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  1. 1. DVELOPMENTAL READING ignatius joseph n estroga
  2. 2. Reading Problems Cause No. 1- Inadequate Instruction Cause No. 2- Lack of Appropriate Materials Cause No. 3- Big Unmanageable Classes Cause No. 4- Poor Attitude Towards Reading Cause No. 5- Conflict with Interests ignatius joseph n estroga
  3. 3. Factors Affecting Reading Development 1. Physical and Clinical Problem 2. Predictors of School Entry 3. Acquired Knowledge Literacy 4. Family-based Risk Factors 5. Neighborhood, Community and School- based Factors ignatius joseph n estroga
  4. 4. Skills required for Proficient Reading • Phonemic Awareness • Phonics • Fluency • Vocabulary • Reading Comprehension *National Reading Panel (2000) ignatius joseph n estroga
  5. 5. Skills required for Proficient Reading • Phonemic Awareness- ability to distinguish and manipulate the individual sounds of language • Phonics- study of sound • Fluency-ability to read with speed, accuracy and vocal expression • Vocabulary-knowledge of words and word meanings • Reading Comprehension-engagement with text ignatius joseph n estroga
  6. 6. Developmental Reading Stages Stage 0 (Birth-Age 6) Reading Readiness/ Pre Reading Stage 1 (Age 6-7, Grade 1-2) Initial Reading or Decoding Learning to recognize the alphabet, imitation reading, experimentation with letters and learning sounds Understanding the world around them Sounding out words from print Utilize consonants and vowels to blend together simple words ignatius joseph n estroga
  7. 7. Developmental Reading Stages Stage 2(Age 7-8, Grades 2-3) Fluency Stage 3 (Age 9-13, Grades 4 to 2nd Year) Reading for Learning the New Stage Considered to be on the ‘real’ reading stage. They are fairly good at reading and spelling and are ready to read without sounding everything out. Re-reading allows them to concentrate on meaning and builds fluency Sounding out unfamiliar words and read with fluency Readers need to bring prior knowledge to their reading Acquisition of facts ignatius joseph n estroga
  8. 8. Developmental Reading Stages Stage 4 (High School; Ages 14- 18) Multiple Viewpoints Stage Stage 5 (College; Ages 18 and up) Construction and Reconstruction Stage Readers are instructed in reading and study skills Learn to analyze what they read and react critically Share multiple views and concepts Reads materials useful to them and apply those skills Readers know what not to read, as well as what to read They have the ability to synthesize critically the works of others and able to defend their stand on specific issues ignatius joseph n estroga
  9. 9. Reading Pyramid Phonemic Awareness- is the foundation of reading because it is the ability to understand that words are made up of sounds Phonics- ability to identify letters and their specific sounds Decoding- is where children begin to sound out words Word Identification- Ability to see a word And know what it is Fluency Read text quickly And accurately Vocabulary Knowing what the words mean -a combination of Fluency and word identification able to construct meaning from the words read Comprehension ignatius joseph n estroga
  10. 10. Components of a Balanced Literacy Program • Reading Aloud • Shared Reading • Guided Reading • Independent Reading ignatius joseph n estroga
  11. 11. Reading Models • Rumelhart Model 1977 -States that successful reading is both perceptual and cognitive process. Stresses the influence of various source namely feature extraction, lexical knowledge, syntactic and semantic knowledge. Incorporates mechanism labeled as the ‘message center’ which holds information and then redirects them as needed. ignatius joseph n estroga
  12. 12. Reading Models • Stanovich Model 1980 -Introduced the interactive-compensatory reading model. Believes that neither Bottom-up or Top-down processes simultaneously and alternatively depending on the reading purpose, motivation, schema and knowledge of the subject. ignatius joseph n estroga
  13. 13. Reading Models • Anderson and Pearson Schema- theoretic view 1984 -Focuses on the role of schemata, knowledge stored in memory, in text comprehension. Believes that comprehension is the interaction between old and new information. ignatius joseph n estroga
  14. 14. Reading Models • Pearson and Tierney Model -There is an identified compromise of meaning between writer and reader who both create meaning through text as the vehicle. Views readers as composers. States that readers read with the expectation that the writer has provided sufficient clues and meaning ignatius joseph n estroga
  15. 15. Reading Models • Mathewon’s Model of Attitude -Addresses the role that attitude and motivation play in reading. States that attitude has tri-componential construct: cognitive, affective, conative. Provides feedback on how motivation may change and how important it is to address affective issues in teaching reading. ignatius joseph n estroga
  16. 16. Reading Comprehension Strategies 1. Skimming –quickly identifying main ideas, speed 3x faster than normal reading 2. Scanning- finding a particular piece of info, running your eyes over the text looking for specific info ignatius joseph n estroga
  17. 17. Reading Comprehension Strategies 3. Extensive Reading- used to obtain general understanding of a subject and includes reading longer text for pleasure, also business books 4. Intensive reading-used on shorter text in order to obtain specific information ignatius joseph n estroga
  18. 18. Reading Comprehension Strategies 5. Visualizing- used to be able to create sensory images in the readers’ minds so they will be more engaged with the content of the text 6. Synthesizing- involves evaluating, sorting and sifting through information that is new and reorganizing it into larger concept ignatius joseph n estroga
  19. 19. Reading Comprehension Strategies 7. Inferring- drawing upon reader’s background knowledge and connecting this with new information. 8. Questioning- ability to generate questions that demonstrate that’s students are synthesizing, evaluating, and attempting to clarify what they read ignatius joseph n estroga
  20. 20. Reading Skills • Vocabulary • Structural Analysis - Affixes - Root words - Compound Words - Context Clues a. Semantic Clues - definition clue- defining - appositive clue- synonymous - comparison/ contrast - explanation b. Syntactic Clues- contained in the grammar of the language. Helps us identify what part of speech they belong • Idioms- • Synonyms and Antonyms • Figures of Speech • Noting Details • Getting the Main Idea • Inferring • Making Generalizations • Predicting Outcomes ignatius joseph n estroga