U1.early middle ages


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U1.early middle ages

  2. 2. a) What event marks the beginning of History? b) Which are the 4 periods in History?
  3. 3.  PREHISTORY (4,2 m.y.a. – 3,000 BC) ----------------  ANCIENT AGE (3,000 BC – 476 AD)  MIDDLE AGES (476 – 1453/92):  Early Middle Ages  5th – 10th Centuries  High Middle Ages  11th - 13th Centuries  Late Middle Ages  14th - 15th Centuries  MODERN AGE (1453/92 – 1789)  CONTEMPORARY AGE (1789 –TODAY)
  4. 4.  1st Century AD  EmperorTrajan. In 117AD the Roman empire reached it’s largest extension. BRITISH ISLES
  5. 5.  3rd Century AD:  deep CRISIS in the Roman Empire. Causes:  First defeats by the barbarians made frontiers no longer safe, so military chiefs took control in some areas.  As conquests ended, there were fewer slaves to work, so this caused economic problems: prices increased & trade dropped.This made the empire became poorer, so taxes were increased.  Due to the economic problems, many people abandoned cities & migrated to the countryside. The empire became ruralised (self-sufficient economy; no trade; no prosperity...)
  6. 6.  395  EmperorTheodosius. Division of the Empire to try to solve the crisis: ROME CONSTANTINOPLE  Western Roman Empire capital: Rome  Eastern Roman Empire capital: Constantinople
  7. 7. Western Roman Empire • Capital: Rome • Evolution: in 476 it fell due to the invasion of the Germanic tribes (“barbarians”). Odoacre deposed the last Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus. Eastern Roman Empire • Capital: Constantinople • Evolution: after 476 AD it continued existing as the Byzantine Empire until 1453, when it fell to theTurks.
  8. 8. ▪ Each Germanic tribe assumed the power in the territories in which they were settled, and founded the GERMANIC KINGDOMS:  VISIGOTHS  Iberian Peninsula  FRANKS  Gaul (France)  OSTROGOTHS  Italian Peninsula  VANDALS  North Africa  ANGLES & SAXONS  Britain  Western Roman Empire (capital: Rome)
  9. 9.  Eastern Roman Empire (capital: Constantinople) ▪ Known as Byzantine Empire.  Because the capital (Constantinople) had been settled over an old Greek colony called “BYZANTIUM”. ▪ 1453: falls to the OttomanTurks. Byzantium = Constantinople = Istanbul
  11. 11.  In addition, in the 7th Century (622)… a new civilization was arousing nearby!!! ISLAM ▪ Religion of the Muslims. ▪ Mohammad is its prophet & founder. ▪ Origined in the city of Mecca, in the Arabian Peninsula.
  13. 13. CONCLUSION: During the Middle Ages  3 CIVILIZATIONS coexisted & fought for the dominion of the territories of the old Roman Empire:  Germanic kingdoms  Catholic Christians  Byzantine empire  Orthodox Christians  Islamic empire  Muslims
  14. 14.  P.10. Exercises 1, 2.  Who were the following people? Trajan / Theodosius / Odoacer / Romulus Augustus  Say which Germanic tribe settled in the following territories after the fall of Rome: ▪ Italian Peninsula ▪ Most of the Iberian Peninsula ▪ North of modern-day France ▪ North Africa  Which 3 civilizations coexisted & fought to control the territory of the old Roman Empire during the Middle Ages? In the blank map  locate them & indicate the religion of each of them.
  15. 15.  Byzantine Empire = at the beginning (395) it occupied the territories of the former Eastern Roman Empire:  Balkans  Greece  Asia Minor  Syria  Egypt
  16. 16.  During most of its existence, the Byzantine empire was the most powerful economic, cultural & military force in Europe.  3 periods: 1) Protobyzantine Era  5th Century 2) Golden Age: reign of Justinian  6th Century 3) Retreat & decline of Byzantium  7th – 15th Century
  17. 17. 1) PROTOBYZANTINE ERA  5th Century Unlike the W.R.E (that was conquered in 476), the Byzantine empire was able to resist the barbarians’ attacks due to greater financial resources that enabled them to… Pay foreign mercenaries. Pay tributes to placate invaders. Fortify the walls of Constantinople.
  18. 18. After the fall of the W.R.E. (476), Constantinople became the sole capital of the Empire. At the end of the 5th Century: the GermanicTribes (Franks, Visigoths, Ostrogoths…) were too busy consolidating their new monarchies (Germanic Kingdoms), so they lost their interest in the Byzantine territories.
  19. 19. 2) THE GOLDEN AGE:THE REIGN OF JUSTINIAN  6th Century During the reign of Emperor Justinian (527-565) & his wife EmpressTheodora, the Byzantine empire was at its best. Justinian tried to reestablish the unity & splendor of the Roman Empire. His major successes were:  Military triumphs that made the empire reach its maximum extension.  Cultural achievements:  Code of Justinian  Hagia Sophia Basilica  Economic prosperity
  20. 20.  MILITARY TRIUMPHS: Justinian conquered many territories to the Germanic Kingdoms (Visigoths, Ostrogoths…), reaching the empire it’s maximum extension: • Italy • Sicily • Corsica • Sardinia • Balearic Islands • Territories in South Hispania • Territories in North Africa
  21. 21. CULTURAL ACHIEVEMENTS:  THE CODE OF JUSTINIAN: Justinian revised & gathered the old Roman law, added new ones & created a new code of laws: the Corpus Iuris Civilis, also known as “The Code of Justinian”. It has provided the foundation for most modern European law systems. One of the laws in Justinian's Code: “A PERSON IS INNOCENT UNTIL PROVEN GUILTY”.
  23. 23. It was a period of ECONOMIC PROSPERITY due to the dynamic trade they carried out, thanks to the strategic position of Constantinople. Byzantine silk & jewelry Byzantines development important & luxurious manufacturing industries (tapestries, jewels, silk…)
  24. 24. a) Why was the Byzantine Empire able to resist the Barbarians’ attacks in the 5th Century? b) Why did the barbarians lost their interest in the Byzantine territories after the fall of Rome? c) Who was Justinian? Explain his main achievements. d) To which Germanic tribes did the new territories conquered by Justinian belonged to???  Italy  Sicily  Corsica  Sardinia  Balearic Islands  Territories in South Hispania  Territories in North Africa
  25. 25. 3) RETREAT & DECLINE OF BYZANTIUM  7th – 15th Century  The empire underwent a deep crisis:  Financial problems due to the cost of Justinian’s military campaigns.  Religious problems: East-West schism (1054).  This weakened the Byzantine empire, who lost many territories: • MUSLIMS  conquered Holy Land, Syria, Egypt, N.Africa. • VISIGOTHS  conquered South Hispania. • VIKINGS  conquered Italy (11th Century).
  26. 26. End of Justinian's reign 6th Century …Territorial evolution of the Byzantine Empire… End 11th Century
  27. 27.  11th Century: the Byzantines (Orthodox) asked the Germanic Kingdoms (Catholics) to help them fight against the Turks (Muslims). Together they carried out several Crusades: religious wars carried out to bring back Christian religion to the Holy Land (which was under Muslim control). They successfully pushed back theTurks, but instead of giving those territories back to the Byzantines, the European crusaders established several kingdoms of their own.
  28. 28. 1453: theTurks finally conquered Constantinople and renamed it “Istanbul”. The Byzantine Empire had reached its end. Animation of the end of the Byzantine Empire: http://geacron.com/en/?v=m&lang=en&z=6&x=20.0830137 98071&y=43.224388770681&nd=0&d=1100A1150A1200A1 250A1300A1350A1400A1450A1453&di=1100&tm=p&ly=yy yy&fi=-500&ff=1500&sp=2&e=0&rp=0&re=0&nv=2
  29. 29. e) After Justinian’s reign the Byzantine empire entered into a period if difficulties. What was the consequence of this fact? f) Who conquered the Holy Land from the Byzantines? g) What were the Crusades? Explain their causes & consequences. h) Who were the Crusaders? i) Who & when put an end to the Byzantine Empire? ended? Did Constantinople continued to exist?
  30. 30. BYZANTINE EMPIRE BASILEUS He has total power: Army Administration (formed by lots of civil servants) Church is controlled by the… Sub-divided into… THEMATAS (provinces) STRATEGOS (political & military chief. They were under direct control of the Basileus) Each themata was governed by a… He controls…
  31. 31. AGRICULTURE: employed most of the population:  Who owned the land? Nobles & monasteries (the Church)  Who worked the land? Serfs
  32. 32. TRADE & MANUFACTURES: also very important due to the strategic position of Constantinople between Europe, Asia, Mediterranean & Black Seas  all type of products were traded…
  33. 33.  China:  Silk SILK = CONSTANTINOPLE
  34. 34.  India:  Spices  Ivory  Pearls SPICES IVOY PEARLS SILK = CONSTANTINOPLE
  35. 35.  Northern Europe:  Amber  Furs  Cereals SPICES IVOY PEARLS SILK AMBER FURS CEREALS = CONSTANTINOPLE
  36. 36. With all those products, artisans developed rich manufactures:  Silk fabrics  Tapestries  Jewels  Artistic objects Byzantine wedding ring Byzantine silk Byzantine sword with gems Byzantine chalices
  37. 37. a) Fill in the blank map indicating the products that the Byzantine Empire traded from China, India & northern Europe. b) What is the relation between Byzantium, Constantinople & Istanbul? c) Define the following words: Basileus / Thematas / Strategos d) Page. 13, exercise 4.
  38. 38. What was the official religion of the Roman Empire in 476?
  39. 39.  At the beginning, the religion of the Byzantine empire was the same as the one of the Germanic Kingdoms: CHRISTIANITY.  However, disputes concerning religious beliefs & traditions start to happen, leading to several conflicts.The most important one was the EAST-WEST SCHISM: religious conflict caused by the rivalry between the pope in Rome & the patriarch in Constantinople, who refused to recognize the supremacy of the Pope over Christendom. In ended in 1054 when Christianity was divided into 2 branches: Eastern Orthodox Church Roman Catholic Church
  41. 41.  BYZANTINE ART = evolution of the Roman art + influences of oriental art.  Most important forms of art: Churches Mosaics Icons
  42. 42.  CHURCHES: characteristics: Use of the Greek-cross plan. Greek Cross VS Latin Cross
  43. 43. Use of semicircular arches. Semicircular arch VS Other type of archs
  44. 44. Use of large domes over pendentives resting on pillars. Dome Pendentive Pillar/pier
  45. 45. Use of semi-domes and buttresses to download the heavy weight of the central dome.
  46. 46. Built with poor materials like bricks, sometimes covered with marble.
  47. 47. Decorated with rich mosaics.
  48. 48. Hagia Sophia in Constantinople
  49. 49. Hagia Sophia in Constantinople
  50. 50. St. Mark’s inVenice (Italy)
  51. 51.  MOSAICS: Used to decorate the walls and domes of the churches. Made with tessellas: small, coloured pieces of ceramic, stone or glass. Golden backgrounds to create a glittering and luxurious effect that reflected the power and wealth of the Byzantine Empire. They represented religious or imperial themes.
  52. 52. Empress Theodora and her attendants (in the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy). Emperor Justinian and his attendants (in the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy).
  53. 53. Christ Pantocrator ("All-powerful"). This depiction can be found in many byzantine churches: Hagia Sophia, Cefalu Cathedral (Sicily),…
  54. 54.  ICONS: Religious images (Christ,Virgin Mary, saints) painted on wooden boards. Characteristics of the painted figures: Flat and one-dimensional. Stylized figures (not proportional nor realistic). Rigid and unnatural expressions. Golden backgrounds to symbolize the divine nature of these characters (illuminated by God's light).
  55. 55. nave transept ENGLISH SPANISH DEFINITION Greek-cross plan Planta de cruz griega Church in which the arms (nave and the transept) are of equal length. Nave Nave The main body of a church, where most seats are located. Transept Transepto Transverse section of a church, which lies across its main body. Semicircular arch Arco de medio punto An arch that is exactly half a circle. Dome Cúpula A hemispherical roof Pendentives Pechinas A spherical triangle which acts as a transition between a circular dome and a square base on which the dome is set. Pillar / Pier Pilar A vertical support for a structure. Generally it’s square or rectangular. Buttresses Contrafuertes A stone or brick structure that supports the weight of something above it. Marble Mármol A type of hard stone that’s usually white Mosaic Mosaico Image made by putting together tessellas (small pieces of colored ceramic, stone or glass).
  56. 56. a) What was the East-West Schism? What did Catholic & Orthodox had in common? Indicate 3 differences between them. b) What are byzantine icons? Indicate 3 characteristics of them. c) Which are the most renowned examples of Byzantine Churches? Where are they located? d) Copy and complete the commentary of St. Mark’s church: “St . Mark’s church in V enice has a G_____-c____ plan. T he c ro ssi ng (area where t he n____ and t he t_______ int ersect ) is covered wit h a larg e d____ over p__________. There are several s_____________ arches. T he wal l s and t he do m e are c o vered wi t h bri g ht m_______ made wit h t_________ (small coloured pieces of c_________, s______ or g lass). G________ backg rounds have been use t o creat e a lux urious effect . ”
  58. 58. What Germanic Kingdoms can you remember?
  59. 59. ▪ Each Germanic tribe assumed the power in the territories in which they were settled, and founded the GERMANIC KINGDOMS:  VISIGOTHS  Iberian Peninsula  FRANKS  Gaul (France)  OSTROGOTHS  Italian Peninsula  VANDALS  North Africa  ANGLES & SAXONS  Britain  Western Roman Empire
  60. 60. CONSEQUENCES OFTHE SETTLEMENT OFTHE GERMANICTRIBES Politically, Western Europe lost its unity & was broken up into small independent kingdom. Culturally it was a period of crisis. -Knowledge was limited to the clergy & monasteries. -Few artistic achievements (no great buildings, sculptures…) Socially, the military groups outstanded over the rest of the population since Europe became a dangerous place (specially after the 9th century). The economy worsened & there was an increased ruralisation. - Cities & trade almost disappeared. - Agriculture became the most important activity, and a self-sufficient economy was developed.
  61. 61.  Beginning of the 5th Century: Visigoths settled in Gaul through a pact with the Roman Empire.  Visigoths  stopped their attacks on Rome & provided military help.  Rome  in exchange gave them lands & the right to govern themselves.
  62. 62.  TheVisigoths helped the Romans to regain control of Hispania when it was invaded by other Germanic tribes (Suevi, Alans & Vandals), and expanded their dominions across the Pyrenees. By the fall of the W.R.E. (476) theVisigoths already controlled areas in the north of the Iberian Peninsula.
  63. 63.  After the fall of the W.R.E., they established theVisigothic Kingdom.  Location: South Gaul & most of the Iberian Peninsula  Capital: Toulouse
  64. 64.  507: theVisigoths were defeated by the Frankish king Clovis (B. ofVouillé), so they moved south of the Pyrenees.  New capital  Toledo.
  65. 65.  Gradually, theVisigoths defeated the other Germanic tribes (Suevi, Cantabrians, Basques…) & the Byzantines… until they ended up controlling the whole Iberian Peninsula.
  66. 66. http://geacron.com/es/?v=m&lang=es&z=5&x=5.0097670333572&y=43.671050423825&nd=6&d=400A418A476A47 7A500A507A508&di=508&tm=p&ct=0&ly=yyyyyyy&fi=-500&ff=1500&sp=2&e=0&rp=0&re=0&nv=2
  67. 67.  However, in 711 the last visigothic king, Don Rodrigo, was defeated in the B. of Guadalete by the Islamic Empire.The Muslims called their territory in the Iberian Peninsula AL-ANDALUS. AL-ANDALUS
  68. 68. Don Rodrigo, the last Visigoth king, died in the Battle of Guadalete (711)
  69. 69. a) During the Roman Empire the Visigoths settled in South Gaul. How did this happen? b) What area did the Visigothic kingdom occupied at the beginning? What was its first capital? c) What happened in 507? What was the new capital of the kingdom? d) Who did the Visigoths had to defeat to be able to control the whole Iberian Peninsula? e) What happened to the Visigothic Kingdom in 711? Who was the last Visigothic king? f) How did Muslims called their territory in the Iberian peninsula?
  70. 70.  395: EmperorTheodosius divided the Roman Empire. ROME CONSTANTINOPLE
  71. 71. Clovis, first king of the Franks. He belonged to the Merovingian dynasty.  After the fall of theW.R.E. (476): the Franks assumed the power in north Gaul.The first Frankish king was Clovis, an impressive military commander from the Merovingian dynasty.
  72. 72.  507: Clovis expelled theVisigoths from southern Gaul (B. of Vouillé), who moved south of the Pyrenees.
  73. 73.  The Merovingian kings left government affairs in the hands of the “Mayors of the Palace”, who became the real power.  732: the Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel (Charlemagne’s grandfather) defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Poitiers, forcing them to retreat to the Iberian Peninsula.This victory reinforced the power of the Mayors of the Palace (who were ancestors of Charlemagne). Fight between a Muslims & Franks at the Battle of Poitiers (732)
  74. 74.  751: Charles Martel’s son, Pepin the Short (Charlemagne’s father) deposed the last Merovingian king with the Pope’s approval.This was the start of the Carolingian dynasty. Pepin the Short being crowned king of the Franks by the Pope (751)
  75. 75.  CHARLEMAGNE’S REIGN (768-814):  768: after his father’s death, Charlemagne became king of the Franks. He would be the greatest Carolingian monarch.  He wanted to reestablish the unity of the W.R.E.To do so, he defeated different tribes & conquered:  North of Germany  Central Europe  North of Italy
  76. 76.  On Christmas Day in the year 800 he was crowned emperor by the Pope in St.Peter’s Church in Rome. Old St.Peter’s Church in RomeCharlemagne crowned emperor on Christmas day, 800 by Pope Leo III
  77. 77.  814: Charlemagne died and his son, Louis the Pious, became king.  When Louis the Pious died the Carolingian empire was divided among his 3 sons in the Treaty ofVerdun (843). Gradually, the Carolingian empire collapsed due to internal disputes & foreign invasions, particularly the Vikings.
  78. 78. Territories at the death of Charlemagne (814) Territories at the death of Pippin the Short (768)
  79. 79. Map of Europe after theTreaty ofVerdun (843)
  80. 80. a) Which was the first Frankish dynasty? And the first king? b) When did the battle of Poitiers took place? What were the consequences of this battle? c) When did the Carolingian dynasty began? d) What purpose/aim did Charlemagne had? What did he do to achieve it? e) When & where was Charlemagne crowned emperor? What happened to his empire after his death? f) The invasion of who caused the collapse of the Carolingian Empire? g) What were counties & marches?
  81. 81. Activity 7
  82. 82.  Pope  religious power  King/Emperor  military & political power. His capital was inAachen (Germany). To have a better control over the territory it was divided it into: COUNTIES: territories ruled by a count who was chosen by the emperor. He was in charge of carrying out imperial commands, collecting taxes, administering justice… MARCHES: territories on the borders of the Empire that had to be defended. They were ruled by a marquis, military governors in charge of defending the frontiers of the Empire.
  83. 83.  Society was very hierarchical  beginning of FEUDALISM!! EMPEROR NOBILITY & CLERGY FREE PEOPLE SERFS Political & military power. Owners of the land. Nobles were in charge of political or military duties (counts, marquises, knights…) Most of them peasants; some merchants & artisans Belonged to their lord, who’s lands they laboured in exchange of protection & a place to live.
  84. 84.  FEUDALISM: system in which every person had to swear loyalty to the person above them in return for something else (lands, shelter, protection…)
  85. 85.  There was a cultural renaissance  an increase of literature, architecture, sculpture… (Charlemagne aimed to reestablish the cultural splendor of the old Roman Empire).  Inspired in Roman culture.  Most important artistic achievements:  Architecture: Charlemagne’s palace in Aachen (Germany) of which today only the Palatine Chapel remains.  Small sculptures like the one of Charlemagne on horseback.  Illuminated manuscript: hand-written books in which the text was supplemented with different decorations such as miniature illustrations, initials & borders.
  86. 86. The Palace of Aachen (Germany) was a group of buildings with residential, political & religious purposes. Chosen by Charlemagne to be the center of power of the Carolingian Empire. Council Hall Thermae Palatine Chapel Main door Hot Springs Emperor’s private residence Treasure Hall Today only the Palatine Chapel remains.
  87. 87. The Palatine Chapel was the basis for today’s Aachen Cathedral.
  88. 88. Octagonal plan Exterior
  89. 89. Octagonal dome covered with mosaics Semicircular arches
  90. 90. Charlemagne’s throne
  91. 91. Charlemagne’s sculpture in bronze (24 cm high) Ivory plaque, probably of a book cover.
  92. 92. a) What were counties & marches? b) Why do we say that there was a “cultural renaissance” during the Carolingian Empire? c) Where was Charlemagne’s Palace located? What is the only part that remains today? d) What are Illuminated manuscrpits?