ecology

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ecology

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY
  2. 2. Science • from the Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge" or "knowing“ • any systematic knowledge-base or prescriptive practice that is capable of resulting in a prediction or predictable type of outcome • is a process • is a method of learning more about the world • constantly changes the way we understand the world 2
  3. 3. The Scientific Method 1 Define the Problem 2 Gather Data 3 Formulate Hypothesis 4 Test Hypothesis 5 Draw Conclusion
  4. 4. Ecology • Greek word “oikos” – house & “logos” – study of • The study of the relationships / interactions / interconnectedness / interdependence between organisms and their environments 4
  5. 5. Ecosystem • A community of interdependent organisms along with the inorganic components of their environment • An interacting collection of organisms (biotic) and the abiotic factors that affect them 5
  6. 6. Abiotic factors • The non-living components of an ecosystem • Consists of the elements which may be found in the environment • Physical and Chemical factors that influence living organisms 6
  7. 7. Physical factors • Sunlight and shade • Temperature and wind • Amount of precipitation • Altitude and latitude • Nature of soil 7
  8. 8. Chemical factors • Salinity of water • Level of dissolved O2 and other gases • Level of plant nutrients • pH of soil and water • Level of natural or artificial toxic substances 8
  9. 9. Biotic factors • The organisms in an ecosystem are either: Autotrophs (producers) Heterotrophs (consumers) • Autotrophic organisms may be photoautotrophic or chemoautotrophic • The heterotrophs include humans, animals and microorganisms 9
  10. 10. Autotrophs • Photoautotrophs possess chlorophyll that captures energy and convert CO2, H2O to sugar through photosynthesis • Chemoautotrophs are bacteria that obtain energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds such as ammonia, nitrites and sulfides 10
  11. 11. Heterotrophs • Heterotrophic organisms get their energy and source of pre-formed nutrients by consuming tissues of other organisms • Consumers are classified according to the type of food they eat 12
  12. 12. Herbivores (plant eaters) – feed directly on producers
  13. 13. Carnivores (meat / flesh eaters) – feed on other consumers
  14. 14. Omnivores – eat both plants and animals
  15. 15. Decomposers – simple oorganisms that obtain their energy from the chemical breakdown of dead organisms as well as from animal and plant waste products
  16. 16. Detrivores – complex / multi-cellular organisms that feed on waste matter, breaking down organic material into inorganic substances that then can become available to the biosphere in the form of nutrients for plantson dead organic matter
  17. 17. Scavengers – feed on dead organisms that were killed by other organisms or died naturally
  18. 18. Homeostasis • from Greek: ὅ μος, hómos, "similar"; and ιστημι, histēmi, "standing still” • is the property of a system, either open or closed, that regulates its internal environment and tends to maintain a stable, constant condition 19
  19. 19. Control Mechanism 20

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