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  1. 1. Synecdoche
  2. 2. synecdoche (/sɪˈnɛkdəkiː/, si- NEK-də-kee; from Greek synekdoche (συνεκδοχή), meaning "simultaneous understanding") is a figure of speech in which a term for a part of something refers to the whole of something, or vice-versa.[An example is referring to workers as hired hands
  3. 3. Synecdoche is a rhetorical trope and a type of figurative speech similar to metonymy—a figure of speech in which a term that denotes one thing is used to refer to a related thing. Indeed, synecdoche is sometimes considered a subclass of metonymy. It is more distantly related to other figures of speech, such as metaphor. More rigorously, metonymy and synecdoche can be considered sub-species of metaphor, intending metaphor as a type of conceptual substitution (as Quintilian does in Institutio oratoria Book VIII). In Lanham's Handlist of Rhetorical Terms, the three terms have somewhat restrictive definitions, arguably in tune with a certain interpretation of their etymologies from Greek: metaphor: changing a word from its literal meaning to one not properly applicable but analogous to it; assertion of identity rather than, as with simile, likeness. metonymy: substitution of cause for effect, proper name for one of its qualities, etc.
  4. 4. Etymology: The word "synecdoche" is derived from the Greek word συνεκδοχή = "together- out-accepting", from the prepositions συν- + εκ- and the verb δέχομαι (= "I accept"), originally meaning accepting a part as responsible for the whole, or vice versa.
  5. 5. Use Synecdoche is often used as a type of personification, by attaching a human aspect to a non-human thing. This is used in reference to political relations, including "having a footing," used to mean a country or organization is in a position to act, or "the wrong hands," to describe opposing groups, usually in the context of military power. Synecdoche can be used to emphasize an important aspect of a fictional character;[1] for example, the X-Files character the Smoking Man. Sonnets and other forms of love poetry frequently use synecdoche's to characterize the beloved in terms of individual body parts rather than a coherent whole. This practice is especially common in the Petrarchan sonnet, where the idealized beloved is often described part by part, from head to toe.
  6. 6. It is also popular in advertising. Since synecdoche uses a part to represent a whole, its use requires the audience to make associations and "fill in the gaps," engaging with the ad by thinking about the product. Moreover, catching the attention of an audience with advertising is often referred to by advertisers as "getting eyeballs," another synecdoche. Synecdoche is very common in spoken English, especially in reference to sports. The names of cities are used as shorthand for their sports teams to describe events and their outcomes, such as "Denver won Monday's game," when specifically a sports team was victorious.
  7. 7. Stylistic devices: Synecdoche
  8. 8. What is a synecdoche? Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent the whole or the whole of something is used to represent part of it. It is considered to be a special kind of metonymy.
  9. 9. Types and examples of synecdoche 1. Part of something is used to refer to the whole thing - A hundred head of cattle (using the part head to refer to the whole animal) 2.The whole of a thing is used to represent part of it - The world treated him badly (using the world to refer to part of the world) 3. A specific class of thing is used to refer to a larger, more general class - A bug (used to refer to any kind of insect or arachnid, even if it is not a true bug) 4. A general class of thing is used to refer to a smaller, more specific class - The good book (referring to the Bible or the Qur'an) 5. A material is used to refer to an object composed of that material - Glasses or steel ( referring to spectacles or sword) 6. A container is used to refer to its contents - A barrel (referring to a barrel of oil)
  10. 10. What is metonymy?
  11. 11. Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is not called by its own name, but by the name of something intimately associated with that thing or concept.
  12. 12. Here are some examples of metonymy: Crown. (For the power of a king.) The White House. (Referring to the American administration.) Dish. (To refer an entire plate of food.) The Pentagon. (For the Department of Defense and the offices of the U.S. Armed Forces.) Pen. (For the written word.) Sword - (For military force.) Hollywood. (For US Cinema.) Hand. (For help.)