2011 vm rescue day final


Published on

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • What is a Winch? A winch is a machine that is used for hauling or pulling. A winch consists of the following: A Drum A Gear Box A Motor The drum is attached to the gear box, which is then driven by the motor.
  • Now that we’ve briefly covered what a winch is, lets also look at what a winch isn't. Many consumers may want to purchase a winch and use it for hoisting purposes. Hoisting is lifting a load up & lowering it down rather than pulling a load along the ground or up an incline. While a winch can be used to lift an ATV snow plow blade for example it should not be the sole means of support nor should it be stored in a holding position. Numerous standards exist for machinery used in lifting. Electric Hoists used for lifting must have, at a minimum, a 5:1 safety factor, switches to limit travel and one or more independent braking systems. Machinery used to transport people up and down are elevators and these have even higher engineering requirements. Winches are not hoists or elevators and should not be used as such. We do sell hoists, for material handling.
  • 2011 vm rescue day final

    1. 1. Vehicle and Machinery Rescue Tarrant County College Day 2
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Review of Day One </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy Lifting </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy Loads </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Advantage and Levers </li></ul><ul><li>Tool Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilization </li></ul><ul><li>Winch Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Live Scenario </li></ul>
    3. 3. REVIEW DAY ONE <ul><li>The Technical Rescuer </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Vehicle and Machinery Rescue </li></ul><ul><li>PPE and Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Size Up and Scene Security </li></ul><ul><li>Tools and TCC Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Airbag Hotwiring </li></ul><ul><li>Phases of Rescue Drill </li></ul><ul><li>Operations Level Skill Update </li></ul><ul><li>Large Vehicle Anatomy </li></ul>
    4. 4. Heavy Lifting
    5. 5. Heavy Lifting <ul><li>Principles of Leverage and Balance </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage – advantage or power gained </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity Load Balance is the Center of Gravity or Center of Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Finding the center… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking complex objects into simple ones </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Heavy Lifting <ul><li>Force </li></ul><ul><li>Force is a push or pull upon an object resulting from an objects interaction with another object </li></ul><ul><li>Other forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frictional Force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravitational Force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic Force </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Force is a Vector </li></ul><ul><li>Force is measured in Newtons </li></ul>
    7. 7. Heavy Lifting <ul><li>How to calculate the weight of the load </li></ul><ul><li>Not all objects will be able to be lifted or moved </li></ul><ul><li>The first consideration is always, “How much does the object weigh?” </li></ul><ul><li>Then, “Do I have the tools necessary?” </li></ul><ul><li>Now, estimate the weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L x W x H = Cubic Units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiply the weight per unit by the following… </li></ul></ul>Wood 45 lbs/cu/ft Concrete 150 lbs/cu/ft Stone 170 lbs/cu/ft Steel 495 lbs/cu/ft Clay 110 lbs/cu/ft Aluminum 165 lbs/cu/ft More about airbags later…
    8. 8. Heavy Lifting <ul><li>Lifting Concepts for Rescue </li></ul><ul><li>Cribbing can be too far from the pry bar </li></ul><ul><li>5:1 is NOT achieved with improper positioning </li></ul><ul><li>Control is Key </li></ul><ul><li>Lifting with hand tools is a slow process, don’t get greedy </li></ul><ul><li>Lift an inch, crib an inch </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden shifts of movement should not be more than one inch </li></ul><ul><li>Every action produces a reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork is essential </li></ul>
    9. 9. 10.1 Machines and Mechanical Advantage <ul><li>Key Question: </li></ul><ul><li>How do simple machines work? </li></ul>
    10. 10. What is a Simple Machine? <ul><li>A simple machine has few or no moving parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Simple machines make work easier </li></ul><ul><li>WE CAN CALCULATE: </li></ul><ul><li>WORK </li></ul><ul><li>POWER </li></ul><ul><li>EFFIECIENCY </li></ul>
    11. 11. Simple Machines <ul><li>The ability of humans to build buildings and move mountains began with our invention of machines . </li></ul><ul><li>In physics the term “ simple machine ” means a machine that uses only the forces directly applied and accomplishes its task with a single motion. </li></ul>
    12. 12. 10.1 Machines <ul><li>The best way to analyze what a machine does is to think about the machine in terms of input and output . </li></ul>
    13. 13. 10.1 Mechanical Advantage <ul><li>Mechanical advantage is the ratio of output force to input force. </li></ul><ul><li>For a typical automotive jack the mechanical advantage is 30 or more. </li></ul><ul><li>A force of 100 newtons (22.5 pounds) applied to the input arm of the jack produces an output force of 3,000 newtons (675 pounds)— enough to lift one corner of an automobile. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Heavy Lifting <ul><li>The Pry Bar </li></ul><ul><li>The Toe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointed end of the pry bar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insertion point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Heel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fulcrum of the lever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point of contact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Lever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Shaft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5:1 mechanical advantage (defined later) </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. 10.1 Mechanical Advantage MA = F o F i Output force (N) Input force (N) Mechanical advantage
    16. 16. Heavy Lifting <ul><li>Application of Levers </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of levers </li></ul><ul><li>A type of mechanical advantage </li></ul><ul><li>A simple machine that makes work easier </li></ul>
    17. 18. Mechanical Advantage and Levers <ul><li>Advantage vs. Disadvantage </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical Advantage is the ratio of output force produced by a machine to the applied input force </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage is said to occur when a line goes through a pulley that does not add to the mechanical advantage, only adding friction </li></ul>
    18. 19. Mechanical Advantage and Levers <ul><li>Two methods used to calculate mechanical advantage; </li></ul><ul><li>Counting Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Adding the Tensions </li></ul>
    19. 20. Mechanical Advantage and Levers <ul><li>1. Counting Lines </li></ul><ul><li>Count the number of lines to the load or pulley that is attached to the load </li></ul><ul><li>This tells you the mechanical advantage </li></ul>In this example, there are two lines, therefore, the advantage is 2:1
    20. 21. Mechanical Advantage and Levers <ul><li>In this example, the hauling line is not attached directly to the load </li></ul><ul><li>If you cover the top section, you can see that only one line is attached to the pulley or load </li></ul>The mechanical advantage of this system is still 2:1
    21. 22. Mechanical Advantage and Levers <ul><li>2. Adding the Tensions </li></ul><ul><li>In simple terms if there is a 100 kg load on one side, there must be a 100 kg load on the other </li></ul><ul><li>There must be 200 kg load on the end of the pulley, thus 2:1 </li></ul>
    22. 24. 10.1 Wheels, gears, and rotating machines <ul><li>Axles and wheels provide advantages. </li></ul><ul><li>Friction occurs where the wheel and axle touch or where the wheel touches a surface. </li></ul><ul><li>Rolling motion creates less wearing away of material compared with two surfaces sliding over each other. </li></ul><ul><li>With gears the trade-off is made between torque and rotation speed . </li></ul><ul><li>An output gear will turn with more torque when it rotates slower than the input gear. </li></ul>
    23. 25. 10.1 Ramps and Screws <ul><li>Ramps reduce input force by increasing the distance over which the input force needs to act. </li></ul><ul><li>A screw is a simple machine that turns rotating motion into linear motion. </li></ul><ul><li>A thread wraps around a screw at an angle, like the angle of a ramp. </li></ul>
    24. 26. Heavy Lifting <ul><li>High Pressure Bags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>80 to 120 psi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be stacked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger bag on the bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Pressure Bags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High lift range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can fill voids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 to 4 psi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cribbing for stabilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 x 4 = 6,000lbs per contact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 x 6 = 15,000lbs per contact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hydraulic Jacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can leak down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not laterally stable </li></ul></ul>Pneumatic, hydraulic and mechanical lifting tools
    25. 27. Heavy Lifting <ul><li>Cribbing the Heavy Load </li></ul><ul><li>Box Cribbing – two pieces of cribbing formed into a box, with each layer alternating </li></ul><ul><li>Cross Tie Cribbing – utilizes three pieces of cribbing per layer of the box with each layer alternating </li></ul>4 x 4 box = 24K lbs support 6 x 6 box = 60K lbs support 4 x 4 cross tie = 40K lbs support 6 x 6 cross tie = 120K lbs support
    26. 28. Heavy Lifting <ul><li>Wooden Box Cribbing </li></ul><ul><li>Construction Grade Material </li></ul><ul><li>Align edge a max of one inch from the end </li></ul><ul><li>Rotate cribbing to crush the grain together </li></ul><ul><li>Grain should run horizontal, not vertical </li></ul><ul><li>Rotate the wood so that a crack is compressed </li></ul><ul><li>Wood is strong, stable and has a safety factor </li></ul>Wood Cribbing under pressure will typically fail in a slow, noisy action Spread the load out Never “side load” cribbing “ Dress your cribbing as you go, maximizing stability
    27. 29. Lifting Heavy Loads
    28. 30. Lifting Heavy Loads <ul><li>Air bag system components </li></ul><ul><li>Air Bags </li></ul><ul><li>Hoses and couplings </li></ul><ul><li>Controller </li></ul><ul><li>Regulator </li></ul><ul><li>Air Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Accessories </li></ul>
    29. 31. Tool Orientation <ul><li>Lift Bags </li></ul><ul><li>Life Expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>Rubber and Steel or Synthetic Fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Carrolton Example… </li></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts Example… </li></ul>
    30. 32. Heavy Lifting <ul><li>Airbag Lifting Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Airbag Lifting Formula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>116 psi x Area in contact = Lifting Force (lbs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discuss the Problem: </li></ul><ul><li>You must lift a 30 ton object 6: to access a victim. The bottom of the object is 12” above the floor. You have VS-43 with 43 tons max lifting capacity and a max lifting height of 15.8 inches </li></ul>Place the bag as close to the load as possible. Use a solid top box crib. Lift 2 to 3 inches and then crib the bag up. Lift again…
    31. 33. Heavy Lifting <ul><li>Another way to increase lifting height is to stack 2 airbags </li></ul><ul><li>The lifting force is limited by the weakest airbag </li></ul><ul><li>Never stack more than 2 bags </li></ul><ul><li>Lifting force can be increased by placing 2 airbags side by side </li></ul><ul><li>When VS 43 and VS 34 are placed side by side, the max lifting force is increased to 78 tons </li></ul>Airbag Lifting Theory
    32. 34. Lifting Heavy Loads <ul><li>Lifting Capacity vs. Lifting Height </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity = lbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Height = feet or inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Max is usually reached at 2 to 3 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Max weight is variable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifting capacity always decreases as the lifting height increases </li></ul></ul>
    33. 35. Lifting Heavy Loads <ul><li>Single Point, Single Bag Lift </li></ul><ul><li>On bag is positioned </li></ul><ul><li>A solid layer of cribbing is placed under the bag </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to color of hose when inflating </li></ul><ul><li>Protect from “sharps” </li></ul><ul><li>Keep all personnel clear of the danger zone </li></ul><ul><li>Cribbing should always be within one inch of the bag </li></ul>
    34. 36. Lifting Heavy Loads <ul><li>Single Point, Double Stacked Bag Lift </li></ul><ul><li>Larger bags on the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Position couplings on opposite corners </li></ul><ul><li>Put a solid layer of cribbing under the bag </li></ul><ul><li>Place sharps protection </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a base by partially inflating the bottom bag first </li></ul><ul><li>Allow “nesting” by not filling bags all the way </li></ul>
    35. 37. Lifting Heavy Loads <ul><li>Separation distance of stacked airbag edges are important </li></ul><ul><li>If a shift begins to occur, one edge will move closer together </li></ul><ul><li>The opposite sides will move apart </li></ul>Single Point, Double Stacked Bag Lift
    37. 39. OVERTURNING RESISTANCE Overturning resistance is that part of the weight of the vehicle which acts against the force exerted to bring it back on its wheels OVERTURNING RESISTANCE IS EQUAL TO ½ THE VEHICLES WEIGHT PLUS CARGO
    38. 40. 1. GRADE RESISTANCE Grade resistance is created when a vehicle moves up a slope and gravity affects the weight of the vehicle. GRADE RESISTANCE IS EQUAL TO 1 TIMES THE VEHICLE WEIGHT PLUS CARGO
    39. 43. Tool Orientation <ul><li>Cribbing </li></ul><ul><li>Wood Cribbing is most common </li></ul><ul><li>Step Chocks </li></ul><ul><li>Cribbing is discussed later in this class… </li></ul><ul><li>Air Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Air Chisel </li></ul><ul><li>Impact Wrench </li></ul><ul><li>Care of air tools </li></ul>
    40. 44. Tool Orientation <ul><li>Go over the following tools in class: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Come-A-Long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TCC Struts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Push Plates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain and Hook System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wire Rope </li></ul></ul>
    41. 45. Tool Orientation <ul><li>Struts </li></ul><ul><li>A support rod or column that is designed to take a heavy load and transport it to a more stable base </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used vertically, horizontally or diagonally </li></ul><ul><li>Takes a load parallel, along its axis as opposed to a beam which takes a load perpendicular to its length </li></ul>
    42. 46. Specifications <ul><li>Res-q-jack RJ3 strut </li></ul><ul><li>Travel: 12 “ </li></ul><ul><li>Failure load : 14,000lbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Static load : 7,000lbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic load ( lifting ) 4,000lbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum lifting height of 17” </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum height of 107” </li></ul><ul><li>CRG head, easy to use locking pins </li></ul><ul><li>2 straps attached at base </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to use locking pins </li></ul>
    43. 47. Tool Orientation <ul><li>Push Plates </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for ram support </li></ul><ul><li>Other uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hook and Anchor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicle Stabilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hi-Lift Jack Hook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tire Base </li></ul></ul>
    44. 48. Tool Orientation <ul><li>Wire Rope (Cable) </li></ul><ul><li>A complex machine </li></ul><ul><li>5-1 Safety Rating/Design Factor </li></ul><ul><li>Construction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>114 separate steel wires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many different types </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Five standard grades: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cast Steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra Strong Cast Steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plow Steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved Plow Steel </li></ul></ul>
    45. 49. Tool Orientation <ul><li>In each of the grades mentioned; the constructions divide themselves into four general classifications… </li></ul>6 x 7 6 x 19 6 x 37 8 x 19 Coarse Lay Flexible Extra Flexible Extra Flexible
    46. 50. Tool Orientation <ul><li>Come-A-Long </li></ul><ul><li>Two main types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chain Hoist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wire Rope Type </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hand powered types use a ratchet wheel and ratchet lever </li></ul><ul><li>The advantage is that they can usually be operated in any orientation for pulling, lifting or binding </li></ul><ul><li>O'Connell plates may be used to anchor a come-a long </li></ul>
    47. 51. Rigging equipment for material handling <ul><li>Four grades: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grade 28 General Utility Chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grade 43 High Test Chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grade 70 Binding Chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grade 80 Alloy Steel Chain: The only one used for overhead lifting </li></ul></ul>G 80
    48. 52. Chain <ul><li>16’ grade 80 3/8” chain with grab hooks </li></ul><ul><li>Approved for overhead lifting </li></ul><ul><li>Working load limit is 7,100 lbs. </li></ul><ul><li>All components must meet or exceed limits </li></ul><ul><li>4-1 Safety Rating or Design Factor </li></ul>
    49. 53. Chains <ul><li>Alloy steel chains </li></ul><ul><li>Welded alloy steel chain slings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Permanently affixed durable identification stating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rated capacity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sling manufacturer </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 54. What Chain does Your Department Use? <ul><li>Alloy steel chains </li></ul><ul><li>Job or shop hooks and links, or makeshift fasteners, formed from bolts, rods, etc., or other such attachments, shall not be used </li></ul>
    51. 55. Tool Orientation <ul><li>Chains and Hooks </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used for pulling and stabilizing </li></ul><ul><li>Danger Zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>360 o around the winch or pulling device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The length of the chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hooks will fail in the direction of the back of hook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wire rope will recoil violently dropping only 6 inches for every 10 feet, Stand Clear! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a chain choker reduces the chain strength by 40% </li></ul></ul>
    52. 56. Ratchet Strap Operation The TeleCrib® Strut system comes with special Rescue 42 red 10,000 Lb. rescue straps. Hook clusters and cinch rings are also provided to increase system versatility. Straps are supplied in 27’ lengths. If you decide this is too long, you may simply cut the straps shorter and melt the ends. We recommend that you make several lengths of old fire hose slit up the side for use as edge protectors if the straps are against sharp glass or metal. Velcro may be applied on the inside edges of the hose for better operation. Straps are for use both with the struts, by themselves (example: strap two vehicles together or strap a vehicle to a fixed anchor) or in combination with the hook clusters or cinch rings. 3,335 lb working load / 10,000 lb test load, 12,000 lb impregnated strap
    53. 57. Stabilization
    54. 59. Stabilization <ul><li>Types of Stabilization Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Cribbing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Box Cribs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross Ties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step Cribs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Struts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ART </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paratech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rescue 42 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kodiak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crutch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Junkyard Dogs </li></ul></ul>
    55. 60. Stabilization <ul><li>Stabilization Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Five movements to overcome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical Movement… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal Movement… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yaw… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roll… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Look at stabilizing the vehicle like trying to stabilize a ball; prevent any type of movement </li></ul>
    56. 61. Stabilization <ul><li>When a vehicle slips a couple of inches, it’s a real problem; a finger can be lost that quick </li></ul><ul><li>Spend extra time making sure that all vehicles are stabilized and won’t move </li></ul>Stabilization Goals
    57. 62. Stabilization <ul><li>Stabilizing a vehicle on its side: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the area of contact between the vehicle and the ground using wedges and cribbing </li></ul><ul><li>Airbags may be used in conjunction with cribbing, but watch your time </li></ul><ul><li>High lift jacks may be used for additional stability </li></ul>
    58. 63. Stabilization <ul><li>Tensioned Stabilization </li></ul><ul><li>The most effective stabilization technique </li></ul><ul><li>A 6 to 8 foot 4 x 4, chain and O’Connell plate with a Come-A-Long </li></ul><ul><li>Create a stable “Raker Shore” </li></ul>
    59. 64. Stabilization <ul><li>Stabilization Points </li></ul><ul><li>When using struts on large vehicles, a large amount of cribbing is eliminated, but is never totally </li></ul><ul><li>Struts applied under the frame of the trailer or bus is similar to a vehicle </li></ul>
    60. 65. Stabilization <ul><li>Types of Stabilization Surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Loose Material… </li></ul><ul><li>Slippery… </li></ul><ul><li>Slick (lack of texture)… </li></ul><ul><li>Sloping… </li></ul><ul><li>Moving… </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal Surfaces to Utilize… </li></ul>
    61. 66. Stabilization <ul><li>Vehicle and Machinery Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Posts </li></ul><ul><li>Roof </li></ul><ul><li>Floor </li></ul><ul><li>Wheel Wells </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial Areas </li></ul>
    62. 67. Stabilization <ul><li>Hazard Stabilization </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumatic </li></ul>
    63. 68. Stabilization <ul><li>Isolation Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Securing Energy Sources </li></ul><ul><li>Power Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized System </li></ul>Care should be taken when controlling hazards as not to eliminate the potential use by rescuers of beneficial systems Give examples of beneficial systems
    64. 69. Winch Operations
    65. 70. What is a Winch? NEXT A winch consists of a drum that is powered by a gear reduction system used for hauling or pulling.
    67. 72. WARNING! NEXT <ul><li>WARNING! </li></ul><ul><li>WINCHES ARE NOT HOISTS OR ELEVATORS </li></ul><ul><li>Hoisting is lifting a load or lowering a load </li></ul><ul><li>The safety factor designed into a winch </li></ul><ul><li>is not adequate for lifting purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>A winch must not be used for lifting or </li></ul><ul><li>personnel transport operations! </li></ul>
    68. 73. Winch Operations <ul><li>Winch Operations at a Rescue Scene </li></ul><ul><li>Winch Safety Points </li></ul><ul><li>Every winch has a rating, know what it is and don’t go over it </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum pulling is only at the first layer and decreases for each wrap </li></ul><ul><li>Min 5 wraps on 1 st layeror rescue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap 1 = 8,000 lbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap 2 = 6,700 lbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap 3 = 5,700 lbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap 4 = 5,000 lbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap 5 = 4,500 lbs </li></ul></ul>
    69. 74. Winching Operations <ul><li>What if you don’t have a winch? </li></ul><ul><li>Snatch Strap </li></ul><ul><li>Rated for 33,000 lbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Use instead of chain </li></ul><ul><li>Made to take a shock </li></ul><ul><li>load and work like a </li></ul><ul><li>rubber band. </li></ul><ul><li>Attach to a frame </li></ul><ul><li>mounted trailer hitch </li></ul><ul><li>or hook on the vehicle. </li></ul>
    70. 75. Winching Operations <ul><li> Now we have a winch! </li></ul>
    71. 76. Winching Operations <ul><li>Electric Controls </li></ul><ul><li>Plugs into the winch </li></ul><ul><li>Forward and reverse control </li></ul>
    72. 77. Winching Operations <ul><li>Manual Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Spool </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engaged </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by lever on </li></ul><ul><li>winch </li></ul>
    73. 78. Winching Operations <ul><li> and recovery gear. </li></ul>Edge Protection/Wire Cover Snatch block Anchor Strap 1’’ Clevis Snatch block is rated for 12,000. Anchor strap is rated: Extended – 4,400 lbs. Choked – 3,500 lbs. Doubled – 8,800 lbs.
    74. 79. Winching Operations <ul><li>Tree Strap </li></ul>Choked Doubled
    75. 80. Winching Operations <ul><li>Straight Line Pull </li></ul>
    76. 81. Winching Operations <ul><li>Using Winch Mechanical Advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to the winch </li></ul><ul><li>The duty cycle is about 30 seconds under load </li></ul><ul><li>If it starts to bog down it is being </li></ul><ul><li>overloaded </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical advantage will allow you to cut </li></ul><ul><li>the work load of the winch down </li></ul>
    77. 82. Winching Operations <ul><li>Using Winch Mechanical Advantage </li></ul>Double line pull
    78. 83. Winching Operations Double line pull
    79. 84. Winch Operations <ul><li>Winches and cables </li></ul><ul><li>Tarp will act as a damper </li></ul><ul><li>A tarp is a good visual warning </li></ul><ul><li>When a hook breaks, it moves in the direction of the back of the hook </li></ul><ul><li>When starting to pull, keep slack </li></ul><ul><li>Using a rope that is too small is dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>A winch must be maintained </li></ul>
    80. 85. Winching Safety <ul><li>Do not slide winch wire through hands. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the winch wire is frayed or damaged, injury can be sustained by sliding the wire as opposed to using a hand over hand technique or holding onto the hook. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When winch control is released, the winch spool will continue to spin for a few seconds before it comes to a complete stop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the frayed wire were to grab your hand and you were too close to the winch, your hand could be sucked into the fairlead. </li></ul></ul>
    81. 86. Safety Zones
    82. 87. Winching Safety <ul><li>When winch is under tension: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t step over it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t touch it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use edge protection </li></ul>
    83. 88. Winching Safety <ul><li>Use anchor strap </li></ul><ul><li>Do not attach hook to wire rope </li></ul>
    84. 89. Outside Scenario <ul><li>Performance Standard 10-4, Stabilization </li></ul><ul><li>Car Lift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Airbags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Struts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cribbing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vehicle on its side </li></ul><ul><li>Typical off-road terrain </li></ul>
    85. 90. Heavy Lifting <ul><li>Safety Reminders </li></ul><ul><li>NO personnel under a supported load </li></ul><ul><li>Lift and inch, crib an inch </li></ul><ul><li>All protective gear at all times </li></ul><ul><li>Assign a safety officer </li></ul><ul><li>Watch your toes </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid soft ground, provide a solid base </li></ul><ul><li>Finish the top of the box crib with a solid layer </li></ul>
    86. 91. Heavy Lifting <ul><li>Bags can be ejected when ½ or less of the bag is covered with the load </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t attempt to lift when the angle is greater than 30o. The greater the angle, the greater the risk of slippage </li></ul><ul><li>Crib and Wedge to create a base that is parallel to the load </li></ul><ul><li>Always crib as you lift </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t stand in front of the air bags as you lift </li></ul>Safety Reminders
    87. 92. Heavy Lifting <ul><li>If the load shifts, the bags can be forcefully ejected </li></ul><ul><li>Never sit while cribbing, squat on both feet and be prepared to move quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Never lift a hot or rough object without protection </li></ul><ul><li>Never use a beam or pipe with partial surface contact, use plywood </li></ul>Safety Reminders