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  1. 1. Irony Is a kind of figure of speech; use of words to express the opposite; Is expected & what actually happens.  There are Three Types of Irony  Verbal irony  Situation irony  Dramatic irony
  2. 2. Verbal Irony Verbal irony is the use of words to mean something different from what a person actually says.
  3. 3. The main feature of verbal irony that sets it apart from the other different types of irony is that it is used by a speaker intentionally. It occurs in a conversation where a person aims to be understood as meaning something different to what his or her words literally mean.
  4. 4. Examples of verbal irony include: “Thanks for the ticket officer you just made my day!” “I can’t wait to read the seven hundred page report.” The above examples show how irony is used to show someone’s frustration or disappointment.
  5. 5. There are two types of verbal irony: Overstatement – when a person exaggerates the character of something. Understatement – when a person undermines the character of something.
  6. 6. Verbal Irony and Sarcasm Most of the time, sarcasm and verbal irony are used interchangeably. There is however a clear distinction between the two. In most cases, sarcasm is used to insult or to cause harm. A statement like “Great, someone stained my new dress.” is ironic, while “You call this a work of art?” is sarcastic. While verbal irony implies a different meaning to what is actually said, sarcasm is mainly used as a sharp and direct utterance designed to cause pain.
  7. 7. Dramatic Irony This type of irony is popular in works of art such as movies, books, poems and plays. It occurs when the audience is aware of something that the characters in the story are not aware of.
  8. 8. Situation Irony It involves a discrepancy between what is expected to happen and what actually happens. Situation irony occurs when the exact opposite of what is meant to happen, happens.
  9. 9. Dramatic irony is a stylistic device that is most commonly used by storytellers, in plays, in the theater, and in movies. The irony is used as a plot device to create situations where the reader knows much more about the episodes and the resolutions before the chief character or characters.
  10. 10. For example, the reader may be already aware that a character is relying on deceitful characters, is making suicidal decisions, or is going to be killed, but the particular character and some other characters may not know these facts. The actions and words of characters will therefore mean different things
  11. 11. Situational irony occurs when the final outcome is contradictory to what was expected. Usually, the episodes in the plot of a story will lead the audience to expect a particular resolution or ending. If such an expected outcome fails and instead another contrary outcome occurs, the absurdity is termed situational irony.
  12. 12. Such a form of irony is the result a discrepancy in perspective, such that what is known and expected at one moment differs with what is known later on. Some might only consider situational irony to be ironic rarely if at all. Rather, in most cases, it seems more
  13. 13. There are three stages of dramatic irony: Installation – audience is informed of something the character does not know about Exploitation – using this information to develop curiosity among the audience Resolution – what happens when the character finally finds out what is going on?