CLIL. Portfolio.

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CLIL Portfolio. Metodología AICLE Portfolio.

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CLIL. Portfolio.

  1. 1. “Máster Universitario en Lengua Inglesa para el Aula Bilingüe de Educación Secundaria por la Universidad de Oviedo. Curso 2013/2014” Rocío Yuste Mieres PORTFOLIO {CLIL approach} CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING Unidad didáctica: Trigonometría 4º de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria. Opción B
  2. 2. PORTFOLIO. Rocío Yuste Mieres (DNI: 10891225N) “Máster Universitario en Lengua Inglesa para el Aula Bilingüe de Educación Secundaria por la Universidad de Oviedo”  Academic year: 2013/2014  Subject: “Metodología AICLE/CLIL”  Date: 15th January 2013  Tutora: Marta García-Sampedro Fernández Canteli. Departamento de Ciencias de la Educación
  3. 3. “The fact is that given the challenges we face, education doesn't need to be reformed, it needs to be transformed. The key to this transformation is not to standardize education, but to personalize it, to build achievement on discovering the individual talents of each child, to put students in an environment where they want to learn and where they can naturally discover their true passions.” ― Ken Robinson, The Element: How Finding Your Passion Changes Everything
  4. 4. 1 Portfolio|CLIL Index 1.  INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................2  2.  THEORY ........................................................................................................................2  2.1 THE BILINGUAL PROGRAM ..........................................................................................2  2.2 WHAT IS CLIL? ..........................................................................................................2  2.3 THE 4 CS OF CLIL ......................................................................................................3  2.4 THEACHERS ................................................................................................................4  2.5 ASSESSMENT...............................................................................................................4  2.6 BENEFITS OF CLIL......................................................................................................5  3.  ACTIVITIES ...................................................................................................................6  3.1 A PIECE OF NEWS ........................................................................................................6  3.2 FAMOUS CHARACTER / ANIMAL / OBJECT ....................................................................7  3.3 ROLE PLAY THE FOLLOWING SITUATION .....................................................................7  3.4 BEGINNING WITH THE LETTER.....................................................................................8  3.5 REPHRASING ...............................................................................................................8  3.6 USING REALIA.............................................................................................................9  3.7 GIVING REAL EXAMPLES .............................................................................................9  3.8 WATER .....................................................................................................................10  3.9 VISITING A MUSEUM .................................................................................................11  4.  CONCLUSION ..............................................................................................................11 
  5. 5. 2 Portfolio|RocíoYuste 1. Introduction The present work is the portfolio related to the subject “Metodología AICLE/CLIL” taught in the Master’s degree: “Máster Universitario en Lengua Inglesa para el Aula Bilingüe de Educación Secundaria por la Universidad de Oviedo”. This work is a personal summary of matters which were given by our teacher during the lessons at University. Matters like what CLIL is and how to carry through with it. This portfolio also contains activities likely to do with our potential students, that is, activities in order to put theory into practice and which my classmates and I did with our teacher during the Master. Finally, there is a briefly reflection about how this subject has contributed to improve my knowledge about the CLIL approach. 2. Theory 2.1 The bilingual program The beginning of the bilingual program in Asturias can be situated in the academic year 2003- 2004 when the possibility of its implantation began to be studied. The following year it started to be developed in several groups of Secondary Education. Finally, the government pass the law that organises this kind of education and which is valid this academic year 2013-2014. This law is: “Resolución de 19 de mayo de 2009, de la consejería de educación y ciencia, por la que se aprueba la convocatoria de proyectos para fomentar el desarrollo de Programas Bilingües en centros educativos de enseñanza no universitaria en el Principado de Asturias, para el curso 2009-2010. BOPA Nº 121 –miércoles, 27 de mayo de 2009” Since then, the bilingual program has been spread and there are a lot of Primary, Secondary and Vocational Schools that offer this opportunity to their students. 2.2 What is CLIL? The acronym CLIL stands for “Content and Language Integrated Learning”. This is more than a methodology, it is an approach that involves teaching a content through the medium of a language that is not the learners’ native language. The key issue is that the learner is gaining new knowledge about the 'non-language' subject while encountering, using and learning the foreign language. The methodologies and approaches used are often linked to the subject area with the content leading the activities. CLIL is a dual-focused educational approach, the target language is used for learning a content, and a content is used for learning the target language. And, in addition, this approach is holistic, comprehensive and natural, and the result is that what students learn through the experience and using real objects they will not ever forget. Another important characteristic about CLIL is that the process (how and how long) is more important than the product.
  6. 6. 3 Portfolio|CLIL Some other CLIL characteristics are that classroom setting changes according to the activities, the approach attends to the different learning styles and follows Gardner ideas, different areas and skills can be used to teach a particular content, therefore, there is a cooperative learning among learners and teachers, it is used the task-based learning and the assessment methods are different too, according with the new kind of teaching and learning process. T h e o r y o f m u l t i p l e i n t e l l i g e n c e s The theory of multiple intelligences is a model of intelligence that differentiates it into specific (primarily sensory) "modalities", rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability. This model was proposed by Howard Gardner in his 1983 book “Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences”. The American Professor maintains that there are at least eight different kinds of intelligences and we are all intelligent (to a greater or lesser extent) in at least eight different ways: linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-physical, visual-spatial, musical, naturalistic, interpersonal and intrapersonal. When CLIL teachers appeal to a variety of learning styles using, for instance, this theory, they offer learners the chance to review content and language several times, in different ways, helping the information and language to be stored in the brain and making it easier for learners to produce the information and language in new situations. 2.3 The 4 Cs of CLIL These four principles are essential to the CLIL approach and they should be used as the framework for creating and delivering successful lessons. C O G N I T I O N Cognition refers to the critical thinking skills that students use to engage with and understand course content, to solve problems, and to reflect on their learning. Using a target language, students’ brains have to work harder and more connections are formed expanding their memory because of the fact that they are learning in another language. C O M M U N I C A T I O N Communication refers to students using the target language to communicate their thoughts, opinions, attitudes and discoveries related to the lesson content. Therefore, their language skills and their ability to communicate in the target language improve effectively. Students produce authentic language and not memorize grammar rules and parrot the teacher. They develop spoken and written language in formal and informal contexts. C U L T U R E Culture refers to the learning of the subject’s language and culture, as well as, ideas and different ways of life of the people from other cultures. CLIL materials may contain cultural information about other countries, races, and so on, and CLIL promotes exchanges with other students through email projects, video conferencing, etc. The ultimate goal is to promote international awareness and understanding.
  7. 7. 4 Portfolio|RocíoYuste C O N T E N T Content refers to the subject or theme of the lesson or course. Learners acquire knowledge of different content areas such as history, science, mathematics, and so on, using the target language as the instrument of communication. 2.4 Theachers Teachers working with CLIL are specialists in their own discipline rather than traditional language teachers. They are usually fluent speakers of the target language, bilingual or native speakers. It is very important that teachers try to search for materials and tasks which get to motivate and encourage their students, taking into account the 4 Cs and the goals of the CLIL approach. Learners take an active part in the process of learning and the teacher become a guide, instead of having the main role in the teaching and learning process. About the target language, teachers do not have to correct students systematically, it is better to get fluency and communication making mistakes than to try that the students speak and write a perfect foreign language. O r g a n i z i n g a u n i t It is useful to organize what teachers are going to teach to their students in order not to forget anything during the teaching and learning process. There are different possibilities of organization, for instance, one of them could take into account the following matters:  Unit theme  Lesson title  Linguistic objective  CLIL objective  Student outcome  Language (structures, lexis)  Materials  Outline activities  Assessment criteria 2.5 Assessment On the one hand soft CLIL programs focus the assessment on language, on the other hand, hard CLIL programs focus the assessment on content and language or sometimes just content. CLIL assessment can also focus on communication skills, cognitive skills, practical skills and learning to learn. Each teacher adapts CLIL approach to the circumstances and possibilities. An initial evaluation can help them to know the language levels and the learning needs of learners about content in order to design their CLIL programs.
  8. 8. 5 Portfolio|CLIL To be able to assess effectively CLIL teachers need:  To put learners at the center of the process.  To find out what standards are achievable when learners study the subject content in a non-native language.  To be clear about why they assess learners.  To decide to focus assessment on content and language separately or on integrating content and language.  To decide on the assessment criteria they are going to use in order to do that assessment.  To decide how assess different skills and attitudes in the classroom using a range of criteria. In addition, learners need to be aware of what the focus of assessment is. T y p e s o f a s s e s s m e n t There are two main types of assessments. CLIL teachers need to know what are they looking for when assessing and which standards they will use to evaluate and make decisions, in order to choose the type of assessment.  Summative assessment → is assessment of learning. It is often quite formal and is used when teachers want to find out what learners know about subject content and how well they can use the language of the subject. It is often at the end of a unit of work or at the end of a course.  Formative assessment → is assessment for learning. It is often informal and is used when teachers want to find evidence of learning and development in individual learners or among groups of learners. Formative assessment can be done daily, that is, it is on- going, continuous. This kind of assessment provides feedback which can lead teachers to change or adapt their future teaching, their materials and the tasks they create. A s s e s s m e n t c r i t e r i a “Can do” statements are often used to describe the assessment criteria for both kind of assessments (for example: can organize information effectively) taking into account that the assessment criteria links to the learning outcomes. 2.6 Benefits of CLIL There are many benefits to integrating content and language. The main benefits, in relation to learners, are the following:  Learners are motivated because they feel they are developing language skills along with the subject.  Learners develop cognitively and their brains work harder, therefore they may be more likely to remember what they have learned, both the language and the content.  Learners develop communication skills in a variety of situations, formal and informal, specialized and general.
  9. 9. 6 Portfolio|RocíoYuste  Learners make new personal meanings in another language linking new information or ideas in target language to previous content or language knowledge in their first language.  Learners’ language progresses more because in CLIL lessons students hear and read the target language, understand it, use it to speak and write in meaningful interactions and notice how the language is used in practice.  Learners receive a lot of input, that is, the language they read and heard. And learners work effectively with that input by means of CLIL activities.  Learners interact meaningfully because CLIL provides meaningful interaction about both the content (meaning) needed for language acquisition and the language needed for subject development.  Learners learn to speak and write, that is, they produce the language and become more proficient users of language.  Learners develop intercultural awareness learning about ideas and communicating with people from other cultures.  Learners learn about the culture of a subject because teachers are not only teaching information about a subject, but also teaching learners to think, write and speak like subject specialists.  Learners are prepared for studying in another language because at the end of their school careers they are confident and fluent in their second language.  Learners learn in different ways because CLIL teachers give them the opportunity to process and produce information and language in a variety of ways reinforcing the learning of both content and language. 3. Activities 3.1 A piece of news First activity that we were asked to do during the Master was about likely piece of news that we could find in the newspaper. As it was in autumn, and the weather was rarely hot, we thought about the weather forecast and we started to suggest different activities in relation to it. I suggested the following activity in relation to Mathematics: W e a t h e r F o r e c a s t . S t a t i s t i c s By means of this activity, students are going to confirm that the language taught in class, regarding graphs, charts and statistics, is usually use in real information searching on the Internet. And they are also going to use it to describe their own graph. Students, working in groups of two or three members, have to search on Internet information given by means of a graph, chart or statistics about the temperature in Oviedo in October for fifty years. Then, they have to draw a line graph with this information and they also have to describe the trend of the graph using the specific vocabulary that was learned at the school or even though, new vocabulary used to describe it. Finally, students have to hand in the activity to the teacher to be assessed.
  10. 10. 7 Portfolio|CLIL 3.2 Famous character / animal / object Another activity that we were asked to do was about an informal writing. We had to choose a character, animal or object in relation with our field and try to write one day in its life if it was living nowadays. Then, we had to read it to our classmates and they had to guess what or who we were talking about. In relation to Mathematics this activity could be: T e l l w h a t y o u h a v e d o n e t o d a y : m y “ m a t h e m a t i c a l l i f e ” Students have to use their imagination in order to tell a short story about a mathematician, instrument, operation, process, and so on, in relation to Mathematics. This story have to be about a day that the character, they had chosen, could expend in this time. They have to tell those stories to their classmates and classmates have to guess who or what they are. In this activity students are going to train how to speak in public with an informal discourse and without too much time to prepare it beforehand. Firstly, students have to think individually about what or who are they going to talk about. Then, each student has to tell their stories to their classmates and classmates have to guess who or what they are. They can make questions to find the lead of the story. If we wanted that students pay attention to the story we could ask them to write down adjectives, for instance, while the other student is telling the story. Students are assessed by the teacher who checks if they speak fluently and the story can be followed and makes sense. And classmates are also assessed with their participation, asking questions or trying to guess the lead of each story. For example, one student could tell the following story about a calculator (as I did during the Master): “I am a sort of machine. My owner is a very lazy little girl. This morning I had to wake her up because I am also an alarm. I have been figuring out a lot of things for her all the day. At breakfast time, for instance, she asked me how many biscuits were two plus twelve, because there were two kinds of biscuits and she wanted to know the amount she had eaten. At school she was using me in all the lessons and as it is forbidden, I ended up being locked in the Director’s desk.” 3.3 Role play the following situation Although we did not this activity during the Master, I have decided to write it down in this portfolio because I think it is interesting and can be used in relation to Mathematics. The activity would be the following. On student explains a given Mathematical concept to another student in the first language. Then, the second student interprets all students, what the first student said, into the target language. And the other students ask as many questions as they want in the target language in order to guess what they are talking about.
  11. 11. 8 Portfolio|RocíoYuste Student are assessed by the teacher who checks if they speak fluently and the interpretation can be followed and makes sense. Classmates are also assessed with their participation, asking questions or trying to guess the Mathematical concept explained. 3.4 Beginning with the letter There is one simple and fun activity that we can suggest, as CLIL teachers, to our potential students to warm up at the beginning of a lesson and, at the same time, to revise vocabulary in the target language. This activity consist in writing words beginning with a letters chosen randomly. We tried this activity during the Master and we worked in pairs looking for the following words beginning with the letter B firstly, and then with the letter V. This was the result: 3.5 Rephrasing Sometimes, students understand the meaning of a word or a concept but they do not know how to explain it with other words in the target language. This is a very good activity to improve this skill. During the Master, we did this activity explaining different concepts of different fields, but this activity can be focused on one field, for instance Mathematics. Students can be asked to explain only mathematical concepts, such as, square root, square centimeter, etc. Working in groups of about three or four members, students have to write down the explanation of different mathematical concepts in the target language. Then, they have to tell to the other students those explanations. The other students have to try to rephrase their talk using similar (but not identical) words. Student are assessed by the teacher who checks if they speak fluently and the explanations can be followed, makes sense and are right written. Classmates are also assessed with their participation trying to rephrase as well as can be expected. These definitions could be uploaded to the class’ blog that the teacher could start at the beginning of the year with a glossary. Thanks to this activity, they are going to develop their writing and speaking skills, and they are going to have a tool where to look up English vocabulary in relation to Mathematics. For example, one of the definition explained to the other classmates, rephrased and uploaded to the blog could be: Square centimeter The area equal to a square that is 1 centimeter on each side. Used for measuring small areas such as on drawings. WORDS – LETTER: B V NAME Barbara Victor CONTAINTER Bottle Vase ACTION Building Viewing SPORT Basketball Volleyball DRINK Beer Vodka COUNTRY Belgium Venezuela ADJECTIVE Beautiful Violent CITY Barcelona Vigo
  12. 12. 9 Portfolio|CLIL 3.6 Using realia One more activity that we were asked to do was about using realia, that is, we were given a real map of a city and we had to think about a likely activity with this object in our field. Using realia the activity motivates the students more than using things that they rarely use. Different tasks were suggested and this is the activity that I proposed regarding with Mathematics: C a l c u l a t i n g k i l o m e t e r s b e t w e e n t w o p o i n t s Firstly, students have to form groups of two or three members. Then, they are given a real map and they have to calculate the distance between two points, so they have to find the map scale and then measure the distance between two points on the map using a rule. Finally they have to multiply that distance on the map by the scale factor to find the distance in kilometers. Student are assessed by the teacher who checks if they work in group speaking in the target language, and they also have to give the right answer about the real distance between two points. 3.7 Giving real examples During the master and working individually we had to think about animals that have some characteristics, such as:  Animals that lay eggs: hen, parrot, frog…  Animals that are very strong: elephant, tiger, shark…  Animals that dick holes: mouse, snake, dog…  Animals that are poisoned: mosquito, frog, snake…  Animals that eat people: tiger, jaguar, snake…  Animals that people eat them: pig, cow, chicken…  And so on… Based on this activity I thought about a similar activity to be used in Mathematics. G e o m e t r i c s h a p e s i n r e a l l i f e After studying geometric shapes in Mathematics, students are going to discover this figures in real life. In this activity, they are asked to give examples about geometric figures that they can find in the nature, in their school, in their houses, in their city, and so on. They would be asked the following question: Work individually and write down something with the shape of a:  Circle: pizza pie, cookies, wheels of a bike…  Square: a garage, square rubber stamps, tiles on the floor…  Triangle: a slice of pizza, a sandwich cut in half diagonally…  Rectangle: apartment buildings, hopscotch board, certain cell phones…  Pentagon: The Pentagon, the designs found on soccer balls…  Hexagon: ice crystals, some snowflakes…  Octagon: stop sign, some umbrellas…  Decagon: certain collectors coins…  Nonagon: lids for types of cookie bins/containers…
  13. 13. 10 Portfolio|RocíoYuste http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hADHVkE_zdI  Trapezoid: the trusses of a bridge…  Parallelogram: the structure of some bridges, wallets…  Rhombus: baseball diamonds, some kites, certain crystals…  Heptagon: covers for a cookie bin, some types of pill boxes…  Star: stars up in the sky, a star necklace, star cookie cutters…  Crescent: crescent rolls, the moon during certain phases…  Oval: eyes, eggs, buns for a hot dog…  Semicircle: half a cookie, half a pizza pie, and other incomplete circles…  Cylinder: cardboard inside a paper towel…  Prism: cardboard box, cameras, cereal box…  Pyramid: an actual pyramid, roof of a house… This activity could be extended with a photo competition, asking to the students to take photos of geometrical shapes that they can find in their life. They could work in groups of three or four members. Finally, students could do a presentation (with power point, for instance) to show their pictures to their classmates and explain the shapes that they have found, talking about the following matters: 1. Where and when did they take the picture? 2. What is the picture about? 3. Which is the geometrical shape that appears in the picture? 4. Which are the characteristics of the geometrical shape? 5. Why do you think this thing, animal, person, and so on, has this shape? Students would be assessed by the teacher who checks if they speak fluently, use vocabulary in reference to the geometrical shape that are explaining and understand why geometrical shapes are chosen by animals in the nature, by humans in their designs, and so on. 3.8 Water Water can be used to develop different activities in different fields. We were asked to propose an activity regarding with the water in our field. As an Engineer, I suddenly thought about de Panama Canal and how does it work. The following activity could be proposed to do in relation with the subject of Techonology. P a n a m a C a n a l Students, working in groups of four members, have to draw a first draft of the canal. Then, they have to explain to the rest of the classmates their designs and one of those works will be chosen to make a model. Before trying to make that model, students have to watch a video about the Panama Canal and then, the whole group have to talk about their design and to correct possible mistakes.
  14. 14. 11 Portfolio|CLIL Finally, the whole group will make the model of the Panama Canal and test if it works, in order to be showed to the whole school. If it were possible, they could visit the “Museo de la ciencia de Valladolid” where there is a model of the Panama Canal and thanks to this model they could see and test how the Panama Canal works. Student are assessed by the teacher who checks if they work in group speaking in the target language, if they do good designs, if they participate trying to improve the final design as well as in the construction of the model. 3.9 Visiting a museum We had the opportunity to visit the “Museo de Bellas Artes de Asturias”. There, we were thinking about what kind of activities we could propose to our students. This is the activity that I suggested to do to my potential students within the subject of Technical Drawing. 3 v i e w d r a w i n g s Thanks to this activity, students are going to discover some artworks and, if it is possible, they are going to visit de museum with the help of an English guide. During the visiting, they have to choose a sculpture in order to draw and sketch about the 3 views of the sculpture, that is, front view, top view and right (or left) side view. This work is going to be assessed by the teacher, as well as they behavior during the visiting and the use of the target language in order to ask questions or make comments about the artworks. For instance, the following sculpture would be adequate to do this activity: Herminio Álvarez (La Caridad, Asturias, 1945) Sin título. Madera, ferrum, campos magnéticos. 4.Conclusion During the Master we were asked to bring a photo about our field to show and to talk about it to our teacher and classmates.
  15. 15. 12 Portfolio|RocíoYuste I found this photo when I search “happy classroom with the teacher” on Internet. I am not a teacher, I hope to become a teacher soon, but I do not know what subject I am going to teach, maybe Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Science, but what I know is that I would like to get the atmosphere that I can perceive looking at this photo. I would like to help students to realize that they should make the most of their time and they have to enjoy their lives while they improve their knowledge. I would like them to trust me, and if they had some problems inside or even outside the school, I would like that they asked me to help them. I think that working with CLIL would help me to get this atmosphere. It is a good way to get closer to students. Before studying this Master I did not know anything about CLIL. I think that the closer theory that I knew was the Discovery Learning, a method of instruction through which students interact with their environment by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments. I think CLIL approach is engaging, enjoyable and gratifying for students, which fulfil the leading role and the teacher only guide them and give them necessary tools for learning. I think learning a language in a real context is more encouraging than learning only grammar, and, at the same time, learning a subject in another language is more motivating that using their own language. On the other hand, I think that there is a little problem. I my opinion this way of learning and teaching involves more work for teachers. They have to find, to create, to revise many activities, and these activities have to be done with a clear goal and without leaving knowledge on the way. Nevertheless, I think that there are more advantages than disadvantages, and I would like to have the opportunity to teach using this approach and become a CLIL teacher. H o w “ C L I L ” a m I ? As I said before, I believe that CLIL is a motivating and encouraging way to teach. After learning what CLIL is and its features, we were asked to do a checklist in order to know how CLIL we are, even though, we have never taught using CLIL. It was grate to know that I am on my way to being an effective CLIL teacher. I am aware of the fact that I need to improve my knowledge about CLIL, but I hope that with the practice, being an actual CLIL teacher, someday I will get the score of well-informed and experienced CLIL teacher.
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