Allana College of Pharmacy, Pune
Search of Knowledge
A Scientific and Systematic Research
Art of Scientific Research
Movement from unknown to known
Solution to the Concerned problems
It can be an academic activity also
There are a number of ways of classifying research
1. Experimental vs. Non experimental research,
2. Laboratory vs. Field research,
3. Quantitative (numerical) vs. Qualitative
4. (Descriptive) research, or Basic vs. Applied research.
Applied research has some sort of application in
the "real world.“
Basic Research, It's basically knowledge for the
sake of knowledge. It's important to understand
that achieving a good understanding of behavior
involves both basic and applied research.
Basic research is used to explore the fundamental bases
of behavior, without regard to how those bases are
manifested in the real world.
Basic research aims to explain, predict, and describe
fundamental bases of behavior.
Basic research is conducted to expand knowledge and
understanding by either developing or testing theory. Its
focus is knowledge or knowledge's sake. It is typically
what we think of when we think of scientific research.
Unlike basic research, applied research aims to address
and answer real-world problems. It is problem oriented.
Importantly, applied research is, like basic
research, based on previous theory.
Examples of applied research topics include
persuasion, eyewitness memory, clinical treatments of
psychological disorders, behavioral interventions for
children with autism etc.
General steps in the design and implementation of
◦ Choose a topic or problem.
◦ Review the relevant literature.
◦ Develop research questions and hypotheses.
◦ Develop a strategy for collecting data.
◦ Develop a strategy for managing and analyzing your
◦ Write a research proposal to get approval and/or
◦ Conduct the research and publish the results.
A patent is a property right granted by a sovereign state to
the inventor of a novel, nonobvious and useful invention.
Because the invention must be novel (meaning that it has
not been previously disclosed anywhere in the world) and
because it cannot be obvious to one ordinarily skilled in the
art, the grant of the property right cannot interfere with the
public’s access to what already exists.
The owner of a patent has the right to exclude others from
making, using, offering for sale, or selling his or her
invention for a period of 20 years from the filing of the
An invention is any new or useful process, machine, article
of manufacture, or composition of matter
In order to foster R&D in new technologies, such as
information and communication technologies and
biotechnology, the patent system needs to be shaped so
as to swiftly and strategically respond to the challenges
arising from those new technologies.
Further, in order to support a comprehensive and
complex technological development,
it is essential to strengthen public R&D
activities, including those in universities,
It is important to set up policies which provide a
balance by offering both incentives to stimulate R&D
and ensure a competitive environment for pioneers, for
down-stream researchers and for producers at the end
of the value-added chain.
One of the major functions of the patent system is the
dissemination of technical information.
Patent information is a valuable and comprehensive
source of technical, commercial and legal information
that can be used directly for scientific and experimental
purposes and as a basis for stimulating the adaptation
and improvement of the technology described in patent
documents immediately after their publication.
Recognizing the importance of the dissemination of
technical information, a growing number of IP offices
and organizations are using the Internet to offer access
to their patent documents' databases.
Why should I search patent literature?
Before starting a R&D-project, an effective study of the
state of the art is useful and advisable. It should not
only focus on books and scientific journals, but also
take patent information into account.
The patent system is the most prolific and up-to date
source of information on applied technology.
Patents contain detailed technical information which
often cannot be found anywhere else: up to 80% of
current technical knowledge can only be found in
Moreover, this information is rapidly available, as most
patent applications are published 18 months after the
first filing, irrespective of their country of origin.
Searches in patent literature can be conducted by
anyone by using the free-of-charge esp@cenet patent
data base on the Internet. It provides access to more
than 60 million patent documents from all over the
All documents are classified by technological areas on
the basis of the International Patent Classification
which is the world-wide standard.
1.Avoid duplication of R&D efforts and Pending.
Patents are the broadest source of technical
information. Many companies do not disclose their
R&D results in any other form.
Looking up patents therefore is an efficient way to
avoid duplication of R&D work: up to 30% of all
expenditure in R&D is wasted on redeveloping existing
2.Find solutions to technical problems.
Even if a patent is still in force, the information it
contains can be freely consulted, and used for
experimental purposes (under certain conditions).
Given that the majority of all patents – around 85% –
are no longer in force, a vast number of inventions is
available for free.
3.Gather business intelligence
Patent information not only reveals the state of the art
in a certain technology areas, but also enables
monitoring the innovation strategies of competitors and
other players at a very early stage.
It is important to recall that, in the context of the
European Community R&D Framework Program,
participants need to demonstrate the innovative
character of the project they propose.
A proper analysis of the state of the art is one of the
criteria project proposals are evaluated upon, and
therefore technology-based proposals should preferably
include patent searches.
No standard rules for the selection of a research topic
but the under listed will serve as a guide for
The topic must be educational in nature. The
educational nature of a topic implies that the topic
must be such that is geared towards providing a
solution to an educational problem.
It must also satisfy one of the major objectives of
educational research - extension of knowledge and
making a meaningful contribution in the teaching learning process.
The topic to be selected must be of interest to the
researcher. A person's interest in a topic provides the
motivation that will enable the researcher complete
Interest also makes for dedication and commitment in
the course of the study.
This is one of the reasons; the supervisor should not
select a topic for students. One cannot be committed
to a study that has no personal meaning to him.
Topic must be original: the originality of a topic first
and foremost eliminates duplication.
A duplicated research study amounts to waste of
energy, time, material and financial resources, because
solution to that problem has already been provided.
An original topic adds new knowledge which
contributes to educational advancement.
Topic must be researchable: a topic is said to be
researchable if it lends itself to investigation through
the collection and analysis of objective and relevant
It employs a systematic data gathering procedure for
testing its theory and arriving at the solution to the
Availability of time and financial resources: The topic
must be such that can be completed within the time
and money availability to the researchers.
Excuses relating to time and financial handicaps are
not tolerated in research. Many research studies are
abandoned due to lack of time and financial resources.
Availability of data: the topic must be one in which
the researcher can easily identify his subjects and
means of collecting data from the subjects.
Subjects in research may be human
being, objects, events and structures such as
Facilities for data collecting must be available; such
facilities like the libraries, computer and information
centers. This is important for review of literature and
analysis of data.
Topic must be significant: it must be capable of adding
to new knowledge thereby providing solution to some
knotty educational and social problems. Its findings
must benefit some individuals.
A critical consideration of most of the above
principles will make topic selection as easy task for