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IDNs and the new gTLDs: Evolving a Strategy


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IDNs and the new gTLDs: Evolving a Strategy

  1. 1. Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard IDNs and the new gTLDS: Evolving a Strategy Rodney D. Ryder
  2. 2. Introduction - Structure Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard <ul><li>IDNs – Global Trands and Best Practices </li></ul><ul><li>IDNs: Dispute Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>New gTLD Overview [Opportunities and Use Cases; Application Processing; Financial Considerations] </li></ul><ul><li>New gTLD Best Practices </li></ul>
  3. 3. IDNs and the new gTLDs: Trends and Best Practices Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  4. 4. IDNs [Internationalised Domain Names]: Global Trends <ul><li>An opportunity for the global community to come together – to include non-English speaking communities </li></ul><ul><li>IDN ccTLDs on the way [Fast Track Process launched 16 Nov 2010; 19 countries/territories; 11 languages] </li></ul><ul><li>Internationalization of the internet means that the internet is equally accessible from all languages and scripts </li></ul><ul><li>[ICANN Links: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>] </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  5. 5. IDNs Best Practices – For Brand Owners <ul><li>Decision on language groups target [existing sales number/inquires or new market] </li></ul><ul><li>Domain name “in IDN” [translate or select new name/branding [develop local content if not available done] </li></ul><ul><li>TLD options [ database] – </li></ul><ul><li>Find registrar or registration rules - check if domain name is available; Usability communication with end-users </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  6. 6. IDNs [Internationalised Domain Names]: Dispute Resolution <ul><li>The Dispute Resolution Policy might have to be reviewed keeping in mind – [a] the ‘effective’ non-availability/non-searchability of a Indian language trademark database; [b] possible phonetic similarity between generic words and brands/trademarks; [c] impossibility, in certain instances, of producing the exact phonetic sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive registration ‘options’ would appear to be limitless – the dispute resolution policy would need to take this into account. </li></ul><ul><li>Language limitations of the ‘user’ </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  7. 7. New Generic Top Level Domains - Overview <ul><li>ICANN has planned to take applications for and launch a potentially unlimited number of new Top Level Domains </li></ul><ul><li>• Potentially Thousands of new extensions expected </li></ul><ul><li>New TLD types </li></ul><ul><li>• Community-based: .apache, .london </li></ul><ul><li>• Standard: .bank, .sports, .news, .canon </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  8. 8. Opportunities and Use Case Examples: ‘new’ gTLD Opportunities <ul><li>Claim, protect and commercialize the .brand space </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate leadership and brand prominence </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance the cohesion of company’s Internet presence </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an opportunity for customized user experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Increased security </li></ul><ul><li>Extension to be used only by the corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Enables direct navigation [• home.brand; • sales.brand; • careers.brand] </li></ul><ul><li>Enables more descriptive e-mail addresses: rodney @legal.brand </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances visibility of brand; Ensures the availability of desired domains; Protects against others’ use of .brand; Provides “trusted” namespace; Least expensive approach </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  9. 9. TLD Usage – Example Limited Use by Corporation and Partners <ul><li>Extension to be used only by the corporation and partners* </li></ul><ul><li>Enables direct navigation to corporate website [• home.brand; • c ontact.brand] </li></ul><ul><li>Enables partners to register and provides corporations with ability to monitor and police [• delhi.scriboard; • mumbai.scriboard] </li></ul><ul><li>Provides “trusted” namespace </li></ul><ul><li>More complex implementation than “Restricted” example </li></ul><ul><li>*Partners = resellers, distributors, franchisees, etc. </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  10. 10. TLD Usage – Example Expanded Use by Corporation, Partners and Community <ul><li>Extension to be used the corporation, partners* and community </li></ul><ul><li>Enables consumer domain names and communities </li></ul><ul><li>Provides corporations with ability to control, monitor and police domain name use, but also web content </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances visibility of brand </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures the availability of desired domains </li></ul><ul><li>Greater operational and administrative expense </li></ul><ul><li>Most complex and costly implementation of three examples </li></ul><ul><li>*Partners = resellers, distributors, franchisees, etc. </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  11. 11. Application Processing Stages Module 1: Application Process Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  12. 12. Initial Evaluation Module 2: Evaluation Procedures <ul><li>Initial Evaluation [IE] consists of 2 concurrent phases: </li></ul><ul><li>[a] String Reviews </li></ul><ul><li>String confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Reserved names </li></ul><ul><li>DNS stability </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical names </li></ul><ul><li>[b] Applicant Reviews </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration of technical & operational capability </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration of financial capability </li></ul><ul><li>Registry services </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  13. 13. String Confusion Module 2: Evaluation Procedures <ul><li>Involves comparison of each applied-for TLD string against: </li></ul><ul><li>• Existing TLDs and Reserved Names </li></ul><ul><li>• Other applied-for TLDs or requested IDN ccTLD strings </li></ul><ul><li>Review conducted by panel of String Similarity Examiners </li></ul><ul><li>Panel informed by algorithmic score for the visual similarity </li></ul><ul><li>among TLDs (existing and applied-for) </li></ul><ul><li>Standard for String Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>• String confusion must be probable, not merely possible to deceive or cause confusion </li></ul><ul><li>• Mere association is insufficient to cause confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Panel creates “contention sets” that may be used later in process </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  14. 14. Reserved Names Module 2: Evaluation Procedures Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  15. 15. DNS Stability Module 2: Evaluation Procedures <ul><li>Technical requirements for all strings </li></ul><ul><li>• No more than 63 characters, but at least 3 characters </li></ul><ul><li>• Upper and lower case characters treated as identical </li></ul><ul><li>• Must consist entirely of letters </li></ul><ul><li>Additional requirements for IDNs </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical strings require documents of support of nonobjection from the relevant government or public authority </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation results made available to applicants and posted on </li></ul><ul><li>ICANN’s website at end of IE </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  16. 16. Applicant Reviews Module 2: Evaluation Procedures <ul><li>Applicant Reviews </li></ul><ul><li>• General Information </li></ul><ul><li>• Technical & Operational Capability </li></ul><ul><li>• Financial Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Registry Services Review </li></ul><ul><li>• Evaluation of applicant’s proposed registry services </li></ul><ul><li>• The Registry Services Technical Evaluation Panel [RSTEP] assess whether the registry service may raise significant security or stability issues </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  17. 17. Extended Evaluation (EE) Module 2: Evaluation Procedures <ul><li>Applicant may request an EE if the application has failed the IE or if ICANN needs further review on </li></ul><ul><li>• DNS Stability </li></ul><ul><li>• Registries services [incur extra fee of $50k] </li></ul><ul><li>Applicant has 15 days to submit a “Notice of Request for Extended Evaluation” via the TAS </li></ul><ul><li>Same panel in IE conducts the EE, except for cases involving DNS stability </li></ul><ul><li>or Registry services; in those cases, new technical panels will be assigned </li></ul><ul><li>EE allows for 1 additional round of Q&A to clarify info in the application </li></ul><ul><li>Applicants are notified at the end of the EE phase if they have passed or </li></ul><ul><li>failed; no further reviews are allowed </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  18. 18. Delegation Requirements Module 5: Transition to Delegation <ul><li>Final steps required </li></ul><ul><li>• Registry Agreement execution </li></ul><ul><li>• Pre-Delegation Testing </li></ul><ul><li>Technical testing </li></ul><ul><li>Additional requirements (i.e., ability to fund registry for 3-5 years in event of registry failure or until successor operator is designated) </li></ul><ul><li>IANA delegation process </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing operations </li></ul><ul><li>• ICANN provides liaison for assistance on ongoing basis </li></ul><ul><li>• ICANN may perform audits to ensure compliance with agreement obligations </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  19. 19. Dispute Resolution Overview Module 3: Dispute Resolution Procedure <ul><li>Applicant options in the event of objection – [a] File a response and enter dispute resolution process; [b] Withdraw application </li></ul><ul><li>String confusion outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>• If challenging applicant prevails -> both applicants placed in “contention set” </li></ul><ul><li>• If challenging applicant fails - > both applicants move forward in process </li></ul><ul><li>Other outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>• If objector prevails -> applicant does not proceed in evaluation process </li></ul><ul><li>• If objector fails -> applicant proceeds in evaluation process </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  20. 20. String Contention Module 4: String Contention Procedures <ul><li>Contention Sets: groups of applications containing identical or similar applied for TLD strings </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of contention – [a] Direct Contention; [b] Indirect Contention </li></ul><ul><li>Standard: whether confusion is probable, not merely possible, based on the average internet user </li></ul><ul><li>Self-resolution: applicants may reach a settlement among themselves, resulting in 1 or more applicants withdrawing their application </li></ul><ul><li>Community Priority Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>• Only community-based applicants may elect comparative evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>• Open applicants within the contention set will not participate in the comparative evaluation </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  21. 21. String Contention Module 4: String Contention Procedures <ul><li>Community Priority Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>• Each applicant begins with a score of “0” [earlier scores not carried forward] </li></ul><ul><li>• Criteria [with scores of 0 - 4 maximum score = 16] </li></ul><ul><li>Nexus between Proposed String and Community </li></ul><ul><li>Dedicated Registration Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Community Establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Community Endorsement </li></ul><ul><li>• Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Applicant must scores 14 or higher to be considered a Community </li></ul><ul><li>• If no clear winner is identified in comparative evaluation process, all applicants in contention set move to “efficient mechanism” </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  22. 22. New gTLD Best Practices Evolving a set of Guidelines <ul><li>Applicant does not have to be a trademark owner </li></ul><ul><li>Consider major brands and vulnerability to infringement </li></ul><ul><li>Consider importance of Internet presence </li></ul><ul><li>Consider global reach of the brand </li></ul><ul><li>Consider technical issues and requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that stakeholders are aware of issues relating to the new gTLDs </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  23. 23. Best Practices <ul><li>Apply selectively – work with brand management and marketing teams to prioritize </li></ul><ul><li>Remain apprised of launch dates </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor applications published by ICANN </li></ul><ul><li>Become familiar with rights protection mechanisms, types of objections and procedures for employing them </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  24. 24. Beware Brand Owners! <ul><li>Brand Owners will have to move Quickly to Object to Applications that Pass the Initial Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Obtaining a New gTLD Could Take 19 Months </li></ul><ul><li>Trademark Clearinghouse Only Simplifies Trademark Sunrises </li></ul><ul><li>The Uniform Rapid Suspension [URS] may not be as effective as the UDRP </li></ul><ul><li>Need to Prepare for the Worst </li></ul><ul><li>New Registrations Won't Likely Be Available Until Late 2011 / Early 2012 </li></ul><ul><li>The ICANN Board Still Needs to Approve All Applications </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  25. 25. Alternative Dispute Resolution: Constraints and Challenges <ul><li>Consent [the arbitration clause] </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement [through convention in the context of structured arbitral processes] </li></ul><ul><li>Due Process Safeguards – [a] procedures must be supported by agreement; [b] If third parties are involved as facilitators or decision-makers, they must be impartial and independent; [c] Both parties must be duly notified of the proceedings; [d] Both parties must, within the scope of the procedure, be given sufficient opportunity to present their case; [e] If the proceedings can result in binding decisions, such decisions should only be based on facts that had been part of the proceedings; [f] Any such decisions should provide reasons; [g] There should be an internal or external appeal mechanism, or at least means to control compliance with due process safeguards. </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  26. 26. UDRP/eUDRP: first truly global online dispute resolution system <ul><li>This procedure assists the resolution of disputes between a trademark owner and a registrant of a domain name [ the UDRP is binding on the registrant of the domain name: it is incorporated into the contract between the registrant and the registrar of the domain names ] . </li></ul><ul><li>Contractual and Mandatory </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>International </li></ul><ul><li>Scope [Limited to ‘Cybersquatting’] </li></ul><ul><li>Streamlined Proceedings [One Set of Filings from Either Side] </li></ul><ul><li>Due Process Safeguards – [a] Neutrality; [b] Notice - UDRP Rules, paragraph 2(a) ; [c] Burden of Proof - UDRP, paragraph 4(a); [d] Impartiality and Independence; [e] Reasoned Decisions; [f] Appeal; [g] Fees </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  27. 27. UDRP/eUDRP – the mechanism for domain name dispute resolution Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  28. 28. Indian Oil Corporation Limited v. Nitin Jindal WIPO Case No. D2010-2003 Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  29. 29. Indian Oil Corporation Limited v. Nitin Jindal WIPO Case No. D2010-2003 <ul><li>The disputed domain name <> is identical to the Complainant’s registered trademark ‘INDIAN OIL’, except for the addition of the “.org” designation.  The addition of a “.org” designation or other type of designation do not serve to distinguish a domain name from a registered trademark. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ INDIAN OIL’ trademark and corresponding business is well-known and has developed a significant reputation. </li></ul><ul><li>The Respondent was aware of the Complainant’s trademark rights when it registered a confusingly similar domain name, and when it began operating a website in connection with that confusingly similar domain name which provides links to websites of other companies, of which some are direct competitors of the Complainant.  </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  30. 30. Scriboard: Digital Brand Management Services <ul><li>Education & Advocacy [Understand the issues and voice concerns] </li></ul><ul><li>Top Level Domain Acquisition & Domain Name Acquisition & Management [Developing the Strategy, Application Submission, Implementation & Launch, Ongoing Operations & Compliance] </li></ul><ul><li>Brand Protection [Objection Filing & Dispute Resolution; Defensive Registration & Brand Monitoring] </li></ul>Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  31. 31. Any questions? Rodney D. Ryder Scriboard
  32. 32. Rodney D. Ryder Partner Scriboard [email_address] Technology, Media and Communications