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Tv news study guide

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A TV News study and revision guide to support the 2015 AQA GCSE media studies exam.

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Tv news study guide

  1. 1. TV News study guide GCSE MEDIA EXAM 2015 KNIGHTS TEMPLAR SCHOOL. L Sim
  2. 2. This chapter will look at all the issues, information and aspects to TV news that you need to know about for your exam. This section features information on history and development, technology, audiences, conventions, issues, regulation and general information. CHAPTER 1 1 UK TV News
  3. 3. •News dominates our television screens. News is a part of all our lives and for many people it is important to find out what is happening in the world around us. In a multichannel environment televi- sion news is now available in a variety of formats ranging from short news up- dates, half hour evening programmes to dedicated 24 hour continuous coverage. •For the purposes of the Unit 1 External Assessment focus your study on the topic on UK television news pro- grammes which are broadcasted across terrestrial, satellite and cable television channels. •Consider a variety of news programmes of varying lengths, across different scheduling times and aimed at different audience groups. •For example the magazine style format of Breakfast News can be contrasted with the seeming gravitas of early and late evening news programmes. •You should also consider how television news programmes make use of and are in competition with web based plat- forms, including social media. • Technological developments and social networking has contributed to changes in the role of audiences from passive news consumers to that of active news makers and commentators. 2
  4. 4. SECTION 1 A regularly scheduled television program that reports current events. News is typically reported in a series of individ- ual stories that are presented by one or more an- chors. TV News covers stories that are current and rele- vant to the target audience. Bulletins include different topics -including poli- tics, technology, showbiz, sport, weather, edua- tion, health and events. Around 75% of people get their daily news from TV bulletins What is TV news? 1.A regularly scheduled television program that reports current events 2.Needs to be new or current - story may be old, but there has been a recent development 3.Must be something audience WANT or NEED to know 4.Should be accurate and impartial 5.Should be visual 6.Mixes moving image footage and graphics to support or illustrate spoken news reports What is TV news? 3 ! ! ! ! A brief clip showing what is news and how it is put together. Movie 1.1 Huw Edwards discusses what is ‘news’
  5. 5. SECTION 2 Most stories on a news bulletin have a simple structure - even those that include several elements including a film report and an interview. They have an Introduction. This will usually answer some - or touch upon - of the five key news questions: • Who is involved? • When did it happen? • What has happened? • Where did it happen? • Why did it happen? • Possibly how it happened. It may also may well pose several Questions or describe significant Problems that needs exploring. The main body of the report answers some or all of these questions and elaborated. Part of this elaboration will be contained in the visual images that provide the evidence that the story is genuine. The conclusion. Here the story is brought to a close and loose ends are tied up. Of course, not all conclu- sions can be neat – the conclusion may point out that a problem remains to be solved sometime in the future. Bulletin conventions 1. Bulletins throughout day - mainly at peak times 2. Dynamic, exciting music and opening graphics 3. Lead story - introduced at top of the program 4. Other stories also introduced - leading questions or basic information 5. Videos/interviews and piece to camera. 6. Use of visuals - video, image or graphics - to illustrate a story 7. Stories average 3-8minutes in length. 8. Presented and linked by a lead anchor(s)- reports presented by individual reporters. 9. Lighter stories towards the end. 10.Weather and sport near end. 11.Audience appeal for content? 12.Trails for upcoming reports or programs 13.Links to website Conventions of TV news programs 4 Beware, this clip contains strong language! BUT It shows excellently how news reports are struc- tured. Movie 1.2 Charlie Brooker discusses the format of a TV news report
  6. 6. 5 Key conventions recap (courtesy of Keith Lang- ton, Costello School) • 10-30 minutes, some shorter bulletins (2-5 minutes). • Dramatic theme tune plus graphics and shots of technol- ogy. • News ANCHOR(s) in a familiar set – reassuring to viewers. • Formal Mode of Address – suit / dress and language: “Good evening…” • Running order reveals the “rhythm” of the news – tries to bal- ance hard news with entertainment. • Mediation through editing – choices made to suit audience / broadcast time. • ANCHOR cuts to a LOCATION NEWS REPORTER (hand over) preceded by an ESTABLISHING SHOT and / or NARRA- TIVE VOICE OVER. • VOX POPS (interviews with people in the street) – offers the “Hu- man Touch” to news stories – “How did it affect you?” • Studio Interviews – TWO SHOT • Use of on screen graphics, filler shots and jingles. • Studio MISE-EN-SCENE – desk, seated anchor, papers, laptop, pen, water.. • Anchor is framed centrally in a MEDIUM SHOT and speaks di- rectly to camera. • IDENT (TV channel logo) usually constantly visible – verbal re- minders “You’re watching the BBC News…” • Sometimes New channel website / “Breaking News” scrolling across the bottom of the screen. SAMPLE RUNNING ORDER (dependent upon news, obvi- ously): 1. Major Global Impact story leads. 2. Important UK story. 3. Overseas story that affects Britons – e.g. weather in USA, plane crash in Asia. 4. Sports story. 5. Technology story. 6. Humorous story – “And finally…” 7. Re-cap of lead story. Movie 1.3 Newsnight report on ‘What is the point of news’
  7. 7. 6 Revision activity Watch the TWO news reports. Complete the grid comparing similarities in how the program is presented and structured. What do you learn about how TV News bulletins are presented. News from April 2014 on BBC3’s 60 second news Movie 1.4 BBC 60 Second News Local news bulletin for the East April 2014 Movie 1.5 BBC Look East bulletin 60 SECOND NEWS LOCAL NEWS What I learn about TV news bulletin conventions and structure.
  8. 8. SECTION 3 TV news has changed dramatically since the days of cinema newsreels. These were short bulletins that appeared before films at the cinema. They were in black and white and featured moving image with occasional cap- tions anchoring the story. Broadcast news reporting changes with changes in technology. Timeline of TV, technology and news broadcast 1930s - BBC One launched 1936. 1940s - War stops BBC TV services. 1950s - 1953 - Queen Elizabeth Coronation - fost major event broadcast. 1955 - First TV regulation (ITA). 1955 - ITV launches 1960s - 1964 - BBC2 launches 1969 - Colour TV transmission begin 1969 - The Moon landing shown on all 3 channels 1970s - 1974 Ceefax and Oracle (teletext service - interactive TV) launchd. 1980s - 1982 - Channel 4 launched. 1989 - Sky launches - subscroption TV. 1989 - Sky start 24 hour rolling news 1990s - 1997 - Channel 5 launched 1997 - BBC news (24 hour channel)launched 1999 - First IPTV (internet based TV) 2000s - 2002 - Freeview TV introduced 2003 - OFCOM (regulation) formed Facebook created 2005. Twitter created 2006. Digital switchover 2007 - BBC iplayer launched NOW - 2010 - BBC news app launched for Apple devices. 2015 - 18 rolling news channels Use of social media to share stories. Multi platform. History of TV news 7 This news report shows the new BBC news studios and references how news reporting has changed due to developing technology. Movie 1.6 A brief look at changing technology in news reporting Satellites meant that news could be reported from far off places almost immediately. Developments with internet and smart technol- ogy meant events could be reported on instantly, and that everyone had the potential to capture news stories (citizen journalism and use of user generated content).
  9. 9. SECTION 4 The BBC provide dedicated news and current affairs output for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland which reflects their different political institutions and cultural make- up. BBC Trust: "BBC journalism should be independent, ac- curate and impartial – providing news and current af- fairs of relevance, range and depth which audiences trust. BBC journalism should offer a range and depth of analysis not widely available from other UK providers." All BBC journalism will display the core values of inde- pendence, truth and accuracy, impartiality, fairness, and diversity of opinion. The BBC will continue to offer a range and depth of analysis (using its range of specialists in, for example, politics, business, economics, home affairs, Europe and world affairs) not widely available from other UK news providers. Help audiences understand social and political issues so that they can participate in debate and become more ac- tive citizens. Support the reporting of major events – plus sports coverage – with user-generated content (such as video, still images and messages submitted by view- ers), The BBC as a news pro- vider 1.Has core values of truth and Accuracy. 2.Crosses all platforms - TV broadcasts, radio news, online news and apps. 3.At the forefront of technology use. 4.Has a 24 hour rolling news channel. 5.Creates around 120 hours of TV and radio news each day. 6.Main news provider in the UK Figure 1.1 The BBC News Studio An example of a typical newsroom set up - 3-camera shooting rig, with the anchors around a desk. The large screens to the left and right are for use with individual reports. The BBC 8
  10. 10. 9 Revision activities 1) List three news offerings the BBC give (such as NewsRound, 6’o Clock news, Re- gional news etc). 2) Find images of the sets for each one - how do they differ? How are they the same? 3) What features do you think would be suit- able for a news program aimed at teens? Why? 4) Design the set for your new News show? Add notes to explain your choices. 5) How does the BBC ensure its sets are suit- able for their specific audience? 6) How does the BBC ensures its 60 second news is appealing - both visually and in its content - to its specific teen audience?
  11. 11. SECTION 5 A “NEWS AGENDA” is what the broadcaster thinks is important in the news today (or possibly more long- term). The news agenda for the day’s TV broadcasts will be based on the NEWS VALUES of the breaking stories. The news agenda changes depending on the target audience. Different TV News providers have different audi- ences. This can sometime be reflected by the news values of the channel e.g. Newsround simplifies the news, ex- plores items less in depth, uses less complex language and has younger presenters to appeal to a 6-12 year old target audience. Fox News often has comments by experts and wit- nesses that reinforce their support for the Republican Party (US equivalent to the UK Conservative/Tory Party). The BBC meet different audience needs in the following ways, while adhering to the core values of impartiality, accuracy and independence: 1. Provide news and current affairs output for a broad- based audience on services such as BBC One, BBC Two and Radio 2. 2. Introduce children and teenagers to citizenship issues through its news output and also through programming that reflects social engagement and life skills. 3. Present news and analysis in an accessible format, style and language for under-served audiences such as ethnic minority communities. 4. Explain and present complex issues in a way that meets the differing needs of diverse communities and place it in context to help all audiences develop a greater understanding of UK and international events. Radio 1, BBC Three and BBC Asian Network will play a particular role. 5. Offer outreach initiatives that take BBC news content into secondary schools. 6. Provide dedicated news, politics and current affairs output for the nations which reflects their different political institutions and cultural make-up. 7. Offer in-depth global news and current affairs programmes that appeal to those interested in global news and cultural affairs. News Audience 10
  12. 12. Stereotypically, TV News has an older target audience of 35-65, ABC1, mainstream- ers but again, this is dependent on the channel – BBC News has a more middle class, middle aged demographic while Channel 4 and 5 News has a younger target audience with Channel 4 in particular targeting a more liberal, diverse, educated viewer (similar to The Guardian Newspaper). Local news targets a regional audience that are less concerned with global or even national issues – there will often be a hand over from national news and again, is very focused on the regional identity and regional news stories. An example would be, more farming news items in rural areas but regional news still has an older audi- ence but extending from ABC1 to C2, D and E. (taken from MediaEdu sites) • Many younger people use the web and social media for news rather than watch- ing TV news • Can TV news survive against competition from other news sources, and from young people’s lack of interest in the news? • Television news is still a main source of information for some people • Audiences move from passive (just accepting the news) to active (selecting their own news via websites/new media) and even to creating and contributing to news (audience gatekeepers, citizen journalism and UGC) • Audiences can be segmented - different segments will watch different news pro- grammes • Audience demographics - age, location, gender, class, etc. can all be used to define the target audience • The 4Cs *Young and Rubicam) - the ‘cross cultural consumer characteris- tics’ are psychographics, dividing audiences or consumers intro seven types: Mainstreamers, Reformers, Aspirers, Succeeders, the Resigned. Strugglers and Explorers 11
  13. 13. SECTION 6 Theories - Uses and Gratifications and News Values 12 Blumler and Katz wrote about Uses and Gratifications (above). Galtung and Ruge wrote about News Values (left and right).
  14. 14. SECTION 7 TV News opening titles 13 • Building tempo (pace) to- wards a crescendo • Dramatic music • Either quick cuts of footage or sweeping camera move- ments • No talking whilst graphics playing • Institution logo • Often dramatic news images/ news reporters images with brief introduction to the main stories/news headlines. • Bold colours • Wide shot of the studio • Cut to the presenters who smile at camera and welcome/greet the viewer. • Usually around 30-60 sec- onds depending how long the main headline is read for. • Establishes a trustworthy feel from the start. This looks at how ONE news channel present their main news bulletin opening and some of the conven- tions they use. Movie 1.7 An analysis of a BBC1 news opening
  15. 15. Revision activity 14 Watch these 3 news openings. 1)List all the features/aspects in their openings. Complete the table opposite. 2) Try to storyboard ONE of the open- ings in 10 frames - make sure you get the most relevant information in there. Movie 1.8 BBC News opening BBC NEWS NEWSROUND ITV NEWS Movie 1.10 Newsround opening Movie 1.9 ITV News
  16. 16. SECTION 8 What are the key elements of set/studio design?
 What are the connotations of the elements of the set design? •A desk - authority •Neutral/dark/blue collar scheme - modern and serious •Hi tech, shiny materials with sharp clean edges - modern •Computer, laptop - connected to the world, mod- ern •Large screens in the background - can show the viewers everything that is happening •Multiple screens of the newsroom in the back- ground - all the news that is happening, the ur- gency and ‘busy-ness’ of everyone working in the background In your pitch 1. Explain WHAT you would have of your set. Consider: 1. Colours 2. Furniture 3. Position of the presenters 4. Technology 5. decoration 6. Graphics, visuals or other info on screen (e.g. Twitter feed, a ticker, the time etc) Make sure you give strong reasons for each of your choices. Also refer to AUDIENCE and the BRIEF throughout. Set Design 15
  17. 17. This section will consider possible questions for the exam and notes on things to revise/plan or prepare CHAPTER 2 16 The exam Warning, possible bad language. But it also provides an interesting, insightful take on the presenta- tion of the news by a highly respected and well known documentary maker. Movie 2.1 Adam Curtis discusses TV News
  18. 18. ✴The exam in 90 minutes long. ✴60 marks (40% of total GCSE) ✴Each question is 15 marks. That is 20 minutes a question and 10 minutes planning and checking time. ✴Given a ‘brief’4 weeks before the exam which will estab- lish the setting for the exam ✴4 questions: • Knowledge of TV news and the industry • Pitch • Production task • Issue - most likely regarding technological develop- ments and how they have contributed to changes in the role of audiences from passive news consumers to active news makers and commentators. ✴The order of the questions will change (eg, the pitch ques- tion may not be question 2 - but it WILL feature somewhere in the exam) What you should take into your exam: • More than one black ink pen. • 2 pencils • Pencil sharpener • Rubber • Ruler • Some colour pencils • Some highlighters. • Pen in a different colour (eg. blue or green) Remember: ONLY 20 MINUTES PER QUESTION. xvii THE EXAM
  19. 19. SECTION 1 The Brief 18 The brief requires you to answer IN ROLE! I have put possible questions on fol- lowing pages. I think the design task will ask you to storyboard (and ANNOTATE) the opening titles to your new TV News show for teens. This will be 10 frames - to include show name, intro- duction to the main stories, wel- come by the anchors and clear es- tablishment of style and audience. MAKE SURE YOU REFER TO THE BRIEF - AND USE BOTH ‘TNN’ (the company name) and NEWSBURST (the programme name) THROUGH- OUT THE EXAM
  20. 20. • UK TV News programmes – terrestrial, satellite and cable channels. • Scheduling times, length of programme and dif- ferent audience groups. • Contrasting the tone of Breakfast news with early evening / late night news. • Use of / competition from web based platforms and social media. • Changes in the role of audiences from passive news consumers to active news makers and com- mentators. xix WHAT THE EXAM BOARD THINK YOU SHOULD KNOW... Movie 2.2 A short video which shows the brief being annotated. Watch the short video to see the brief being annotated too - it is pretty much what we discussed in class.
  21. 21. SECTION 2 Q1 will ask about general TV news is- sues, such as why it may not be as popular with teenage audi- ence and something about creat- ing accurate and trustwor- thy informa- tion. It may ask why it is im- portant for young people to engage with the news. Use your re- search into TV news to support your arguments. Give REAL LIFE exam- ples, eg refer to how BBC create news broadcasts for different audiences and ensure it suits their needs. Watch News- Round and compare it to 60second news and the News at 10. Possible questions 1. 1. ! A successful TV news programme should have the following qualities: • a balance of hard and soft news • important headlines at the start of the programme • the right TV news presenter Using examples from your research, discuss how each of these qualities has been used to keep the audience interested. 2. ‘TV news does not appeal to younger viewers because it is boring!’ Discuss your views on this statement 3. ‘Discuss the ways in which news can be gathered and the reliability of the sources of information.’ 4. ‘In what ways has the presentation of television news changed in recent years?’ How do you account for such changes? 5. Audience research suggests the target audience of TV News is changing because: • ! news is available on a range of different platforms and in different media. • there is increasingly a need to entertain a target audience as well as inform them. • multi-channel television means there is a broad range of competition. Why do you think TV News struggles to reach its audience? Give examples to support your views. 6. How is news made to seem important and serious? 7. How important are visuals to a news report? To what extent are they there just for something to see? 
 Question One 20
  22. 22. Possible mark scheme for ques- tion 1
  23. 23. SECTION 3 Question 2 is likely to be the PITCH question. The exam board want to see you answer IN ROLE. Make sure you hit every bullet point, but also EX- PLAIN your ideas. Why does it suit the brief and the audience? Talk about: •Title
 •Format
 •News agenda •Scheduling •Anything else which you think will make this pro- gramme a success •Studio •Presenters •Credit sequence •Use of e-media Possible/sample questions 1. Bearing in mind the type of TV News programme we are looking for, let’s have your pitch for a new national TV News programme targeting a teenage audience. You need to think about: • who the target audience is. • the name of the news programme and what channel it will be broadcast on. • other platforms your news programme will be available on. • the genre conventions of TV News. 2. We would like to hear your ideas for a new TV news programme aimed at a younger audience. We have in mind a programme that would appeal to teenagers, both girls and boys. We would like you to come up with the following: • a name for the programme • the profile of your chosen presenter(s) • the intended studio layout 3. It is important that our programme gives the right balance of news. Give us your ideas for the type of news that would be in the running order for a 15-minute programme. What type of news content would you have in your programme? Would you have regional, national or international news reports? Would you have infotainment? Would you include a weather report? Justify your ideas for content and discuss why your TV news programme will be a success. Question Two 22
  24. 24. Suggested mark scheme for ques- tion 2 - the pitch question.
  25. 25. SECTION 4 Looking at the brief, I think the most likely option will be for you to STORYBOARD THE OPENING 30 SECONDS OF YOUR NEWS PROGRAM. This is what you did in the mock exam, so look back at your feed- back from this. Possible questions 1. Convergence is very important for news media in reaching its target audience. Design the website homepage of your new TV News channel. 2. We are interested to know how you would brand the new TV news programme. Remember, it must appeal to teenagers, both boys and girls. What colours would you use, font, images? Sketch out a logo, showing us your ideas. 3. We would like you to design an ident for the new TV news programme. Using the storyboard provided, show us what your idea for a 15-second ident might look like. 4. Storyboard for the opening 30 seconds of your TV News programme 5. Storyboard a TV advert for your TV News programme 6. Design the set for your new TV News program. Question Three 24 Use this tem- plate to practice as this is likely to be the one given in the exam. You will get 8-10 boxes to present your opening in. Remember you also need to AN- NOTATE your design, giving brief reasons to aupport your decisions - link to audience and the brief.
  26. 26. SECTION 5 Question 4 is most likely going to be a question relating to use of Emedia and new tech- nologies. It may ask you about your reasons for choosing the three news stories from the brief. Ei- ther way you must stay focused on audience at all times! You need to consider all forms of media and con- sider how your new news program would cross platforms, engaging specifically with the target audience. You should consider: • Use of social media (EG Snapchat, instagram) • How you could use Twitter or Facebook • Creating an app - what would it feature? • Benefits of New technology Possible questions 1. Explain how your homepage appeals to a target audience? Why is your TV News channel likely to be successful?                                                    2. We know that it is important to have a heavily orientated e- media focus, so that our viewers can access the programme at any time, and any place at a time convenient to them. How would you propose this is done using social media platforms? 3. "We pride ourselves on being the first to break a news story..." Explain how you would use an e-media platform not only to to get breaking news out to young people as quickly as possible, but also to get them engaging with the stories you present on the TV news channel. 4. Explain why you chose the three story running order from the stories you were presented. Question Four 25
  27. 27. • Limitations of new technology • Using/encouraging USER GENERATED CONTENT or CITI- ZEN JOURNALISM • The website • How audiences would interact with the news show. NEWSBEAT Look at how BBC Radio’s Newsbeat specifically targets teens via a range of Emedia forms (ok I know it is not TV news, but it is news for your age range). Not only do they use a range of social media, they also create con- tent beyond their general news bulletins -producing News Specials on issues that matter to their core audience. They also encourage their audience to interact with them - feedback and sharing on all stories online 26 Website News specials. iPlayer YouTube Social Media - Facebook and Twitter
  28. 28. Atmos (also Actuality) Background noise recorded on location. In TV this is often called actuality which is audio material recorded on location. In news programmes it is usually someone speaking and lasts for 10 to 20 seconds. Also often called a sound bite. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  29. 29. Broadcast Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ul- lamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  30. 30. Byline A line that indicates who wrote a story. For example by BBC Political Correspondent John Smith. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  31. 31. Caption A sentence underneath a picture explaining what it is. It could be a way of illustrating someone being interviewing on the phone (with a picture of where they are, or what the story is about, plus some text giving their name). It could be a still picture or photo illustrating the story. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  32. 32. Citizen Journalism Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ul- lamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  33. 33. Correspondent A journalist who is an expert in a particular subject who reports on that kind of news e.g. a cricket correspondent, arts correspondent or Middle East correspondent. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  34. 34. Deadline Something many of you are unfamiliar with! ;) The time by which a journalist must finish their report. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  35. 35. Donut No, it isn’t a yummy sweet treat that contains jam (although if you want to treat your favour- ite Media teacher, I only like the ones with the holes). It's an interview on location in which the presenter in the studio hands over to the presenter on location. They describe the situation and interview a guest before handing back to the presenter in the studio. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  36. 36. Effects (FX) The abbreviation for sound effects. In TV the sound effects are often added to the film in a dubbing suite. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  37. 37. Float or OOV (out of Vision) The name for a series of pictures when a presenter is talking or interviewing a guest but you can't see them on the screen. The pictures you see are called a float because they are floated over the voice of the pre- senter. They are used to illustrate what the presenter or guest is talking about. The sequence is sometimes called an OOV, which is short for Out Of Vision or underlay, which is shortened to ‘ulay’. Related Glossary Terms Index Voice over Find Term
  38. 38. Graphics These are the words, diagrams, maps etc that appear on screen. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  39. 39. News Agency An organisation set up to provide news material to many journalists. News producers pay these organisations to send news and footage to them to use in their broadcasts. Examples include Reuters, Associated Press (AP) and Agence France Presse (AFP). Related Glossary Terms Index Picture feeds Find Term
  40. 40. News Values Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ul- lamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  41. 41. Picture feeds Video that has been provided by news agencies (such as Reuters) which media organisations, like the BBC, pay to use. Related Glossary Terms Index News Agency Find Term
  42. 42. Press release Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ul- lamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  43. 43. Regulation Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ul- lamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  44. 44. Running order The order the stories appear on the programme, containing key details about each of the re- ports. Related Glossary Terms Index Running to time Find Term
  45. 45. Running to time A report or programme is "running to time" if it's on target to finish at a certain time. A pro- gramme can only be a certain length, because there other programmes come before and be- fore and after it in the schedule. The producer has to make sure their programme doesn't overrun. Related Glossary Terms Index Running order Find Term
  46. 46. Rushes Video filmed by a camera crew that requires editing. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  47. 47. Sources Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ul- lamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  48. 48. Sting A bit of music or sound (with pictures if on TV) used to punctuate the programme. Stings are often used at the beginning or the end of a report or to highlight the headlines. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  49. 49. Stock footage Shots of common events used to help tell a story e.g. a crowd turning up for a football match. News organisations, like the BBC, often have a library of useful footage that can be used, hence it is often called library material. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  50. 50. Titles Titles mark the start and end of a programme. They usually contain music. They are opening titles and closing titles. Closing titles usually include the names of the people involved in the production, or credits, although news programmes often don't run credits. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  51. 51. Trail A short advertisement for an item coming up later on the programme. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  52. 52. User Generated Content Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ul- lamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term
  53. 53. Voice over A shot in which a presenter talks over a video clip to explain to the audience what is going on. See also Out Of Vision. Related Glossary Terms Index Float or OOV (out of Vision) Find Term
  54. 54. Vox Pops A type of short interview where members of the public are stopped at random and asked a question. It helps the audience gauge opinion on a particular subject. Vox pop is short for vox populi, a Latin phrase which means "voice of the people". Related Glossary Terms Index Drag related terms here Find Term

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