Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Designing Games for Learning

526 views

Published on

This presentation is based on a report by the authors that was commissioned by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory to provide up-to-date information and guidance on the design of serious games to support learning. It provides a vision of serious games, followed by elaborations on the elements of the game space and the instructional space. Charles Reigeluth and I presented this in a Presidential Session at the November, 2014 AECT conference in Jacksonville, FL.

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Designing Games for Learning

  1. 1. DESIGNING GAMES FOR LEARNING 1 CHARLES M. REIGELUTH, PH.D. PROFESSOR EMERITUS, INDIANA UNIVERSITY RODNEY D. MYERS, PH.D. INDEPENDENT SCHOLAR
  2. 2. BACKGROUND Oct 2009 – IPA agreement with AFRL to “… provide recommendations about instructional and learning theory … Contract in Feb 2013 to prepare a report providing research-based guidelines for the design of serious games in the Air Force. Instructional aspects Gaming aspects 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION 3 Benefits of serious games • Games capitalize on the relationship between action and cognition (learning by doing) • Authentic practice in specific roles and contexts • Games promote team development, social learning, and social cohesion • Collaboration, distributed knowledge, and collective efficacy • Games enhance learner engagement and effort • Immersion and flow  prolonged and focused engagement • Control, autonomy, self-efficacy
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION 4 Benefits of serious games • Games provide a safe environment for learning • Scaffold learners toward required competencies • Games are customizable • Variable levels of authenticity • Dynamic difficulty adjustment for optimal challenge
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION Criteria for selecting serious games as an instructional strategy • Effectiveness • Skills as game actions • Tasks include variations and are increasingly complex • Risk requires safe environment for practice • Efficiency • Time and cost of development • Time and cost of learning 5
  6. 6. FUZZY VISION Six fundamental design principles 1. Authenticity • Scenario, roles, and contextual factors are consistent with whole, real-world tasks 2. Levels of difficulty • Must be mastered by each player before progressing to the next level • Designed using Simplifying Conditions Method (Elaboration Theory) 3. Scaffolding • 3 Forms: Adjust task environment, Coaching, Instructional overlay • Virtual mentor – just-in-time coaching and instruction • When: Automatic, triggered by player action, requested by player • Quicker, easier, more enjoyable 6
  7. 7. FUZZY VISION Six fundamental design principles 4. Part-task mastery • When the game is paused, KSAs are mastered before game continues • Ensures mastery across range of situations, automatization 5. Feedback • Natural consequences during game play • Player can request explanations by virtual mentor • Virtual mentor provides debriefing at end of each performance • Immediate feedback is provided in instructional overlay 6. Motivation • A score for each role • Collaboration (when appropriate), authenticity, confidence (levels) 7
  8. 8. ELEMENTS OF THE GAME SPACE • Goal(s) • Game mechanics • Rules • Players • Environment • Objects • Information • Technology • Narrative • Aesthetics 8
  9. 9. ELEMENTS OF THE GAME SPACE 9
  10. 10. ELEMENTS OF THE GAME SPACE Goal(s) To achieve the configuration of game elements that matches the winning state defined in the rules • Desired learning outcomes  Goals of game (authenticity) • Achieving the goals of the game = Achieving the learning goals • Subgoals (authenticity, levels of difficulty, motivation) • Whole, authentic tasks > Subgoals > Final goals • Levels: progressive difficulty/complexity • Game (learning) cycles  Motivation • Acquire tools and abilities • Develop skillfulness by completing tasks • Achieve subgoals through mastery 10 Goal(s) | Game mechanics | Rules | Players | Environment Objects | Information | Technology | Narrative |Aesthetics
  11. 11. ELEMENTS OF THE GAME SPACE Game mechanics Actions governed by rules that a player may take with or on one or more game elements • Desired learning outcomes  Actions (authenticity) • Core mechanics • Must master to achieve goals • Should become skill-based (automatic) through practice • Compound mechanics • Two or more mechanics combined by a rule • Recur less frequently than core mechanics • Peripheral mechanics • Optional/non-vital in achieving goals • Novel (non-recurrent) and knowledge-based 11 Goal(s) | Game mechanics | Rules | Players | Environment Objects | Information | Technology | Narrative |Aesthetics
  12. 12. ELEMENTS OF THE GAME SPACE Rules Define the possibilities of and constraints on actions in a game, as well as the rewards and penalties for those actions • Tightly bound with mechanics • Player expectations based on precedent • Outcomes and feedback consistent with real world (authenticity and feedback) • Game balancing • Designing the relationships among all of the elements to promote the desired game experience • Playtest frequently to observe results of design decisions 12 Goal(s) | Game mechanics | Rules | Players | Environment Objects | Information | Technology | Narrative |Aesthetics
  13. 13. ELEMENTS OF THE GAME SPACE Players The individuals who choose to undergo the experience of a game • Possible single- and multi-player configurations (Avedon, 1971) • Intra-individual, extra-individual, aggregate, inter-individual, unilateral, multi-lateral, intra-group, inter-group • Roles and avatars • Game dynamics • Emergent patterns of interplay between mechanics, rules, and players • Observed during playtesting 13 Goal(s) | Game mechanics | Rules | Players | Environment Objects | Information | Technology | Narrative |Aesthetics
  14. 14. ELEMENTS OF THE GAME SPACE Environment The setting in which the action of the game takes place • Movement • Structure: discrete or continuous (or a combination) • Dimensionality: linear, rectilinear, 2D, 3D • Perspective • Isometric (or top-down): 2D simulations and strategy games • First-person: 3D subjective • Third-person: 3D objective (“camera” perspective) • Physics • Time • Play time and event time (Juul, 2004) 14 Goal(s) | Game mechanics | Rules | Players | Environment Objects | Information | Technology | Narrative |Aesthetics
  15. 15. ELEMENTS OF THE GAME SPACE Objects The components of the game system that embody and enable the game mechanics or are affected by the player’s use of game mechanics • Diegetic objects • Exist in the game setting; accessible to an avatar • Non-diegetic objects • Exist outside the game setting; accessible to the player • Properties (or attributes) • Static or dynamic states • Affordances make apparent how the object is used 15 Goal(s) | Game mechanics | Rules | Players | Environment Objects | Information | Technology | Narrative |Aesthetics
  16. 16. ELEMENTS OF THE GAME SPACE Information • About avatars • Role and attribute states, inventory, location • About objects • Attribute states related to game mechanics • About events • Feedback: immediate result of the use of game mechanics • Narrative information: descriptions of past performance, backstory, cut scenes, pending tasks, and other information related to the story • About the environment • Maps, sensory cues (esp. for tone and mood) • About the system • Game state, available system procedures 16 Goal(s) | Game mechanics | Rules | Players | Environment Objects | Information | Technology | Narrative |Aesthetics
  17. 17. ELEMENTS OF THE GAME SPACE Technology • Equipment • Physical pieces required to play • Videogames • Computing device (platform) • Screen and speakers • Physical interface • Virtual interface • Network for multiplayer • Data storage 17 Goal(s) | Game mechanics | Rules | Players | Environment Objects | Information | Technology | Narrative |Aesthetics
  18. 18. ELEMENTS OF THE GAME SPACE Narrative A sequence of events that tells a story • Episodic memory • Familiar frame of reference (genre) • Cognitive frame of reference (schema) • Structure • Linear • Branching • Foldback (multiple paths leading to a single event) • Roles • Shaffer’s (2006) epistemic frame: a set of “skills, knowledge, identities, values, and epistemology that professionals use to think in innovative ways” (p. 12) 18 Goal(s) | Game mechanics | Rules | Players | Environment Objects | Information | Technology | Narrative |Aesthetics
  19. 19. ELEMENTS OF THE GAME SPACE Aesthetics A player’s emotional responses and felt experiences as a result of interacting with/in a game system • How will the player feel? (Hunicke, LeBlanc, & Zubek, 2004) • Challenge (obstacle course) • Fellowship (social framework) • Discovery (uncharted territory) • Expression (self-discovery) • Fantasy (make-believe) • Authenticity and realism • Physical (feels real) • Perceptual (seems real) • Functional (acts real) • Cognitive (matches mental model) • Emotional (evokes reality) 19 Goal(s) | Game mechanics | Rules | Players | Environment Objects | Information | Technology | Narrative |Aesthetics
  20. 20. ELEMENTS OF THE GAME SPACE 20 Goal(s) | Game mechanics | Rules | Players | Environment Objects | Information | Technology | Narrative |Aesthetics
  21. 21. ELEMENTS OF THE SCAFFOLDING • Adjusting • Coaching • Instructing 21
  22. 22. ELEMENTS OF THE SCAFFOLDING Adjusting • Definition • Adjusts aspects of the game for ZPD, behind the scenes • Indications • When the task is too difficult for the player • When adjusting is better than coaching or instructing • Kinds of Adjusting • Provide easier cases first (SCM) • Provide artificial prompts – with fading • Perform parts of the task for the player – with fading • Access (Timing) • Universal, Triggered, or Requested 22
  23. 23. ELEMENTS OF THE SCAFFOLDING Coaching • Definition • Provides cognitive and/or emotional support to the player, usually during performance, without teaching – can pause the game • Indications • When the task is too difficult for the player • When coaching is better than adjusting or instructing (just a little help) • Kinds • Provide information, a hint or tip, or an understanding • Inquisitory (Socratic) or expository form • Timing • Before, during, or after a performance • Access • Universal, Triggered, or Requested (without freezing time if authentic) 23
  24. 24. ELEMENTS OF THE SCAFFOLDING Instructing • Definition • Provides information and activities appropriate for the kind of learning – must pause the game, is offered JIT • Indications • When a significant amount of learning effort is required • Access • Universal, Triggered, Requested, or Suggested • Formats • Part-task selection (customized?), Virtual mentor (present?) • Strategies for instruction and assessment • Coming up 24
  25. 25. ELEMENTS OF THE SCAFFOLDING Instructing • Strategies for memorization • Primary strategies • Present, Practice (Test) (Consistent with real task) • Secondary strategies • Repetition, Chunking, Spacing, Prompting, Mnemonics, Review • Use more with increasingly difficult tasks • Control strategies • System control, or Player control over … • Presentation or practice, amount of repetition, chunking, spacing, prompting, mnemonics, review 25
  26. 26. ELEMENTS OF THE SCAFFOLDING Instructing • Strategies for skills • Primary strategies • Generality, Example, Practice (Test), Feedback (Consistent) • Secondary strategies • G: Attention-focusing devices, Alternative rep, Simultaneous E • E: Attention-focusing devices, Alternative rep, Easy-dif, Diverg • P: Easy-difficult sequence, Divergence, Prompting, Overlearning • FB: Attention-focusing devices, Alternative representations • Control strategies • System control, or Player control over … • Inductive or deductive, G-E-P, all secondary strategies 26
  27. 27. ELEMENTS OF THE SCAFFOLDING Instructing • Strategies for causal understanding • Primary strategies • Acquisition (G, E), Application (P, FB) (Consistent) • Secondary strategies • G: Expository or Confirmatory with prototyp E; Atten foc, Alt rep • E: Passive or Active (manipulation of c or e); Atten foc, Alt rep • P: Easy-difficult, Divergent, Overlearning • FB: Natural or Artificial; Confirmatory, Hint, or Explanation; Informational or Motivational; Atten foc, Alt rep • Performance strategies • Explanation, Prediction, Solution; Performance Routine (GEP) • Control strategies – System or Player Control 27
  28. 28. ELEMENTS OF THE SCAFFOLDING Instructing • Strategies for process understanding – similar to those for causal understanding except … • Performance strategies • Description of the natural process (events, sequence) • Performance routine • Primary strategies • G-E-P-FB for the natural process (Consistent) 28
  29. 29. ELEMENTS OF THE SCAFFOLDING Instructing • Strategies for conceptual understanding • Dimensions of understanding • Superordinate, Coordinate, and Subordinate (in which the concepts may be either parts or kinds of each other) • Analogical, Experiential, Functional, etc. • Primary strategies • Description (G), Application (P), Feedback (Consistent) • Secondary strategies • G: Expository or Confirmatory • P: No. of dimensions, separate or integrated with the task • FB: Confirmatory, Hint, Description; Informational, Motivational • Control strategies – System or Player Control 29
  30. 30. ELEMENTS OF THE SCAFFOLDING Instructing • Strategies for attitudes and values • Primary strategies for • Cognitive component: Persuasion • Affective component: Operant conditioning • Behavioral component: Practice for habit • Secondary strategies • Move all three components along continuum simultaneously 30
  31. 31. CONCLUDING REMARKS Fundamental Design Principles • Authenticity • Levels of difficulty • Scaffolding • Part-task mastery • Feedback • Motivation 31 Elements of the Game Space • Goal(s) • Game mechanics • Rules • Players • Environment • Objects • Information • Technology • Narrative • Aesthetics Elements of Scaffolding • Adjusting • Coaching • Instructing
  32. 32. QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS? 32 Chapter in Green Book IV Full Report available at: www.reigeluth.net/ Click on “Publications” > “Instructional Theory” and scroll to bottom of page for the PDF. Emails: reigelut@indiana.edu rod@webgrok.com

×