is clay?
14. Brick and uses.
15. Building construction phases.
Stone is a natural solid material extracted from
quarries. There are many different types of stone
used in construction such as granite, slate and
marble. They each have different properties.
Stones have been used by humans and other
hominids for more than 2 million years.
1. Building and decorative stones – walls and devocative
purposes. Buildings, walls or paving slabs.
2. Industrial purposes – limestone can be used as
calcium carbonate in farming and manufacturing.
3. Limeburning – it can be used as a more powerful alkali
than limestone, or used as a cement with sand, to make
4. Cement – if limestone is mixed with clay, or sandstone
before firing, it can produce Portland cement.
Cement is a blinder, a substance that sets and
hardens independently, and can bind other
materials together. The most important use of
cement is the production of mortar and concrete –
the bonding of natural or artificial aggregates to
form a strong building material that is durablein
the face of normal environmental effects.
Mortar is a workable paste used to bind
construction blocks together and fill the gaps
between them. The blocks may be stone, brick,
cinder, etc. Mortar becomes hard when it sets,
resulting in a rigid aggregate structure. Modern
mortars are tipically made from a mixture of sand,
a binder such as cement or lime, and water.
Mortar can also be used to fix, or point, masonry
when the original mortar has washed away.
Concrete is a composite construction material
composed of cement (commonly Portland
cement), and other cementitious materials such
as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate, water, and
chemical admixtures. Solidifies and hardens after
mixing with water and placement due to a
chemical process known as hydration. The water
reacts with the cement, wich bonds the other
components together, eventually creating a robust
Concrete is used to make pavements, pipe,
architectural structures, foundations,
motorways/roads, bridges/overpasses, parking
structures, brick/block walls and footings for
gates, fences and poles.
Reinforced concrete is concrete in which
reinforcement bars, reinforcement grids, plates or
fibers have been incorporated to strengthend the
concrete in tension. The term 'Ferro concrete'
refers only to concrete that is reinforced with iron
or steel. Oher materials used to reinforce
concretecan be organic and inorganic fibers as
well as composites in different forms. Concrete is
strong in compression, but weak in tension, thus
adding reinforcement increases the strength in
Plaster is a soft solid that we normally use for
aesthetic purposes, to cover brick walls which
have a rough surface. In addition, plaster foam is
used as a fire resistant material. Plaster comes
from gypsum, lime or cement. We extract gypsum
from the quarries, and then grind it. When ground
gypsum is mix with water, it becomes a paste and
we can spread it on interior walls.
● Plaster gives a
smooth surface and
has a nice finish.
● It's easy to work with.
● It's a good sound and
● It's resistant to fire
within a room.
● It's very weak.
● It absorbs water.
(For this two reasons,
plaster isn't used on
A ceramic is an inorganic, non-metallic solid
prepared by the action of heat and subsequent
cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline
or partly crystalline structure, or may be
amorphous. Because most common ceramics are
crystalline, the definition of ceramic is often
restricted to inorganic crystalline materials, as
opposed to the non-crystalline glasses.
Clay is a naturally occurring material composed
primarily of fine-grained minerals. Clay deposits
are mostly composed of clay minerals, a subtype
of phyllosilicate minerals, which impart plasticity
and harden when fired or dried; they also may
contain variable amounts of water trapped in the
mineral structure by polar attraction. Organic
materials which do not impart plasticity may also
be a part of clay deposits.
The first step in making ceramics is to give the
clay the required shape, for example a brick.
We make a mould with the negative shape of a
brick, then we fill the mould with clay.
The mould goes through a kiln on a conveyor belt.
There are two kinds of water in clay:
The absorbed water and the chemically bound
water. The absorbed water is what makes the clay
wet. When it evaporates the clay becomes hard,
but if water is added, it becomes soft clay again.
Drying the clay can be done under the sun or with
To remove the chemically bound water we need
high temperatures. Firing is done in a kiln, like an
oven, at temperatues between 1,000ºC and
1,600ºC. When the chemically bound water
disappears, the clay hardens irreversibly. After
firing, the material is ceramic, that is why the
ceramic stays solid even if you dip it in water.
Bricks are blocks of
ceramic material used
laid using various
kinds of mortar.The
colour of the brick
depends mainly on the
type of clay is used.
USES OF BRICKS:
● Bricks are used for
● Bricks are also used
in the metallurgy and
glass industries for
● They have high
●Phase #1 "The Paperwork"
●The Hardest part of any project is getting started,
"The Paperwork" can be very time consuming and
taxing, but just like buying a car, it is a necessary
evil. The following are your main paperwork check
● Contract with the required deposit: at the time of
● Builder package goes to the lender: your
Phase #2 “Taking shape”
Before any building can take place, the lot must
be prepared. Having a firm foundation is the key
to building a solid structure. This requires several
·Dirt work and lot leveling.
·Footing and foundation complete, Trusses &
Lumber delivered to the job site, and Framing.
·Windows, garage and exterior doors in place
·Wrap & scratch, brown coat
·Roof tile stacked & Exterior trim painted
Phase #3 “Interior Selections”
This is the turning point, as a structure becomes a
home. During this phase, all of the small interior
details and personal touches get set into motion.
Phase #4 “Nearly Complete”
As your house becomes a home, there are a few
more major projects that must be completed:
·Insulating your walls followed by drywall
·Texture spray and interior paint
·Cabinets installed and stained
Phase #5 “Finishing Touches”
Your almost home free, the dream is about to
become reality. All of the pieces of the puzzle are
almost together and yet there is still more to
·Concrete flat work
·Finalizing electrical and plumbing
Then there is a Good Old Fashioned Cleaning,
removal of all signs of construction so that all you
are left with,
is your perfect vision of your new Home.