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U1. 18th century. age of enlightenment

U1. 18th century. age of enlightenment

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Unit 1
18th Century:
The Age of Enlightenment
IES CAMILO JOSÉ CELA
Teacher: Rocío Bautista
Introduction
What happened at
the end of the 18th
Century… in 1789??
Introduction
18th Century  period of changes that marked
the transition between the Modern Age & the
Contemporary Age.
Satirical print from 1789 depicting the Third
Estate carrying the clergy and nobility on its back
ANCIEN RÉGIME
(Old Regime)
Stratified society
(privileged VS non-privileged)
Agrarian
economy. Scarce
industry; controlled
by guilds.
Mercantilism
Modern Age
(situation before 1789)
Renaissance &
Baroque art
Absolutism
Great influence
of religion
ENLIGHTENMENT
Growth of the bourgeoisie.
Criticism of stratified society.
Economic
liberalism
Rococo &
Neoclassical art
18th Century
Enlightened
despotism
Increased
importance of
industry. New
production methods.
Increased scientific reasoning.
Religion loses influence.
Enlightenment
(“La Ilustración”)
Intellectual movement that emerged in France in the 18th
Century.
Main ideas
Reason  only
way to explain
& understand
the world. Believe in human progress 
they thought that the use of
reason could improve society.
They believed humans (not
God) could improve their own
existence & happiness by
means of reason & scientific
advancements.
Criticism of the
Ancien Régime
(absolutism, stratified
society, religious
influence…) they
considered it an
obstacle to achieve
human progress &
happiness.
It got its name because it
aimed to clear the darkness
of old beliefs of the past with
the light of reason.
Enlightenment
(“La Ilustración”)
Latin phrase meaning “Dare to know”.
Originally used by the Roman poet
Horace, it became popular thanks to
Kant’s essay “Answering the Question:
What Is Enlightenment?” (1784), where
he claimed the phrase Sapere aude as
the motto for the Age of Enlightenment.

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U1. 18th century. age of enlightenment

  • 1. Unit 1 18th Century: The Age of Enlightenment IES CAMILO JOSÉ CELA Teacher: Rocío Bautista
  • 2. Introduction What happened at the end of the 18th Century… in 1789??
  • 3. Introduction 18th Century  period of changes that marked the transition between the Modern Age & the Contemporary Age. Satirical print from 1789 depicting the Third Estate carrying the clergy and nobility on its back
  • 4. ANCIEN RÉGIME (Old Regime) Stratified society (privileged VS non-privileged) Agrarian economy. Scarce industry; controlled by guilds. Mercantilism Modern Age (situation before 1789) Renaissance & Baroque art Absolutism Great influence of religion ENLIGHTENMENT Growth of the bourgeoisie. Criticism of stratified society. Economic liberalism Rococo & Neoclassical art 18th Century Enlightened despotism Increased importance of industry. New production methods. Increased scientific reasoning. Religion loses influence.
  • 5. Enlightenment (“La Ilustración”) Intellectual movement that emerged in France in the 18th Century. Main ideas Reason  only way to explain & understand the world. Believe in human progress  they thought that the use of reason could improve society. They believed humans (not God) could improve their own existence & happiness by means of reason & scientific advancements. Criticism of the Ancien Régime (absolutism, stratified society, religious influence…) they considered it an obstacle to achieve human progress & happiness. It got its name because it aimed to clear the darkness of old beliefs of the past with the light of reason.
  • 6. Enlightenment (“La Ilustración”) Latin phrase meaning “Dare to know”. Originally used by the Roman poet Horace, it became popular thanks to Kant’s essay “Answering the Question: What Is Enlightenment?” (1784), where he claimed the phrase Sapere aude as the motto for the Age of Enlightenment.
  • 7. French Enlightenment intellectuals: “Les Philosophes” MONTESQUIEU ROUSSEAU VOLTAIRE DIDEROT In the mid-18th century, Paris became the center of an explosion of philosophic & scientific activity challenging traditional doctrines. Despite the Philosophes of the French Enlightenment were not revolutionaries (many were even members of the nobility), their ideas played a major role in discrediting the Old Regime & inspiring the French Revolution.
  • 9. MONTESQUIEU (1689 – 1755) • French nobleman (“Baron de Montesquieu”) • He admired the English system (constitutional monarchy), product of the Glorious Revolution (1688) • Author of “The Spirit of the Laws” (1748)  political treatise where he criticized Absolutism & claimed that the best way to keep the government under control & guarantee people’s liberty was through the separation of powers.
  • 11. ROUSSEAU (1712 – 1778) Author of “The Social Contract” (1762) • He defended freedom & equality of all the people. • Criticized enforced governments and the hypothetical “Divine Right” to govern of Absolute kings. He claimed that only the people are the legitimate sovereigns of a given state (popular sovereignty*) and that a government should be a social contract  an agreement between free individuals who are willing to cooperate to achieve the common benefit of the whole society; people would come together and rule themselves by Direct Democracy (≠ representative democracy). * Sovereignty (soberanía): authority & power over a country.
  • 13. VOLTAIRE (1694 – 1778) • French writer, historian, lawyer & philosopher. • Defended freedom of speech, as well as freedom of religion & separation of church and state.
  • 14. DIDEROT (1713 – 1784) • Best known for publishing the “Encyclopaedia”: • Summarized the knowledge of the time. It included contributions from many people (over 70.000 articles of 140 contributors, including Voltaire, Rousseau & Montesquieu). • Aimed to disseminate knowledge to the public & secularize learning (separate it from religious connection). • It helped to spread enlightened ideas through Europe & America.
  • 15. “A Reading in the Salon of Madame Geoffrin” (Gabriel Lemonnier, 1755) ROUSSEAU VOLTAIRE DIDEROT MME. GEOFFRIN MONTESQUIEU Salons: meetings of enlightened intellectuals in private homes. It helped to spread this ideas through Europe & America.
  • 16. Activity 1  P.10: exercises 1 & 4  Define:  Sapere Aude  Separation of powers  Popular Sovereignty  Direct democracy  Comment the following painting. You must include relevant information of the characters that we’ve studied that appear in it.
  • 17. Old Regime 18th Century Social Political Political systems International relations Economic Economic systems Population Agriculture Industry Trade ACTIVITY 4: Copy & complete Changes in the 18th Century: political, economic & social changes
  • 18. SOCIAL CHANGES: Old Regime 18th Century Stratified society: Privileged classes (no taxes, special laws, didn’t work):  Nobility  Clergy VS Non-privileged classes:  Bourgeoisie  Peasants Stratified society was maintained, but increased criticism towards it that will led to the French Revolution (1789): • Enlightened intellectuals criticised privileged classes (nobility’s former military role was now performed by professional armies; not useful anymore) & argued that social division should be based on merit & social usefulness. • Bourgeoisie grew in number & wealth & complained about the unfair social structure. Considered themselves producers of wealth & demanded social & political recognition in accordance with their merits.
  • 19. POLITICAL CHANGES: Political systems Old Regime 18th Century Absolutism: • Divine Right to rule. • Absolute power (legislative, executive & judicial). • No summoning of Parliaments. Lets read the text “Enlightened despotism” by Frederick II of Prussia (p. 12)
  • 20. POLITICAL CHANGES: Political systems Old Regime 18th Century Absolutism: • Divine Right to rule. • Absolute power (legislative, executive & judicial). • No summoning of Parliaments. New enlightened political ideas: • Separation of Powers (Montesquieu) • Popular sovereignty (Rousseau) ENLIGHTENED DESPOTISM: a form of Absolutism in which kings were influenced by the progressive ideas of the Enlightenment: • Monarchs had no intention of giving up power… • But made reforms aimed to achieve progress & happiness for their subjects (schools, hospitals…) Led to…
  • 21. ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS in 18th Century Europe Frederick II (PRUSSIA) Carlos III (SPAIN) Catherine II (RUSSIA) Joseph II (AUSTRIA) Louis XV (FRANCE)
  • 23. POLITICAL CHANGES: International relations Old Regime 18th Century European States fought to achieve supremacy in Europe & in the colonies: 16th Century: worldwide Spanish Supremacy (“Austrias Mayores”) 17th Century: In Europe  spread of the principle of “EUROPEAN BALANCE”: European powers should maintain a balance of power to prevent any country becoming too strong & dominating the rest. In the colonies  supremacy of England. • In Europe  French supremacy (after P.Westphalia, 1648) • In colonies  shared supremacy of France, UK & United Provinces. To do so, alliances between the Great Powers of Europe (UK, France, Russia, Prussia, Austria) were constantly shifting.
  • 24. UK turned into the greatest colonial power in the world EVOLUTION OF COLONIALISM: http://geacron.com/es/?v=m&la ng=es&z=2&x=3.8671896126832& y=11.171934500572&nd=1&d=149 2A1520A1598A1650A1700A1750A 1800A1850A1900A1936&di=1520 &tm=p&ct=0&ly=yyyyyyy&fi=- 500&ff=1500&sp=2&e=0&rp=0&re =0&nv=2
  • 25. Activity 2  P. 12-13  exercises 1a / 3 / 4  European international relations in the 18th Century were based on which principle? What was its ultimate aim?  Copy these sentences & match them with their corresponding political system: ABSOLUTISM / ENLIGHTENED DESPOTISM / DEMOCRACY:  “Sovereignty essentially consists of the general will of the people”  “All for the people but without the people”  “Kings act as the ministers of God and as his lieutenants on earth. It is through them that God exercises his empire.”
  • 26. ECONOMIC CHANGES: Economic systems Old Regime 18th Century Mercantilism: • A country’s wealth depended on the quantity of silver & gold they owned  pursued a positive balance of trade.  Great state intervention  protectionist measures (high tariffs on imported goods) to promote national industry.  Colonization of new territories  to provide new customers for their manufactures & raw materials (to avoid having to import them). Lets read the extract of “The Wealth of Nations” by Adam Smith (p. 15)
  • 27. ECONOMIC CHANGES: Economic systems Old Regime 18th Century Mercantilism: • A country’s wealth depended on the quantity of silver & gold they owned  pursued a positive balance of trade.  Large state intervention  protectionist measures (high tariffs on imported goods) to promote national industry.  Colonization of new territories  to provide new customers for their manufactures & raw materials (to avoid having to import them). Economic liberalism • Founder: Adam Smith. • A country’s wealth depends on individual work & people’s pursue of maximum personal benefit. Individual prosperity will led to the country’s enrichment. • Characteristics:  Minimum intervention of the state in the economy.  Economy regulated by law of supply & demand.  Free competition.
  • 29. LAW OF SUPPLY & DEMAND  If the supply of a good is higher than its demand  price falls.  If the demand of a good is higher than the supply  price increases. Quantity of cookies supplied Quantity demanded
  • 30. ECONOMIC CHANGES: Population Old Regime 18th Century • Little population growth:  Epidemics (bubonic plague)  Wars  Poor harvests & diet  Backwardness of medicine  Lack of hygiene Big population growth: • 130  190 millions • Improved harvests & nutrition • Less epidemics & wars
  • 31. ECONOMIC CHANGES: Agriculture Old Regime 18th Century • Main economic activity (agrarian economy) • Cereals  basic human diet. • Rudimentary techniques (biennial/triennial crop rotation)  low yields • Feudal property system: most land belonged to feudal lords (nobles/clergy) & peasants had to pay taxes to them. • New crops from America (maize, potatoes) spread  more diversified diet. • Technical improvements (continuous • Feudal property system was maintained. TURNIPS (nabos) for feeding cattle BARLEY ANIMAL FODDER (alfalfa, clover…) for feeding cattle CEREALS crop rotation: ej: Norfolk system)  higher yields.
  • 33. ECONOMIC CHANGES: Industry Old Regime 18th Century • Controlled by guilds. • Undertaken in small urban workshops. • Low production.
  • 34. ECONOMIC CHANGES: Industry Old Regime 18th Century • Controlled by guilds. • Undertaken in small urban workshops. • Low production. • Population growth  increased demand  industry growth • New production methods spread to avoid control of the guilds. Work was still done by hand (no machines yet). They preceded the factory-system (Industrial Revolution).  Cottage industries: work was carried out by peasants at their homes (usually part-time), where they made products commissioned by an employer, who provided them with raw materials & tools. The employer paid them for the number of products they made.  Manufactures: work was carried out in large workshops where numerous craftsmen worked full-time for an employer in exchange of a salary.
  • 36. Cottage industry (“putting-out system”) •Avoided guilds: •Increased production that enabled to satisfy the increased demand. •Reduced prices. •Increased competition & innovation. •Helped farmers to supplement their income. •Created entrepreneurs. •Work could be done at home. Pros • Inefficient • Workers were spread out in many places • Labour wasn’t coordinated & organized Cons
  • 37. Cottage industry (“putting-out system”) Manufactures
  • 38. ECONOMIC CHANGES: Trade Old Regime 18th Century Domestic trade: • Limited due to bad roads. • Mainly weekly urban markets  exchange of agrarian & manufactures products. Foreign trade: • Concentrated in large port cities. Domestic trade: • Grew due to improved roads & increased agrarian & industrial production. Foreign trade: • Continued to grow. • Establishment of Triangular trade between America, Africa & Europe.
  • 39. AMERICA: provided raw materials (cocoa, sugar, tobacco…)& precious metals. AFRICA: provided black slaves. EUROPE: provided manufactured products.
  • 40. Activity 3  What is “Economic liberalism”? What makes it different to mercantilism.  P. 16  exercise 1  How was industrial production undertaken during the Old Regime? What changes took place during the 18th Century.  Define “Cottage Industry” and explain its advantages & disadvantages.  Draw a map to represent the Triangular trade that was developed in the 18th Century.
  • 41. ACTIVITY 4: Copy & complete Changes in the 18th Century: political, economic & social changes Old Regime 18th Century Social Political Political systems International relations Economic Economic systems Population Agriculture Industry Trade
  • 42. The 18th Century in Spain (before the French Revolution)
  • 43. Who was the last Habsburg king in Spain? What was his nickname?
  • 44.  Spain suffered a progressive decline. AUSTRIAS MENORES (17th Century) The Hispanic Monarchy in the 17th Century
  • 45. Carlos II “El Hechizado” (1665 y 1700)  Last king of the Habsburg dynasty in Spain.  Nickname  "the Bewitched“ due to his appearance, since he seemed to be under a spell.  Since his birth, he presented several signs of physical disability (respiratory & diarrheal problems, periodic convulsions & breakdowns…) & deep developmental delay. During his adulthood his infertility became evident, being incapable of conceiving a heir, even though he married twice. It’s believed that he suffered a disease (Klinefelter syndrome) possibly due to frequent inbreeding among his ancestors.  1700: Carlos II died childless... BIG PROBLEM!!!
  • 46. EMBREEDING (endogamia) = procreation between relatives.
  • 47. Carlos II “El Hechizado” (1665 y 1700)  In his will, Charles II had appointed his sister’s grandson, Felipe D’Anjou (Felipe de Borbón, duque de Anjou) as his successor.  1700: after Charles II death, Felipe D’Anjou was proclaimed king of Spain as Felipe V. It was the beginning of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. Problem...? Felipe D’Anjou was the grandson of the king of France, Louis XIV. The other European powers considered that a possible future union of France & Spain under one single monarch would break the principle of EUROPEAN BALANCE. They created a great alliance, that refused to recognize Felipe V as the new king of Spain & supported another candidate: Archduke Carlos of Austria. This led to the WAR OF SPANISH SUCCESSION.
  • 49. WAR OF SPANISH SUCCESSION (1700 – 1713) TWO BLOCS FAUGHT FOR THE CROWN OF SPAIN ARCHDUKE CARLOS OF AUSTRIA (HABSBURG) MAIN SUPPORTERS: MAIN SUPPORTERS: France Castilla UK United Provinces Austria Prussia Savoy Portugal Aragón FINISHED WITH THE PEACE OF UTRETCH (1713) FELIPE D’ANJOU (BOURBON)
  • 50. War of Spanish Succession (1700 - 1713)  IT WAS A DUAL CONFLICT: INTERNTIONAL WAR BOURBON DYNASTY VS REST OF EUROPEAN POWERS CIVIL WAR CASTILLA VS ARAGON Accepted Felipe D’Anjou (French absolutist & centralist mentality) Afraid of Bourbon’s centralism & willing to maintain their “fueros”, they supported Archduke Carlos, who had promised to respect the traditional federal system of the Hispanic Monarchy.
  • 52. War of Spanish Succession (1700 - 1713) PEACE OF UTRETCH (1713) TERRITORIAL LOSSES: Menorca & Gibraltar  to UK Flanders, Luxemburg & Italian territories (Milan, Naples & Sardinia)  to Austria Sicily  to Savoy European powers accepted Felipe V of Bourbon as king of Spain (because Archduke Carlos had become Holy Roman Emperor in 1711, and they didn’t want him to rule over Spain too). In exchange, Felipe V had to renounce to his rights to the throne of France.
  • 55. What about the internal consequences in Spain… Do you think that Aragon’s support to Archduke Carlos will bring any consequences?
  • 56. Activity 5  P. 20  ex. 2 & 3.  In the map:  Locate the territories who supported each candidate (add them to the key).  Locate & colour in the territories ceded to Austria, to UK & to Savoy.
  • 57. The Bourbon dynasty in the 18th Century: INTERNAL POLICY • ABSOLUTISM  Decretos de Nueva Planta • ENLIGHTENED DESPOTISM  Social reforms
  • 58. The Bourbon dynasty in the 18th Century: INTERNAL POLICY FELIPE V  Inspired by the French Absolutist model, he implanted political centralization by means of the DECRETOS DE NUEVA PLANTA:  Suppressed the laws (“fueros”) & institutions (“Cortes”) of the Crown of Aragon. The whole territory was now ruled by the laws Castilla & there were only Cortes in Castilla (only to advise the king; no legislative power). The only exception was Navarra & the Basque Country, which kept them because they had supported Felipe V.  New territorial division: to ensure the control of the entire territory, Spain was divided into provinces (capitanías generales) governed by a “Capitán General”.
  • 61. Felipe V commissioned the construction of a new ROYAL PALACE The old Alcázar burned down in 1734 and King Philip V ordered a new palace built on the same site.
  • 62. The Bourbon dynasty in the 18th Century: INTERNAL POLICY CARLOS III  Inspired by Enlightened Despotism. Advised by enlightened Ministers he implemented several reforms to provide progress to his subjects:  Construction of infrastructures (boosted trade): bridges, wider & paved streets, radial road network, …  Promotion of agriculture: construction of irrigation canals, repopulation of Sierra Morena…  Promotion of industry: creation of Royal Factories  Promotion of education & culture: scientific disciplines & investigation were encouraged.
  • 64. RADIAL ROAD NETWORK TO CONNECT MADRID WITH THE MAIN PORTS OF SPAIN
  • 65. REPOPULATION OF SIERRA MORENA Thanks to government financing, uninhabited areas of Sierra Morena threatened by bandits, were colonized to increase agricultural production & promote economic development. Peasants that moved to these area were given lands, houses, tools, cattle, grain,…
  • 66. New ROYAL FACTORIES (“Reales Fábricas”) to boost industry  protectionist mentallity Real Fábrica de armas de Toledo Real Fábrica de paños (Guadalajara)
  • 67. PROMOTION OF EDUCATION & CULTURE Botanical Garden Promoted the REALES ACADEMIAS (lengua, Historia, Bellas Artes…) Astronomical observatory
  • 68. The Bourbon dynasty in the 18th Century: INTERNAL POLICY CARLOS III  The Italian minister ESQUILACHE undertook the project to modernize Madrid, to make it suitable for an Enlightened Court: • Cleaning & paving of streets • Embellishment of the city (broad avenues, gardens, monuments…) • Streetlights (>4000 lampposts) • Trash collection & sewer system • Banning of Madrileños’ traditional apparel (made it difficult to identify criminals)
  • 70. EMBELLISHMENT OF MADRID • Puerta de Alcalá • Museo del Prado • Jardín Botánico • fuentes de Neptuno y Cibeles
  • 71. Wide-brimmed hat & Long cape Three-corned hat & Short cape Se despojaba a los paseantes de sus capas y sombreros mientras un equipo de sastres las recortaban en medio de la calle ante la resistencia de sus dueños.
  • 72. The Bourbon dynasty in the 18th Century: INTERNAL POLICY • Cleaning & paving of streets • Embellishment of the city (broad avenues, gardens, monuments…) • Streetlights (>4000 lampposts) • Trash collection & sewer system • Banning of Madrileños’ traditional apparel - Very expensive  not acceptable in a context of bad harvests, increased price of bread & other basic products, famine… - Esquilache  seen as a foreigner who wanted to forbid Spanish costumes & blamed as the responsible for the economic problems. PROBLEM OF THESE REFORMS ? ?
  • 73. EL MOTIN DE ESQUILACHE (1766) In the Square of Anton Martín, a group of rebels seized a military barrack where muskets and sabers were stored. Heavily armed, rioters marched yelling “¡Viva el Rey! ¡Viva España! ¡Muera Esquilache!”. They destroyed lampposts, sacked Esquilache’s home, burnt a portrait of him in the Plaza Mayor… Finally, they rioters made a series of petitions to the king Carlos III, who had no option but accepting them: • Esquilache had to leave Spain. • Only Spanish ministers in the government. • Decrease of the price of basic goods. • Permission to use long capes & wide-brimmed hats again.
  • 74. Foreign policy was based on alliances with France  “PACTES DE FAMILLE” The Bourbon dynasty in the 18th Century: FOREIGN POLICY
  • 75. The Bourbon dynasty in the 18th Century: FOREIGN POLICY FELIPE V CARLOS III 1st PACTE DE FAMILLE 2nd PACTE DE FAMILLE 3rd PACTE DE FAMILLE 4th PACTE DE FAMILLE WAR OF SUCCESSION OF POLAND WAR OF SUCCESSION OF AUSTRIA 7 YEARS WAR (UK VS France) AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE Spain annexed: Naples Sicily Spain annexed: Duchy of Parma (N.Italy) UK won, so Spain lost Florida (to UK), but annexed Louisiana (ceded by France to make up for the loss of Florida) Spain regained: Florida & Menorca