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2013 Petaluma Gap Vintage Weather Analysis

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Weather impacting the 2013 vintage

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2013 Petaluma Gap Vintage Weather Analysis

  1. 1. 101 2nd Street, Suite 214 • Petaluma, California 94952 • 707.933.7787 • © 2013 PetalumaGap Description Weather Analysis 2013 Vintage Petaluma Gap p1 WeatherSummary Temperature p2SolarRadiation Humidity p5 p6 Wind Conclusion&Disclaimer p7 p8
  2. 2. 101 2nd Street, Suite 214 • Petaluma, California 94952 • 707.933.7787 • © 2013 The Petaluma Gap subregion of the Sonoma Coast AVA The Petaluma Gap is the southern most region within the Sonoma Coast AVA. Like the 500,000 acres of the Sonoma Coast, the Petaluma Gap’s 200,000 acre region is characterized by it’s cool, Mediterranean climate. But unique from the remaining Sonoma Coast acreage is its 15-mile-wide break in the coastal range from Tomales Bay to Bodega Bay. This “gap” allows build up of heat in the inland valley to draw cooling coastal air from the Pacific Ocean down into the San Pablo Bay. The resulting daily wind and fog patterns give this subregion distinct growing conditions unlike the rest of the Sonoma Coast AVA. p1
  3. 3. Temperature, Solar Radiation, Humidity and Wind are the main climatic influences of interest to winegrowers during our growing season here in Northern California. (Precipitation, primarily rainfall, rarely occurs during the growing season) These metrics are used to gauge vine water needs, ripening potential and fungal/disease pressure, among others. The mean daily temperature was 59.1˚F, 1.4˚F above average. The average maximum temperature was 75.0˚F, 1.6˚F above average and the average minimum temperature was 46.1˚F, 0.7˚F above average. This all equates to a warmer than usual growing season. Sunlight (Solar Radiation) is another important metric in this region. The amount of sunlight to reach the leaves and clusters during the growing season regulates sugar production and flavor ripening potential. Higher solar radiation equates to less fog and/or cloud cover. The average solar radiation was 530.7 Ly/Day, 3.6% higher than average. Humidity levels during the heart of the growing season (Jun, July, August) and into harvest (September) averaged 75.3% or 3.2% above the previous 10 year average. However, due to the very low levels in May and October, the 2013 growing season overall experienced humidity levels of 72.7% or 1.4% lower than average. Generally speaking, the higher humidity levels, combined with the diminutive wind speeds (3.7 mph or 4.3% below average) during the peak summer months required diligent canopy management to relieve fungal/disease pressure. The following detailed comparisons attempt to place the 2013 weather conditions in context with the exceptional vintages of recent past, 2012 and 2009, and the two previous vintage years.
 101 2nd Street, Suite 214 • Petaluma, California 94952 • 707.933.7787 • © 2013 SUMMARY The weather throughout the Petaluma Gap region during the 2013 growing season (Apr- Oct) was slightly warmer and sunnier while also a bit more humid, compared to the previous 10 year average (2003-2012). p2 2013 Temperature vs Solar Radiation 0 175 350 525 700 50 55 60 65 70 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Average Air Temp (˚F) Average Solar Radiation (Ly/Day) 55.2 62.562.8 61.4 62.5 57.0 52.552.5 57.0 62.5 61.4 62.8 62.5 55.2 2013 Humidity vs Wind Speed 0 1 2 3 4 5 40 50 60 70 80 90 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Average Relative Humidity (%) Average Wind Speed (mph) 65.0 73.0 78.077.0 73.0 69.0 74.074.0 69.0 73.0 77.0 78.0 73.0 65.0
  4. 4. The majority of the growing season saw average temperatures that eclipsed historical norms. There was a slight dip to match average temperatures in July with the most considerable increase of 3.5˚F in September, accelerating what otherwise would have been a very late harvest. 2013 was warmer than 2012 and the uncharacteristically cool 2011. Temperatures throughout the season exceeded those of 2012 except during April (-0.7˚F) and September (-3.6˚F). 2013 was also slightly warmer than 2009 by a mere 0.3˚F, occurring primarily during the beginning of the growing season. Taking only temperature into account, it is understandable that the quality of the 2013 vintage could be equal, if not surpass, the stellar vintages of 2012 and 2009 in the Sonoma Coast.
 101 2nd Street, Suite 214 • Petaluma, California 94952 • 707.933.7787 • © 2013 TEMPERATURE p3 2013 Mean Temp vs 10 Yr Avg 50 53 56 59 62 65 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct 52.5 57.0 62.5 61.4 62.8 62.5 55.2 2013 Previous 10 Yr Avg 2013 Mean Temp (˚F) vs 2012 & 2009 50 53 56 59 62 65 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct 52.5 57.0 62.5 61.4 62.8 62.5 55.2 2013 2012 2009 2012 Mean Temp (˚F) vs 2012 & 2011 50 53 56 59 62 65 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct 52.5 57.0 62.5 61.4 62.8 62.5 55.2 2013 2012 2011 Regional temperatures exceeded 10 year averages with the only “typical” temperatures in April, July and October. Even 2012’s and 2009’s warmer than average conditions were surpassed by 2013 temperatures.
  5. 5. Solar radiation exceeded averages by 1.5% to 4.6% Ly/Day throughout the growing season, with the exception of a 3.2% decrease in July. Considering that July rainfall was nonexistent, an increase in fog due to persistent marine layers were the primary cause for the decreased sunlight reaching the vines. In contrast to the increased sunlight over 2011 and the previous 10 year period, 2013 trailed 2012 & 2009 by an average of 1.8%. Only in October did solar radiation levels in 2013 surpass those of 2012 and 2009. Considering that harvest in the Petaluma Gap was primarily complete at this time, this increase in sunlight was inconsequential to the vintage.
 101 2nd Street, Suite 214 • Petaluma, California 94952 • 707.933.7787 • © 2013 SOLARRADIATION p4 Solar radiation exceeded historical averages as well as levels seen in 2011 but trailed 2012 and 2009. Only October experienced greater sunlight than 2012 and 2009. 2012 Solar Radiation vs 10 Year Avg 250 345 440 535 630 725 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct 524 616 645 594 544 434 358 2013 Previous 10 Yr Avg 2013 Solar Radiation (Ly/Day) vs 2012 & 2009 250 369 488 606 725 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct 524 616 645 594 544 434 358 2013 2012 2009 2013 Solar Radiation (Ly/Day) vs 2012 & 2011 250 369 488 606 725 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct 524 616 645 594 544 434 358 2013 2012 2011
  6. 6. Compared with historical averages, the region experienced an increase in humidity of 3.2% during the height of the season (June-September). As previously noted, the increased humidity levels midst this period were related to the cause of diminished solar radiation due to persistent marine layers. Humidity levels in April, May and October trailed the previous 10 year average by 0.9%, 5.5% and 10.0%, respectively. As a result, the overall humidity levels compared to historical averages were 1.4% below average. Only 2011 experienced higher humidity levels throughout the entire growing season over 2013. The humidity levels caused by the lingering marine layers during the height of 2013’s growing season (Jun-Sep) eclipsed 2012 (4.9%) and 2009 (3.1%).
 101 2nd Street, Suite 214 • Petaluma, California 94952 • 707.933.7787 • © 2013 HUMIDITY p5 Humidity levels were higher than average through most of the growing season with the exceptions of April, May and October. The increased humidity due to the marine layers during the height of the growing season surpassed those seen in 2012 and 2009. 2013 Avg Relative Humidity vs 10 Year Average 60 65 70 75 80 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct 74 69 73 77 78 73 65 2013 Previous 10 Yr Avg 2013 Avg Relative Humidity (%) vs 2012 & 2009 60 65 70 75 80 85 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct 74 69 73 77 78 73 65 2013 2012 2009 2013 Avg Relative Humidity (%) vs 2012 & 2011 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct 74 69 73 77 78 73 65 2013 2012 2011
  7. 7. The infamous Petaluma ‘wind gap’ was 4.3% less ‘windy’ than average in 2013. April, May and September were the only months where wind speeds matched or exceeded the previous 10 year average. The aforementioned increased humidity during June, July, and August made the diminished airflow in the region during this period more of a concern as it related to combatting fungal/disease pressure. 2013 overall wind speeds matched 2012 and were slightly higher than those of 2011 by 2.0%. In contrasts, like 2012, wind speeds in 2013 were 3.0% lower than 2009. Proactive clearing of the fruit zone (leaf pulling) to ensure adequate airflow was essential during the growing season in 2013. 
 101 2nd Street, Suite 214 • Petaluma, California 94952 • 707.933.7787 • © 2013 WIND p6 Wind conditions in our otherwise windy region were slightly diminished as compared with previous averages. This, combined with increased humidity levels during the summer, required diligent canopy management. 2013 Wind Speed (mph) vs 10 Year Avg 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct 4.3 4.1 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.0 2013 Previous 10 Yr Avg 2013 Wind Speed (mph) vs 2012 & 2011 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct 4.3 4.1 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.0 2013 2012 2011 2013 Wind Speed (mph) for 2012 & 2009 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct 4.3 4.1 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.0 2013 2012 2009
  8. 8. Conclusion By all accounts the quality and quantity of the 2013 vintage rivals those of 2012. Regional temperatures exceeded 10 year averages with the only “typical” temperatures in April, July and October. Even 2012 and 2009’s warmer than average conditions were surpassed by 2013 temperatures. Solar radiation exceeded historical averages as well as levels seen in 2011 but trailed 2012 and 2009. Only October experienced greater sunlight than 2012 and 2009. Humidity levels were higher than average through most of the growing season with the exceptions of April, May and October. The increased humidity due to the marine layers during the height of the growing season surpassed those seen in 2012 and 2009. Wind conditions in our otherwise windy region were slightly diminished as compared with previous averages. This, combined with increased humidity levels during the summer, required diligent canopy management. Disclaimer Although of supreme importance, weather, in and of itself, is only a single variable in a wine growing season. The resulting fruit quality when it arrives at the winery is determined by a myriad conditions such as timing of weather events, site micro-climates, geography/orientation, training/trellising, fruit set, canopy management, etc etc etc. This report is based on Petaluma Gap regional weather data obtained from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) Petaluma East (144) station and is meant to characterize general growing conditions for the region. It should not, in any way, be construed to represent the growing conditions for any one particular vineyard site.
 101 2nd Street, Suite 214 • Petaluma, California 94952 • 707.933.7787 • © 2013 CONCLUSION&DISCLAIMER p7 The weather throughout the Petaluma Gap region during the 2013 growing season (Apr- Oct) was slightly warmer and sunnier with higher humidity, compared to the previous 10 year average (2003-2012).
  9. 9. 101 2nd Street, Suite 214 • Petaluma, California 94952 • 707.933.7787 • © 2013 APPENDIX:WeatherData i Mean Temperature (˚F) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 +/- Previous 10 Yr Avg Jan 47.9 43 39.7 - 46.3 38.8 48.2 42.7 45.2 45.9 47.3 43.8 45.1 40.3 44.8 Feb 50 46.8 46.3 - 47.8 46 47.8 48.7 47.2 48.2 50 45.3 48 42.8 47.7 Mar 50.9 51.6 48.4 56.9 54.3 47.8 47.4 51.8 48.7 50.2 49.5 50 48.9 46.6 50.6 Apr 53.7 49.2 52.3 60.5 54.2 48.7 53 52.5 51.3 51.8 50.8 51.7 53.2 52.5 -0.3 52.8 May 57.4 59.4 54.4 63.2 56.3 51.7 57 56.3 57.2 57.2 53.9 53.3 56.1 57 0.8 56.2 Jun 60.4 62.8 60.2 63.1 60.3 55.4 62.4 60.2 61 60.3 60.3 58.6 60.1 62.5 2.3 60.2 Jul 59.7 60.9 62 62.5 58.6 57 65.1 63.2 61.8 60.2 59.3 61 61.3 61.4 0.4 61.0 Aug 61.6 61.6 60.6 58.3 58.7 52.5 60.7 62.6 63.2 62.3 59.2 59.3 60 62.8 3.1 59.7 Sep 62.2 59.5 60.4 48.6 60.6 58.2 59.6 60.5 60.8 62.6 61.3 60.5 57.5 62.5 3.5 59.0 Oct 55.8 58.5 57.8 47.9 49.8 56.4 56.4 55.6 57.9 57 57.6 52.8 58.8 55.2 0.2 55.0 Nov 46.8 52.4 - - 42.4 52.4 51.5 50.4 53.1 49.6 50 48.1 52.6 - 50.0 Dec 45.4 48.5 - - 40.6 48.8 44.7 45 43.1 44.4 48.8 44.3 39.2 - 44.3 Apr-Oct 58.7 58.8 58.2 57.7 56.9 54.3 59.2 58.7 59.0 58.8 57.5 56.7 58.1 59.1 1.4 57.7 58.1 59.1 1.0 58.1 0.0 Average Solar Radiation (Ly/day) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 +/- % Previous 10 Yr Avg Jan 154 212 255 - 158 166 182 207 138 228 133 187 196 230 177.2 Feb 194 265 263 - 234 216 281 223 261 249 219 264 284 339 247.9 Mar 389 404 462 558 418 361 296 385 394 409 394 279 307 378 380.1 Apr 507 538 501 635 514 528 386 491 530 550 462 475 475 524 19.4 3.8% 504.6 May 587 658 624 671 636 551 585 576 556 584 543 547 638 616 27.3 4.6% 588.7 Jun 638 683 684 579 685 634 581 648 679 636 633 593 685 645 9.7 1.5% 635.3 Jul 635 653 647 456 598 649 615 640 653 661 591 629 646 594 -19.8 -3.2% 613.8 Aug 559 607 529 369 548 557 535 549 592 575 518 540 558 544 9.9 1.9% 534.1 Sep 461 465 475 194 475 441 412 413 459 464 424 428 460 434 17.0 4.1% 417.0 Oct 313 314 368 131 307 325 302 292 346 318 270 301 323 358 66.5 22.8% 291.5 Nov 216 201 - 0 220 225 196 215 199 249 228 205 217 - 195.4 Dec 183 139 - 0 153 124 156 167 161 156 110 198 164 - 138.9 Apr-Oct 528.6 559.7 546.9 433.6 537.6 526.4 488.0 515.6 545.0 541.1 491.6 501.9 540.7 530.7 18.6 3.6% 512.1 540.7 530.7 -10.0 -1.8% 540.7
  10. 10. 101 2nd Street, Suite 214 • Petaluma, California 94952 • 707.933.7787 • © 2013 APPENDIX:WeatherData ii Average Relative Humidity (%) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 +/- % Previous 10 Yr Avg Jan 89 81 78 - 84 93 86 76 84 85 94 88 77 81 85.2 Feb 89 77 83 - 80 85 80 84 82 93 90 77 75 79 82.9 Mar 76 82 76 76 74 81 82 79 76 82 79 86 77 82 79.2 Apr 77 79 77 68 71 76 83 77 69 73 79 77 76 74 -0.9 -1.2% 74.9 May 76 68 72 66 73 80 77 74 70 79 77 77 72 69 -5.5 -7.4% 74.5 Jun 77 62 67 71 70 75 74 69 62 74 74 78 68 73 1.5 2.1% 71.5 Jul 77 75 70 67 83 75 69 74 73 76 79 78 72 77 2.4 3.2% 74.6 Aug 72 74 72 63 81 76 75 72 70 72 78 81 73 78 3.9 5.3% 74.1 Sep 70 75 68 78 60 76 71 71 67 70 71 76 74 73 1.6 2.2% 71.4 Oct 77 71 70 84 76 76 70 76 63 75 76 80 74 65 -10.0 -13.3% 75.0 Nov 83 85 - - 81 77 84 77 85 79 80 81 80 - 80.4 Dec 87 86 - - 87 88 82 79 95 88 90 72 86 - 85.2 Apr-Oct 75.1 72.0 70.9 71.0 73.4 76.3 74.1 73.3 67.7 74.1 76.3 78.1 72.7 72.7 -1.0 -1.4% 73.7 72.7 72.7 0.0 0.0% 72.7 Average Wind Speed (mph) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 +/- % Previous 10 Yr Avg Jan 4.4 4.5 3.7 - 4.2 4.8 3.8 3.5 4.4 2.9 3 3.1 3.3 2.9 3.7 Feb 3.7 4.8 3.7 - 4.5 4 3.6 3.6 3.9 4.1 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.5 3.9 Mar 2 5 4.8 3.7 4.1 4.3 4.7 3.8 4.1 4.2 3.7 4 4 3.5 4.1 Apr 5.3 5.4 5.2 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.1 4.5 4.6 4 4 4.3 4.1 4.3 0.0 0.9% 4.3 May 5.5 5.2 5.1 3.7 4.7 4.4 4 4.4 4.4 3.7 3.9 4.2 3.9 4.1 -0.0 -0.7% 4.1 Jun 5.8 5.1 5.2 3.6 4.4 4.6 4.1 4.3 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.3 4.1 3.6 -0.4 -10.2% 4.0 Jul 4.7 4.9 4.8 3.4 3.9 4.2 3.8 4.1 3.7 4 3.6 3.6 3.4 3.6 -0.2 -4.5% 3.8 Aug 4.5 4.8 4.8 3.5 4.2 4.2 4.1 4 3.6 4 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.7 -0.1 -1.9% 3.8 Sep 4.1 4.5 4.8 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.7 0.1 1.6% 3.6 Oct 4.4 4 8.8 4.9 3.4 3.7 3.4 3.5 3.8 3.6 3.3 3 3.2 3.0 -0.6 -16.2% 3.6 Nov 3.7 4 - 0 3.1 3.6 3.3 2.9 3 3.1 3.1 3.4 3.2 - 2.9 Dec 3.4 5.2 - 0 3.4 4 3.6 3.8 3.3 3.4 3.7 2.9 3.3 - 3.1 Apr-Oct 4.9 4.8 5.5 3.9 4.1 4.2 3.9 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 -0.2 -4.3% 3.9 3.7 3.7 0.1 1.6% 3.7

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