Grammer book


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Grammer book

  1. 1. Grammer Book S3 NICO BEAUPRE
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS           1) Imperfect 2) Preterite 3) Por/para 4) Stressed Possessive Adjectives & Pronouns 5) Ud/Uds Commands 6) Present Subjunctive 7) Subjunctive w/ Verbs of Will & Influence 8) Subjunctive w/ Verbs of Emotion 9) Subjunctive w/ Verbs of Doubt & Disbelief 10) Subjunctive Conjunctions
  3. 3. IMPERFECT    Used for past actions that are not seen as complete Imperfect tense implies that the past action did not have a definite beginning or a definite end. Conjugate by dropping the –ar ending and adding these -----> -AR ENDING -IR ENDING Yo aba ía Tu abas ías El/Ella/Usted aba ía Nosotros ábamos íamos Vosotros abais íais Ellos/Ellas/ Ustedes aban ían
  4. 4. AR Verbs PRETERITE ER/IR Verbs    é Yo í Tú  Yo aste Tú Iste An interrupted El/Ella/Usd. ó El/Ella/Usd. ió event. Nostros amos Nostros imos Past actions that are seen as Vosotros asteis Vosotros isteis complete Ellos/Ellas/ aron Ellos/Ellas/ ieron Used for actions Uds. Uds. that can be used as single events.  Used to state the beginning Used for actions that were repeated or the end of an action. a specific number of times, or occurred during a specific period of time.
  5. 5. POR/PARA           POR to express gratitude or apology for multiplication and division for velocity, frequency and proportion meaning "through," "along," "by" or "in the area of“ when talking about exchange, including sales to express a length of time to express an undetermined, or general time, meaning "during“ for means of communication or transportation to show the reason for an errand         PARA to indicate destination to show the use or purpose of a thing to mean "in order to" or "for the purpose of“ to indicate a recipient to express a deadline or specific time to express a contrast from what is expected to express an action that will soon be completed Used to say “For”  If not used correctly could mean entirely different things. 
  6. 6. STRESSED POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES & PRONOUNS  Adjectives describe nouns while pronouns take the place of a noun. POSSIVE ADJECTIVES POSSIVE PRONOUNS Mi(s) Mío/Mía Míos/Mías Tu(s) Tuyo/Tuya Tuyos/Tuyas Su(s) Suyo /Suya Suyos/Suyas Nuestro(-a, -os, -as) Nuestro/Nuestra Nuestros/Nuestras Vuestro(-a, -os, -as) Vuestro /Vuestra Vuestro /Vuestra
  7. 7. UD./UDS. COMMANDS Command or imperative forms tell someone to do or not to do something.  Affirmative and negative USTED and USTEDES commands are formed by using the present tense YO form as the stem, dropping the -o, and adding the appropriate ER-IR ending. AR  VERBS VERBS -e Usted -en Ustedes -a Usted -an Ustedes
  8. 8. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE   The subjunctive is not a tense, it is a mood. Tense refers when an action takes place (past, present, future), while mood reflects how the speaker feels about the action.    1) Start with the yo form of the present indicative. 2) Then drop the -o ending. 3) Conjugate using: AR VERBS IR/ER VERBS Yo -e -a Tu -es -as El/Ella/ Usted -e -a Nosotros -emos -amos Vosotros -éis -áis Ellos/Ellas/ Ustedes -en -an
  9. 9. SUBJUNCTIVE W/ VERBS OF WILL AND INFLUENCE SugerirTo suggest Rogar- To beg Recomendar - To recommend Aconsejar To advise Verbs of Will and Influence ProhibirTo Prohibit ImportarTo be importan t Insistir- To insist MandarTo Order
  10. 10. SUBJUNCTIVE W/ VERBS OF EMOTION Esperar- to hope Alegrarse- to make happy Molestar- to bother Ojalá- hopefully Quejarse de- to complain about Sentir- to be sorry, to regret Sorprender- to surprise Temer- to fear, be afraid
  11. 11. SUBJUNCTIVE W/ VERBS OF DOUBT & DISBELIEF Negar- to deny Dudar- to doubt No Estar Seguro(a) (de)-not to be sure No es Verdadit's not true No Creer- not to believe No es Ciertoit's not true, it's not certain Es Imposibleit's impossible (no) Es Posible- it's (not) possible No es Seguroit's not certain Es Improbableit's improbable (no) Es Probable- it's (not) probable
  12. 12. SUBJUNCTIVE CONJUNCTIONS Subjunctive Conjunctions Es necesario que Es malo que Es triste que Es bueno que Es urgente que Es importante que