Rural-urban Migrant Poverty (RUMP) Opportunities for using InfrastructureDevelopment as a poverty alleviation strategy
PURPOSE OF THE PRESENTATION• To examine dynamics of rural-urban migrant poverty (RUMP).• Identify implications of RUMP and gaps in development policy and practice.• Identify further focus areas - for research, debate and policy consideration.• Challenge development practitioners to reconsider/formulate poverty alleviation strategies that address RUMP.
INTRODUCTION• Its been observed that, in extreme conditions, the poor “vote with their feet” – they migrate from rural to urban areas and vice-versa.• The link between poverty and rural-urban migration (RUM) is not always clearly articulated or embedded into development strategies.• Rural-urban dichotomy disguises the realities of rural-urban migrant poverty = development strategies continue to treat the rural & urban as distinct spaces & ignore the continuum of poverty.• SA’s internal rural-urban migration (RUM) takes place within a context of intensifying rural development efforts, shrinking urban- based employment opportunities and poor (urban) service delivery.
INTRODUCTION (Cont…)• The effect of rural-urban migration on total urban poverty needs thorough examination. Poverty, measured in terms of current income, may not capture current living conditions and the long term poverty of rural migrant households.• Issues of rural-urban migration have not been properly treated by/through current development strategies, e.g. urban housing challenges are hardly linked to rural development. On the other hand, lack of a holistic rural development approach continues = rural development biased towards agriculture.• Knowledge of rural-urban interface and the extent to which migrant workers currently live under poverty is vital for development and poverty alleviation targeting.
URBAN AND RURAL LINKAGES AND INTERDEPENDENCIES Urban Urban & Rural Linkages & Interdependencies Rural Agric. Trade Agric. Transport centre Production Agric. Support Services Agriculture Intensification •Production inputs •Rural infrastructure •Repair services •Production incentives •Information on production •Education and capacity to •Methods (innovation) •adopt •And adapt innovation Non-Agric. Consumer Markets Rural income and demand •Processed agric. Products For non-agriculture goods •Private services And services•Public services (health, educ & admin) Cash crop production Agro-based industry And agricultural diversification Non- agro-based Employment All of the Above
POSITIVE RURAL-URBAN INTERFACE Rural Side • Access to farming assets (including land) • Market for rural produced goods and services • Diversification of rural livelihoods (to non-farm activities, e.g. sand abstraction, rural tourism, etc) Interlinked fortunes • Remittances Urban side • Increase in labour pool and non-farm employment opportunities • Expanded markets • Economies of scale in production and provision of goods and services
NEGATIVE RURAL-URBAN INTERFACE Rural Side • Export-oriented farming activities • Limited opportunities for non-farm livelihood diversification • Decline in small-farm production • Environmental externalities (e.g. uncontrolled land abstraction) Urban side • Increased influx of migrants from poor rural areas • Increase in “free riders” = overstretching of services • Social and economic vices e.g. crime leading to low investment • Exclusion/marginalisation of poor rural-urban migrants
RUMP IMPLICATIONS Income poverty = result of 3G jobs (disgraceful, dirty, and dangerous). Social & Asset poverty The mobile = Poor housing, Economicmarginalisation Poor Infrastructure & More risk If young, services&/or exclusion single & female Social capital dependency
EMERGING CHALLENGES FROM CURRENT DEVELOPMENT PRAXIS1. Strategies meant to better rural areas usually have the opposite effects, e.g. better education leads to rural out-migration in search of better economic/job opportunities.2. The effectiveness of current rural and urban development strategies (e.g. ISRDP and URP) in addressing RUMP is doubtful and needs to be addressed. - The provision of social infrastructure is only a partial solution - Sub-prime LED interventions, e.g. gardening projects, scratch the surface of economic aspirations of the rural poor3. Rural areas lose the strong, “brightest and most promising” who are relegated to informality in urban areas.4. The poorest ruralites are the least likely to migrate = resource constraints.5. The rural-urban continuum of poverty is poorly addressed by policy and in development practice.
INTE NATIONA L ECONOM Y R A Favorable i nternat ional commodity pri ce s/VIRTUOUS CYCLE OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT & RURAL-URBAN LINKAGES Locali zat ion and di versif icati on of f ore gn inv i estment NATIONAL G OVERNMENT B Adequat e provision of inf rast urct ure and basi c servi c es/ Support of l ocal economi c ini ti at ives and organi zati on D INVES TM ENT IN RU RAL RURAL GROWTH C BASIC /LEADING REG IO N SECTORS 1 2 Proc e ssing/ 3 De ma nd for Prima ry and Non-prima ry Ma nuf a cturing I nputs Employ me nt 4 I nc r ea sed House hold Inc ome s E TOWN S/CITIES URBAN GROWTH 5 Gr owth of 6 Gr owing S le s a Ce nter s for Consume r of Inputs/Produc e r Shopping Ser vic e s 8 7 Rising De ma nd for Expa nding He a lth, We lf a re a nd Ma r k ting of Re giona l e Le isur e Ser vic e s Expor ts F G H Re ne wa l of Ec onomic Broa d-ba se d Re sourc e Ba se / Dive rsif ic a tion/ I nc r ea ses in Environme nt/ I nc r ea sing I nc ome a nd Ec ology Productivity We lfa re
RURAL REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: STRUCTURES, FLOWS AND POLICY INTERVENTIONS RURAL-URBAN LIN KAGES/FLOWS PEOPLE 1 RURAL URBAN • labor commuting/migration FUNCTIO NS/ STRUCTU RE/ • other m igration (e.g., education) ROLES STRUCTU RAL • shopping/visiting/selling CHANGE • Non-agricultural • Socio-econom ic PRODUCTION 2 em ploym ent Structure/ • upstream linkages (inputs) Relations • downstream linkages • Urban services (processing, m anufacturing) • Rural Econom y • Production supplies (Sectors) COMMODITIES 3 • inputs • Non-durable and • Rural Production • consum er non-durables/durables durable goods Regim es • rural products • Markets for selling • Natural CAPITAL/IN COME rural products 4 Environm ent • value added & Resources • savings/credit • Processing/ • migrant rem ittances manufacturing • Infrastructure Built • Information on Environm ent INFORMATION 5 em ploym ent, • production/sales/prices production, prices, • welfare/social/political welfare services • employ ment • Agrarian reform POLICY INTERVENTION S • market centers • Agriculture intensification/ • com mercial outlets diversification • Roads/transportation • urban services • Cooperatives • Electricity • banking/credit • Enviromental program s • Communications • urban infrastructure • Irrigation, storage facilities and • Seaports/airports • com munications Other rural infrastructure services
FURTHER AREAS FOR CONSIDERATIONA number of key issues need further examination, viz:1. Implications of rural-urban migration and counter- urbanisation on land and agrarian reform.2. The Gender dimensions of RUMP.3. Provision of robust social infrastructure to meet rural- urban migration and demographic changes.4. Social and economic capital value and costs of rural- urban migration.5. The implications/impact of globalisation on RUM6. Where is Best/Good Practice in addressing RUMP – Can SA follow and adapt the development path of the North?