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Mobile IPv6 course at CACIC 2006

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Course of IPv6 and Mobile IPv6 delivered at CACIC 2006, San Luis, Argentina

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Mobile IPv6 course at CACIC 2006

  1. 1. IPv6 and Mobile IPv6 Fundamentals, new services, and applications Rodolfo Kohn rodolfo.kohn@intel.com
  2. 2. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 2 Mobile entities and Mobile IPv6 - Agenda • Mobile Entities • Current State of Data Networks • New Perspectives • Limitations • Mobile IPv6 • Fundamentals • Main Elements • Location: Bidirectional Tunneling and Route Optimization • Movement Detection and Mobility Management • Security Considerations • New Extension Headers, Options, and Messages • Mobility Transparency • Applications
  3. 3. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 3 Mobile Entities and traditional naming services • Traditional naming services such as DNS cannot cope well with mobile entities essentially because they maintain a direct mapping between a human-friendly name an address. Name Address NameNameName AddressAddress
  4. 4. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 4 Mobile Entities Separate services • The alternative is to use the following: – Identifiers – Separate Naming Service and Location Service. Name Address NameNameName AddressAddress Entity ID Naming Service Location Service
  5. 5. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 5 Mobile Entities Forwarding Pointers • An object moving from an address space to another address space (or an entity moving from one domain to another domain). Nodes pointing to the node, where they believe the object is.
  6. 6. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 6 Mobile Entities Home-Based Approach • There is a home location that keeps track of the current location. It is updated when the entity moves to another domain. This is the solution used in Mobile IP. Home Agent Mobile Node Client Tunnel packet Packet to Home Location
  7. 7. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 7 Mobile Entities Hierarchical Approach • For each domain there is a directory node keeping track of the entities in that domain. • Lookup and update operations exploit locality. Location record with the address of E Location record for E with a node to the next lower level node
  8. 8. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 8 Current state of Data Networks • Different technologies: wireless and wired. • Little or no convergence. • Devices maintain a data connection as long as they remain in the same access network. • Limited number and variety of devices connected to the Internet. • Too simple applications.
  9. 9. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 9 Different access technologies GPRS/EDGE CDMA2000 UMTS 802.11a/b/g/n 802.16e Bluetooth Zigbee Ethernet (wired), others BTS Access point SOHO Router Digital Camera Camcorder PDA
  10. 10. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 10 Mobility: the same access network
  11. 11. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 11 Mobility: the same access network
  12. 12. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 12 Layer 2 limited solutions • There are some technology dependent solutions at layer 2. • Some cell phones can switch between different cell technologies (GPRS-UMTS, AMPS-CDMA- some time ago-) • UMA: Unlicensed Mobile Access. – UMA allows a mobile device with GPRS interface and 802.11 interface to perform a layer 2 handover between a GPRS Radio Area Network and an 802.11 WLAN.
  13. 13. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 13 New perspectives • Convergence among different technologies: full device mobility. • Connectivity for all types of devices. • New applications for new services.
  14. 14. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 14 Mobility: different access networks UMTS 802.11g DSLRouter BTS Home Town VoIP Access point
  15. 15. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 15 Mobility: different access networks UMTS 802.11g DSLRouter BTS Home Town VoIP VoIP session unaffected (seamless mobility) Access point
  16. 16. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 16 Mobility: different providers
  17. 17. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 17 Mobility: different providers
  18. 18. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 18 Different types of devices SOHO Router Cell Phone Medicine equipment Biometric Reader Camcorder Digital Camera Card Reader PDA
  19. 19. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 19 More devices and applications • Solutions for telemedicine. • Mobile Router: for cars, airplanes, etc. • Robots. • Sensors. • Home. • Other distributed applications for different mobile devices like Vocera.
  20. 20. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 20 Advantages • The possibility to roam among different networks will bring about less connection costs, greater bandwidth availability, better services or contents according to users preferences. • The connection of new devices to the network, the greater mobility possibilities and the new applications will bring about greater service possibilities.
  21. 21. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 21 Limitations for mobility Home Network Foreign Network Router - Ingress Filtering 1-Packet directed to the Home Network and it is dropped by the router. 2-Packet is dropped.
  22. 22. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 22 Other limitations • Small IPv4 Address Space: limit in the number of devices that can be connected and in the possibility to establish end to end connections between peers. • Location Name Services, like DNS, are not appropriate for high level of mobility. • Cost to port existent applications to mobile devices. • Device cost.
  23. 23. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 23 Required Solutions • Problems regarding mobility, name services and location services can be solved with DNS + MIPv6. • IPv4 Address Space Problem: use IPv6. • Portability costs for applications: requires transparency. • Device cost: cheaper HW and SW components and less resource utilization.
  24. 24. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 24 Solutions for mobile device location Name Address NameNameName AddressAddress Entity ID DNS, LDAP MIPv6
  25. 25. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 25 Mobile IPv6 Fundamentals Home Agent Core Network & UTRAN Node-B Correspondent Node Mobile Node UMTS-802.11n Home Network
  26. 26. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 26 Mobile IPv6 Fundamentals Home Agent Core Network & UTRAN Node-B Correspondent Node Mobile Node UMTS-802.11n Home Network Binding Update
  27. 27. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 27 Mobile IPv6 Fundamentals Home Agent Core Network & UTRAN Node-B Correspondent Node Mobile Node UMTS-802.11n Home Network HA intercepts pkt y and sends it to the primary CoA by tunneling.
  28. 28. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 28 Mobile IPv6 Fundamentals Home Agent Core Network & UTRAN Node-B Correspondent Node Mobile Node UMTS-802.11n Home Network Route Optimization
  29. 29. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 29 Mobile IPv6 Fundamentals Home Agent Core Network & UTRAN Node-B Correspondent Node Mobile Node UMTS-802.11n Home Network Route Optimization
  30. 30. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 30 Relevant MIPv6 Features for Mobile Devices • Provides the large address space of IPv6, required to connect every device. • Provides a Network Layer solution to mobility. • Provides the possibility of Route Optimization (compared to Mobile IPv4). • Provides transparency to upper layers (further described). This allows no cost IPv6 application portability.
  31. 31. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 31 MIPv6 Main Elements • Mobile Node: A node (Laptop, Cell phone, PDA, etc.) that can change its point of attachment from one link to another, while still being reachable via its home address*. It could also be an apparent “non-mobile device” such as a desktop PC or a set-top box connected to different access networks. • Home Link: The link on which the mobile node’s home subnet prefix is defined*. Any other link is considered “Foreign Link”. • Home Agent: A router on a mobile node’s home link with which a mobile node can register its current care-of address. • Correspondent Node: A peer node with which a mobile node is communicating. It could be either mobile or stationary*. * Term definition from RFC 3775
  32. 32. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 32 MIPv6 MN at the Home Link • Any Node is expected to be addressed at its Home Address. • The Home Address is an IP address assigned to the Mobile Node within it home subnet prefix on its home link. • A Mobile Node (MN) can be attached to its home link or to a visited (or foreign) link. • When the MN is attached to its home link packets are routed to it as always.
  33. 33. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 33 MIPv6 MN at a Foreign Link • When the MN is attached to a foreign link away from home, it can be addressed at one or more care-of addresses. • A Care-of Address is a unicast IP address associated to the MN when it is visiting a foreign link. • The subnet prefix of the care-of address is a foreign subnet prefix. • The MN can be reachable at different care-of addresses but only one is the primary care-of address associated to its Home Address.
  34. 34. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 34 MIPv6 Care-of Address • It is obtained in the foreign network using the regular IPv6 procedures: – Stateless Address Autoconfiguration – Stateful Address Autoconfiguration Ras: 2002:C3D4:6EED:1 DHCP Svr Visited NetworkHome Network Ras: 2002:C3D4:6EED:A2
  35. 35. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 35 MIPv6 Binding • At the Home Agent, a care-of address assigned to a Mobile Node is associated to the MN’s Home Address. This is a Binding. • After forming a new care-of address, the MN checks it is unique within the current link. Then it sends a “Binding Update” to the Home Agent carrying the new care-of address. • When the HA receives the Binding Update, it updates its “Binding Cache” with the new Binding between the Home Address and the Primary Care-of Address. • The HA responds with a “Binding Acknowledgement” to the MN.
  36. 36. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 36 MIPv6 Binding Update Ras: 2002:C3D4:6EED:1 DHCP Svr Visited NetworkHome Network Ras: 2002:C3D4:6EED:A2 Home Agent
  37. 37. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 37 MIPv6 Binding Update Ras: 2002:C3D4:6EED:1 DHCP Svr Visited NetworkHome Network Ras: 2002:C3D4:6EED:A2 Binding Update Home Agent Binding Cache: Home Address – Care-of Address
  38. 38. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 38 MIPv6 Binding Update Ras: 2002:C3D4:6EED:1 DHCP Svr Visited NetworkHome Network Ras: 2002:C3D4:6EED:A2 Binding Acknowledgement Home Agent Binding Cache: Home Address – Care-of Address
  39. 39. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 39 MIPv6 Correspondent Node • Any node communicating with the MN is called Correspondent Node (CN). • Communication between the MN and the CN can be carried out in two different ways: – Bidirectional Tunneling – Route Optimization • However, first time the CN always sends the packet as if the MN were attached to its home link.
  40. 40. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 40 Mobile Node First-Time Location • When a Correspondent Node sends a packet to the Mobile Node home address: – It is forwarded to the Home Network. – The Home Agent intercepts the packet and looks for the corresponding CoA based on the packet destination address, which must be a MN Home Address. – The Home Agent sends the packet to the Mobile Node by a bidirectional tunnel. – The Mobile Node de-tunnels the original packet, containing the home address, at the Network Layer which relays it to the upper layer.
  41. 41. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 41 MIPv6 Bidirectional Tunneling • With Bidirectional Tunneling packets sent by the CN are routed to the Mobile Node’s Home Network according to the address prefix. Once in the Home Network, the Home Agent uses Proxy Neighbor Discovery to intercept the packet and tunnels it to the MN using the registered primary care-of address. • The MN receives the packet and obtains the inner packet, which is the original one sent by the CN. For upper layers this process is transparent. • Packets from the MN to the CN are sent by reverse tunnel to the Home Agent which grabs the inner packet and routes it to the CN.
  42. 42. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 42 MIPv6 Route Optimization (CN to MN) • The MN registers its care-of address at the CN and the latter stores the Binding in its own “Binding Cache”. • When the CN sends a packet to the MN it first searches in its binding cache for Binding to the MN’s destination address. • If it finds a binding, it gets the Care-of Address and uses it as the packet destination address. The packet is added a new Routing Header (Type 2 RH) carrying the MN’s Home Address. • The packet is sent directly to the MN and when it is received, in the IP layer, the packet’s destination address is swapped with the Home Address in the Type 2 Routing Header. • Thus, from upper layers point of view, the packet has been sent to the MN’s Home Address: Mobility is transparent to upper layers.
  43. 43. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 43 MIPv6 Route Optimization (CN to MN) • Packets sent from the CN to the MN are added a new extension header called Type 2 Routing Header. IPv6 Source AddrRH2 Destination CoA IPv6 Home AddrTCP TCP Header & Payload MIPv6 1 This slide does not accurately represent the IPv6 Headers. It just intends to describe how the CoA and Home Address are conveyed in the MIPv6 Packet
  44. 44. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 44 MIPv6 Route Optimization (CN to MN) • Packets sent from the CN to the MN are added a new extension header called Type 2 Routing Header. IPv6 Source AddrRH2 TCP TCP Header & Payload IPv6 Home Addr MIPv6 Destination CoA0 This slide does not accurately represent the IPv6 Headers. It just intends to describe how the CoA and Home Address are conveyed in the MIPv6 Packet
  45. 45. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 45 MIPv6 Route Optimization (MN to CN) • When a packet is sent from the MN to the CN, the MN sets its care-of Address as the Source Address and adds a new Destination Option called Home Address destination option which conveys the MN’s Home Address. • When the packet is received at the CN, the packet’s source address is swapped with the Destination Option Home Address before passing it to the upper layer. • Thus, from upper layers point of view, the packet has been sent from the MN’s Home Address: Mobility is transparent to upper layers.
  46. 46. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 46 MIPv6 Route Optimization (MN to CN) • Packets sent from the MN to the CN are added a new destination option called Home Address option, in the first Destination Options extension header. IPv6 Dest AddrDO IPv6 Source CoA IPv6 Home AddrTCP TCP Header & Payload MIPv6 HA 16 This slide does not accurately represent the IPv6 Headers. It just intends to describe how the CoA and Home Address are conveyed in the MIPv6 Packet
  47. 47. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 47 MIPv6 Route Optimization (MN to CN) • Packets sent from the MN to the CN are added a new destination option called Home Address option, in the first Destination Options extension header. IPv6 Dest AddrDO TCP TCP Header & Payload IPv6 Home Addr MIPv6 IPv6 Source CoAHA 16 This slide does not accurately represent the IPv6 Headers. It just intends to describe how the CoA and Home Address are conveyed in the MIPv6 Packet
  48. 48. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 48 MIPv6 Route Optimization Conclusions • Route Optimization permits the shortest communication path to be used • RO eliminates congestion at the Home Agent and the Home Link. • The Home Agent is eliminated as a possible failure point. • Route Optimization requires the MN to register its care- of address at the CN. • The CN must support MIPv6. Otherwise, communication is carried out through Bidirectional Tunneling. • For security, always before sending a Binding Update to the CN, a Return Routability Procedure must be run between both nodes.
  49. 49. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 49 Handover • So far we know a mobile node can move from one network to another. • However, we mentioned nothing about how this process is realized. Ras: 2002:C3D4:6EED:1 DHCP Svr Visited NetworkHome Network Ras: 2002:C3D4:6EED:A2 Router A Router B
  50. 50. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 50 Handover: How does it happen? UMTS 802.11g DSLRouter BTS Home Town VoIP Access point
  51. 51. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 51 Handover: How does it happen? UMTS 802.11g DSLRouter BTS Home Town VoIP VoIP session unaffected (seamless mobility) Access point
  52. 52. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 52 Handover definitions • Handover (or handoff) is basically a procedure by which a node changes its point of attachment at some layer. However this concept implies slightly different meanings in different fields and different groups. • Definitions from 3GPP TR 21.905 (version 7.1.0 release 7): – Handover: The transfer of a user’s connection from one radio channel to another (can be the same or different cell). – Handover: The process in which the radio access network changes the radio transmitters or radio access mode or radio system used to provide the bearer services, while maintaining a defined bearer service QoS. • L2 Handover (RFC 3775) is a process by which the mobile node changes from one link-layer connection to another. • L3 Handover (RFC 3775) implies a change in the L3 network to which the mobile node is attached. It always involves an L2 Handover (the opposite is not true). MIPv6 deals with L3 Handovers.
  53. 53. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 53 L2 Handover and L3 Handover Ras: 2002:C3D4:6EED:1 DHCP Svr Visited NetworkHome Network Ras: 2002:C3D4:6EED:A2 Router A Router B Ras: 2002:C3D4:6EED:1 DHCP SvrHome Network Ras: 2002:C3D4:6EED:A2 Router A
  54. 54. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 54 Handover classification with respect to the interface and technology changes. • Horizontal Handover: Is a handover between access points of the same link technology. It usually implies the same network interface. • Vertical Handover: Is a handover between access points of different link technologies. It usually involves a change of network interface. • These concepts are vague: – GPRS/UMTS cards (different technologies and same interface). – Handover between two same-technology interfaces .
  55. 55. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 55 Movement Detection • The primary goal is to realize about L3 Handovers. • RFC 3775 does not strictly specifies an algorithm. It only proposes a generic method. • Basically, movement detection occurs when the default router is no longer bi-directionally reachable. Neighbor Unreachability Detection detects this. This is could take a long time. • Router Advertisement information is used to detect an L3 Handover. • This must be assisted with: – Advertisement Interval option. – Neighbor Unreachability Detection. If the current default router is still reachable then do not perform handover. – L2 hints. This is the most important to improve seamless handover. However it is necessary to understand that an L2 handover does not imply an L3 handover.
  56. 56. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 56 Mobility Management Home Agent Core Network & UTRAN Node-B Correspondent Node Mobile Node UMTS-802.11n Home Network GGSN RA
  57. 57. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 57 Mobility Management Home Agent Core Network & UTRAN Node-B Correspondent Node Mobile Node UMTS-802.11n Home Network Binding Update Binding Acknowledgement. GGSN RA
  58. 58. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 58 Mobility Management Home Agent Core Network & UTRAN Node-B Correspondent Node Mobile Node UMTS-802.11n Home Network Binding Update with Route Optimization. After Return- Routability Procedure GGSN RA
  59. 59. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 59 Mobility Management From the MN Standpoint • Every node is identified by its IPv6 Home Address. • Every node has a Home Network. • When a Node moves to another network (Foreign Network): – It detects it has moved to a different network. Basically (but not enough) by detecting different subnet prefixes in RAs. – It generates a Co-located Care-of Address by stateless autoconfiguration or stateful autoconfiguration. This is the Locator. • The MN performs Duplicate Address Detection. • The Mobile Node sends a Binding Update to the Home Agent with the new primary care-of address. • The Home Agent updates its Bindings cache with the Home Address and the new Primary Care-of Address. • The MN receives a Binding Acknowledgement sent by the HA. • MN sends Binding Updates to the Correspondent Nodes with which Route Optimization is being held. This is done after the return- routability procedure.
  60. 60. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 60 Security in MIPv6 • Two main aspects: – Communication between the Mobile Node and the Home Agent: an IPsec Security Association to protect data integrity and provide authentication of the Binding Updates and Acknowledgements. – Binding Updates to Correspondent Nodes: Return Routability Procedure is run before every new binding update.
  61. 61. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 61 Security in MIPv6: MN-HA • It is necessary to provide data integrity and authentication for the Binding Updates and Acknowledgements. • An IPsec security association must be used. • Both HAs and MNs must support and should use Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) header in transport mode. • MNs and Has must use an non-NULL payload authentication algorithm. • Authentication Header is possible. • To use IPsec, the Security Policy Database must be appropriately updated.
  62. 62. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 62 Return Routability Procedure • It is used to enable binding updates at a Correspondent Node. • It must be run by the MN always before sending a Binding Update to a CN. • It must be run with every CN where the new care-of address is to be registered. • The procedure begins after the MN received the Binding Acknowledgement from the HA for the care-of address to be registered at the CN: – The MN sends two different messages to the CN: • Home Test Init: it is sent through the HA, uses the Home Address as source address, and contains a “home init cookie” generated by the MN. • Care-of Test Init: it is directly sent to the CN, uses the Care-of Address as source address, and contains a “care-of init cookie” generated by the MN.
  63. 63. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 63 Return Routability Procedure (2) • The CN receives both messages • It generates a “home keygen token” from a secret key, the MN’s home address, and a generated nonce. Algorithm HMAC_SHA1 is used. • In the same way, the “care-of keygen token” is generated (using the care-of address) • It sends the corresponding responses: – Home Test: it is sent to the MN’s home address (through the HA), including the “home init cookie”, the “home keygen token”, the nonce index. – Care-of Test: it is sent to the MN’s care-of address including the “care-of init cookie”, the “care-of keygen token”, and the nonce index.
  64. 64. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 64 Binding Update after Return Routability Procedure • After receiving Home Test and Care-of Test messages, the MN generates a “binding management key” by applying SHA-1 to the concatenation of the home keygen token and the care-of keygen token. • It generates a Message Authentication Code from the BU with the binding management key and includes it, along with the nonce indeces, in the Mobility Header of the BU. • MN sends a Binding Update to the CN. • In the same way, the CN generates the MAC of the Binding Acknowledgement and includes it in the Mobility Header. The nonce indices are not necessary in this message.
  65. 65. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 65 Home Agent Core Network & UTRAN Node-B Correspondent Node Mobile Node UMTS-802.11n Home Network GGSN RA Return Routability Procedure and Correspondent Binding Update
  66. 66. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 66 Home Agent Core Network & UTRAN Node-B Correspondent Node Mobile Node UMTS-802.11n Home Network Binding Update Binding Acknowledgement. GGSN RA Return Routability Procedure and Correspondent Binding Update
  67. 67. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 67 Return Routability Procedure and Correspondent Binding Update Home Agent Core Network & UTRAN Node-B Correspondent Node Mobile Node UMTS-802.11n Home Network GGSN RA
  68. 68. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 68 Return Routability Procedure and Correspondent Binding Update Home Agent Core Network & UTRAN Node-B Correspondent Node Mobile Node UMTS-802.11n Home Network GGSN RA
  69. 69. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 69 Return Routability Procedure and Correspondent Binding Update Home Agent Core Network & UTRAN Node-B Correspondent Node Mobile Node UMTS-802.11n Home Network Binding Update to CN. GGSN RA
  70. 70. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 70 New Extension Headers, Options, and Messages • MIPv6 is a new protocol based on IPv6 • It adds its own extension headers, options, and messages.
  71. 71. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 71 MIPv6 Mobility Header • Mobility Header: an extension header used by MN’s, HA’s, and CN’s in all messaging related to the creation and management of bindings. • This header is identified by Next Header value 135 in the immediately preceding header. • The message data is a variable length field whose data depends on the specific Mobility Header type. +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Payload Proto | Header Len | MH Type | Reserved | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | Checksum | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | | . . . Message Data . . . | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
  72. 72. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 72 MIPv6 Mobility Header Types • The Mobility Header is used only in messages related to binding updates: – Binding Refresh Request Message. – Home Test Init Message. – Care-of Test Init Message. – Home Test Message. – Care-of Test Message. – Binding Update Message. – Binding Acknowledgement Message. – Binding Error Message • Each type of message determines the data fields of the Mobility Header and uses specific Mobility Options.
  73. 73. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 73 Home Address Option and Type 2 Routing Header • The Home Address Option is included in the Destination Options Mobility Header. • The Home Address Option is used in every packet from the MN to inform the Home Address while the MN is away from home. • Type 2 Routing Header is used to convey the Home Address of the MN in a packet sent to it. • Type 2 Routing Header permits Firewalls to apply different rules for this header than for the regular Routing Header. • This Header, if present, should be immediately after Type 0 Routing Header.
  74. 74. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 74 New ICMP Messages • New ICMP messages are used in MIPv6: – ICMP Home Agent Address Discovery Request Message. – ICMP Home Agent Address Discovery Reply Message. – ICMP Mobile Prefix Solicitation Message. – ICMP Mobile Prefix Advertisement Message.
  75. 75. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 75 Modifications to IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol • Router Advertisement message format is modified: a bit flag indicates the router is also a Home Agent. • Modified Prefix Information Option format: the Router can advertise its global address. • New Advertisement Interval option: to indicate the maximum period for unsolicited RAs are sent. • New Home Agent Information option: sent in HA’s RAs. • Changes to sending RAs: The time between RAs is decreased to 0.03 sec to 0.07 sec
  76. 76. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 76 Transport Layer • When a packet is ready to pass to the Transport Layer, either at the MN or at the CN, it already contains the appropriate home addresses both in the destination address and the source address. • Thus, the fourth layer knows nothing about mobility. • In particular, TCP sockets are not affected since the original addresses never changed.
  77. 77. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 77 Mobility Transparency • Since Transport layers always deal with Home Addresses, using them as mobile nodes identifiers, mobility is transparent for this layer. • Since applications always deal either with human-friendly names or Home Addresses, mobility is also transparent to the Application Layer.
  78. 78. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 78 Consequences for Applications • No-cost portability to MIPv6: – IPv6 enabled applications will be able to run in mobile nodes using MIPv6 with no modifications. – IPv6 enabled applications running in non-mobile nodes using MIPv6 will be able to communicate with peers in mobile nodes taking advantage of Route Optimization. • Software developers do not need to worry about mobility when an application is designed and coded. They will work normally with BSD sockets.
  79. 79. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 79 Leveraging Mobility: IEEE 802.21 • In order to improve seamless mobility MIPv6 must be helped by hints from layer 2 in order to perform a seamless handover. • These hints depend on the media. There are different proposals that sometimes involve modifying layer 2 behavior. • IEEE 802.21, Media Independent Handover, is an effort to create a standard for a 2.5 layer to enhance handover between heterogeneous media.
  80. 80. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 80 Application: Seamless Mobility at Layer 3 • A Mobile Device can roam among different networks without affecting the established sessions (VoIP, Video streaming, FTP, etc.). • For example, a handset with a GPRS interface and an 802.11g interface could roam between these two types of networks. When the user having a VoIP session over GPRS arrives in home it could continue her VoIP session through the local 802.11g WLAN connected to the Internet through ADSL. • Example: Nokia handset. http://www.ipv6tf.org/news/newsroom.php?id=798
  81. 81. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 81 Application: Seamless Mobility at Layer 3 UE Router Bluetooth connection Internet Router UE BTS BSC and GPRS Core network Internet GPRS connection CAMPUS Router UE 802.11G connection Router Internet CAMPUS Manufacturing Plant A B C
  82. 82. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 82 Application: Best Access Network Selection • MIPv6 opens the possibility for a device to be able to select between different networks, the preferred one. • The device needs to have the proper interfaces. • The selection can be done based on price, offered QoS, preferred carrier operator, etc. • The device can perform a handover from one network to the other without affecting the user network applications. • Some References: – H.Y. Lach, M. Catalina, “Network Access Co-ordination to Complement IP Mobility Protocols,” IETF draft-lach-nac-01.txt (work in progress), Oct 2003. – E. Adamopoulou, K. Demestichas, A. Koutsorodi, M. Theologou, “Intelligent Access Network Selection in Heterogeneous Networks,” IEEE 2nd International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems, September 2005.
  83. 83. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 83 NEMO • Network Mobility: This concept refers to the mobility of an entire network as a whole through a mobile router connecting the network to the whole Internet. • WG Web Site: http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/nemo- charter.html
  84. 84. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 84 Available MIPv6 stacks • There are various MIPv6 stacks implemented: – LIVSIX: http://www.emnl.motlabs.com/livsix/ – Kame Project: http://www.kame.net/ – MIPL: http://www.mobile-ipv6.org/ – Treck: http://www.treck.com/ – Others.
  85. 85. 6/28/2015 IPv6 and MIPv6 - Fundamentals, new services, and applications 85 Main MIPv6 Links and Contact Information • RFC 3775, “Mobility Support in IPv6”; RFC 2460, “Internet Protocol Version 6”: www.ietf.org • LIVSIX MIPv6 stack: www.enrl.motlabs.com/livsix • Ubiquigeneous Networking. A Distributed Networking Application Over Mobile Embedded Devices: http://journal.info.unlp.edu.ar/postgrado/Carreras /Magister/Tesis%20Redes/Tesis%20Kohn.pdf • Contact Information: rodolfo.kohn@intel.com

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